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1.
Nutrients ; 14(11)2022 May 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1884292

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The purpose of the present study was to assess the effect of a specific oral nutritional supplement among patients recovered from COVID-19 but suffering symptoms of fatigue. METHODS: This is an observational case-control study involving a sample of 66 COVID-19 survivors divided in two groups, 33 subjects in the intervention group who received the nutritional supplement and 33 subjects in the control group. The nutritional supplement received by subjects in the active group was based on amino acids; vitamin B6 and B1; and malic, succinic and citric acids. After an 8-week follow-up, the main outcomes considered were skeletal muscle index (measured by bioelectrical impedance analysis), physical performance measures (handgrip strength, one-minute chair-stand test, six-minute walking test), and quality of life (using EuroQol visual analogue scale). RESULTS: All the considered areas increased significantly in the subjects receiving the active treatment with oral nutritional supplement in comparison with the baseline values. After adjusting for age, gender, and baseline values, skeletal muscle index, handgrip strength test, the one-minute chair-stand test, and six-minute walking test values were higher among participants in the treatment group compared with subjects in control group. The oral nutritional supplement significantly improved the handgrip strength; similarly, participants in the active group showed a higher improvement in skeletal muscle index, the one-minute chair-stand test, the six-minute walking test, and in quality of life. CONCLUSION: The nutritional supplement containing nine essential amino acids plus cysteine; vitamin B6 and B1; and malic, succinic and citric acids had a positive effect on nutritional status, functional recovery, and quality of life in COVID-19 survivors still suffering from fatigue. Additional controlled clinical trials are required to corroborate these results.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hand Strength , Case-Control Studies , Dietary Supplements , Fatigue , Humans , Muscle Strength , Muscle, Skeletal , Physical Functional Performance , Quality of Life , Vitamin B 6/pharmacology
2.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(11)2022 May 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1884112

ABSTRACT

The aim of the study was to analyse the fitness level of young horse riders before and after 12 weeks of training restrictions instituted due to the COVID-19 emergency. Anthropometrical measure assessment and an eight-items fitness test battery were administered to 61 puberal and adolescent female amateur horse riders. Subjects were evaluated within 3 weeks before (pre-tests) the period of training restrictions and on the first day of normal training after it (post-tests). Post-test results showed significant increases in body weight (Z: -1.732; p value: 0.001; ES: -0.157) and BMI (F: 9.918; p value: 0.003; ES: 0.146), whilst the performance in hand grip and abdominal strength, hip mobility, and 10 × 5 m Shuttle and Cooper 12 min tests' outcomes significantly decreased (F: 29.779; p value: 0.001 F: 29.779; p value: 0.001 F: 29.779; p value: 0.001 F: 29.779; p value: 0.001 F: 29.779; p value: 0.001, respectively). Correlation analysis revealed that riders' experience was significantly correlated with hand grip (p < 0.01), leg strength (p < 0.01), hip mobility (p < 0.05), and 5 × 10 m Shuttle (p < 0.01) and the Cooper 12 min (p < 0.01) test results. It could be suggested that equestrian activities could produce a higher fitness level in puberal and adolescent riders, whilst home-based, unsupervised, and unattentively planned training during the twelve weeks of training restrictions might be insufficient to maintain it.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Activities of Daily Living , Athletes , COVID-19/epidemiology , Female , Hand Strength , Horses , Humans , Pandemics
3.
BMC Pulm Med ; 22(1): 223, 2022 Jun 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1883524

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Post-COVID-19 syndrome is characterized by diverse symptoms and abnormalities that persist beyond 12 weeks from the onset of acute COVID-19. Severity disease has been associated with more musculoskeletal alterations such as muscle weakness, dyspnea, and distance walking. The aim was to evaluate the impact of invasive mechanical ventilation (IMV) on body composition and investigate risk factors associated with sarcopenia in post-COVID-19 patients three months after moderate or severe COVID-19 infections. METHODS: Cross-sectional study. 530 patients with PCR-confirmed diagnoses of moderate to severe COVID-19, > 18 years old, oxygen saturation ≤ 93%, PaO2/FiO2 ratio < 300, who required hospitalization and were discharged were included. We excluded those who died before the follow-up visit, declined to participate, or could not be contacted. RESULTS: The mean age was 53.79 ± 12.90 years. IMV subjects had lower phase angle and handgrip strength and higher impedance index, frequency of low muscle mass, and low muscle strength than those without IMV. The risk factors of sarcopenia were > 60 years of age, diabetes, obesity, IMV, and prolonged hospital stay. The multivariate model showed that age > 60 years (OR: 4.91, 95% CI: 2.26-10.63), obesity (OR: 3.73, 95% CI: 1.21-11.54), and interaction between prolonged length of hospital stay and IMV (OR: 2.92; 95% CI: 1.21-7.02) were related to a higher risk of sarcopenia. CONCLUSION: Obesity and the interaction between prolonged length of hospital stay and IMV are associated with a higher risk of sarcopenia at 3 months after severe or moderate COVID-19 infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Sarcopenia , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Body Composition , COVID-19/complications , Cross-Sectional Studies , Hand Strength , Humans , Middle Aged , Obesity , Respiration, Artificial , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Sarcopenia/epidemiology
4.
Nutrients ; 14(7)2022 Apr 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1834856

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Poor physical performance has been shown to be a good predictor of complications in some pathologies. The objective of our study was to evaluate, in patients with colorectal neoplasia prior to surgery, physical performance and its relationship with postoperative complications and in-hospital mortality, at 1 month and at 6 months. METHODS: We conducted a prospective study on patients with preoperative colorectal neoplasia, between October 2018 and July 2021. Physical performance was evaluated using the Short Physical Performance Battery (SPPB) test and hand grip strength (HGS). For a decrease in physical performance, SPPB < 10 points or HGS below the EWGSOP2 cut-off points was considered. Nutritional status was evaluated using subjective global assessment (SGA). The prevalence of postoperative complications and mortality during admission, at 1 month, and at 6 months was evaluated. RESULTS: A total of 296 patients, mean age 60.4 ± 12.8 years, 59.3% male, were evaluated. The mean BMI was 27.6 ± 5.1 kg/m2. The mean total SPPB score was 10.57 ± 2.07 points. A total of 69 patients presented a low SPPB score (23.3%). Hand grip strength showed a mean value of 33.1 ± 8.5 kg/m2 for men and 20.7 ± 4.3 kg/m2 for women. A total of 58 patients presented low HGS (19.6%). SGA found 40.2% (119) of patients with normal nourishment, 32.4% (96) with moderate malnutrition, and 27.4% (81) with severe malnutrition. Postoperative complications were more frequent in patients with a low SPPB score (60.3% vs. 38.6%; p = 0.002) and low HGS (64.9% vs. 39.3%, p = 0.001). A low SPPB test score (OR 2.57, 95% CI 1.37-4.79, p = 0.003) and low HGS (OR 2.69, 95% CI 1.37-5.29, p = 0.004) were associated with a higher risk of postoperative complications after adjusting for tumor stage and age. Patients with a low SPPB score presented an increase in in-hospital mortality (8.7% vs. 0.9%; p = 0.021), at 1 month (8.7% vs. 1.3%; p = 0.002) and at 6 months (13.1% vs. 2.2%, p < 0.001). Patients with low HGS presented an increase in mortality at 6 months (10.5% vs. 3.3%; p = 0.022). CONCLUSIONS: The decrease in physical performance, evaluated by the SPPB test or hand grip strength, was elevated in patients with colorectal cancer prior to surgery and was related to an increase in postoperative complications and mortality.


Subject(s)
Colorectal Neoplasms , Malnutrition , Aged , Colorectal Neoplasms/complications , Colorectal Neoplasms/surgery , Female , Hand Strength , Humans , Male , Malnutrition/complications , Malnutrition/diagnosis , Malnutrition/epidemiology , Middle Aged , Physical Functional Performance , Postoperative Complications/epidemiology , Postoperative Complications/etiology , Prospective Studies
5.
BMJ Open ; 12(5): e059075, 2022 05 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1832463

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Immunosenescence leads to increased morbidity and mortality associated with viral infections and weaker vaccine responses. This has been well documented for seasonal influenza and the current pandemic with SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19), which disproportionately impact older adults, particularly those in residential aged care facilities. Inadequate nutrient intakes associated with impaired immunity, respiratory and muscle function are likely to augment the effects of immunosenescence. In this study, we test whether the impact of inadequate nutrition can be reversed using multi-nutrient supplementation, consequently enhancing vaccine responses, reducing the risk of viral infections and improving respiratory and muscle function. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: The Pomerium Study is a 3-month, single-blind, randomised, controlled trial testing the effects of two daily servings of an oral multi-nutrient supplement (330 kcal, 20 g protein, 1.5 g calcium 3-hydroxy-3-methylbutyrate monohydrate (CaHMB), 449 mg calcium, 500 IU vitamin D3 and 25 vitamins and minerals) on the immune system and muscle and respiratory function of older adults in aged care in Melbourne, Australia. 160 older adults (≥75 years old) will be recruited from aged care facilities and randomised to treatment (multi-nutrient supplement) or control (usual care). The primary outcome is a change in T-cell subsets CD8 + and CD28null counts at months 1 and 3. Secondary outcomes measured at baseline and month 3 are multiple markers of immunosenescence (also at 1 month), body composition (bioimpedance), handgrip strength (dynamometer), physical function (short physical performance battery), respiratory function (spirometry) and quality of life (EQ-5D-5L). Incidence and complications of COVID-19 and/or viral infections (ie, hospitalisation, complications or death) will be recorded throughout the trial, including 3 months after supplementation is ceased. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: This study was approved by Melbourne Health Human Research Ethics Committee (Ref No. HREC/73985/MH-2021, ERM Ref No. RMH73985, Melbourne Health Site Ref No. 2021.115). Written informed consent will be obtained from participants. Results will be published in peer-reviewed journals and made available to key aged care stakeholders, including providers, residents, and government bodies. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: ACTRN12621000420842.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Aged , Calcium , Dietary Supplements , Hand Strength , Humans , Immune System , Muscles , Nutrients , Quality of Life , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , Single-Blind Method , Treatment Outcome
6.
Clin Physiol Funct Imaging ; 41(6): 480-487, 2021 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1816542

ABSTRACT

The purpose of this study was to investigate whether isometric handgrip exercise, with or without blood flow restriction, would alter interference control and feelings. 60 healthy young adults completed three experimental visits, consisting of four sets of 2 min isometric handgrip exercise, at 30% of maximal strength with or without blood flow restriction (50% of arterial occlusion pressure), or a non-exercise/time-matched control. Exercise-induced feeling inventory and Stroop Color Word Test were performed at pre- and ~10-min post-exercise, respectively. Bayes factors (BF10 ) quantified the evidence for or against the null. There were no changes or differences between conditions for interference control following exercise with or without blood flow restriction (Incongruent BF10 : 0.155; Stroop Interference BF10 : 0.082). There were also no differences in the error rate as well as no differences between conditions for changes in 'positivity' or 'revitalization'. Feelings of 'tranquility' were reduced relative to a control following exercise with (median δ [95% credible interval]: -0.74 (-1.05, -0.45), BF10 : 5515.7) and without (median δ: -0.72 [-1.02, -0.41], BF10 : 571.3) blood flow restriction. These changes were not different between exercise conditions. Feelings of 'physical exhaustion' were increased relative to a control following exercise without blood flow restriction (median δ: 0.35[0.09, 0.61], BF10 : 5.84). However, this increase was not different from the same exercise with blood flow restriction. These results suggest that 1) isometric handgrip exercise could be performed without impairing interference control, even when blood flow restriction is added, and that 2) changes in feelings occur independent of changes in interference control.


Subject(s)
Exercise , Hand Strength , Bayes Theorem , Blood Pressure , Emotions , Hemodynamics , Humans , Young Adult
7.
Biomed Res Int ; 2022: 7854303, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1816860

ABSTRACT

Purpose: To evaluate the influence of previous levels of physical activity on hemodynamic, vascular, ventilatory, and functional outcomes after coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) hospitalization. Methods: Sixty-three individuals with COVID-19 had their clinical status and previous levels (12 month) of physical activity (Baecke Questionnaire of Habitual Physical Activity) assessed at hospital admission. Individuals were then allocated to lower levels of physical activity (ACTLOWER; N = 22), intermediate levels of physical activity (ACTINTERMEDIATE; N = 22), or higher levels of physical activity (ACTHIGHER; N = 19) groups, according to tertiles of physical activity. Resting hemodynamic (heart rate and brachial/central blood pressures) and vascular (carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity, augmentation index, and brachial artery flow-mediated dilation) variables, pulmonary function (spirometry), respiratory muscle strength (maximal respiratory pressures), and functional capacity (handgrip strength, five-time sit-to-stand, timed-up and go, and six-minute walking tests) were measured at 30 to 45 days after hospital discharge. Results: ACTLOWER showed lower levels (P < 0.05) of forced vital capacity, forced expiratory volume in the first second, maximal voluntary ventilation, and maximal expiratory pressure than ACTHIGHER. ACTLOWER also had lower (P = 0.023) walking distance (~21%,) and lower percentage of predicted walking distance (~20%) at six-minute walking test during follow-up than ACTINTERMEDIATE. However, hemodynamic and vascular variables, handgrip strength, five-time sit-to-stand, and timed-up and go were not different among groups. Conclusion: ACTLOWER showed impaired ventilatory parameters and walking performance when compared with ACTHIGHER and ACTINTERMEDIATE, respectively. These results suggest that previous levels of physical activity may impact ventilatory and exercise capacity outcomes 30 to 45 days after COVID-19 hospitalization discharge.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Exercise , Hand Strength , Hospitalization , Humans , Prospective Studies , Pulse Wave Analysis , Risk Factors
8.
Exp Gerontol ; 164: 111814, 2022 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1814414

ABSTRACT

OBJETIVES: The present study aimed to evaluate the effect of a 13-week COVID-19 lockdown on health-related parameters in women aged 60-70 years. STUDY DESIGN: Thirty women participated in this longitudinal study. All the assessments were performed before and 13 weeks after the initial phase of the COVID-19 pandemic in Spain (March to June 2020). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: A sociodemographic questionnaire was provided, and tests were performed to assess muscle strength, anthropometric measurements, densitometry, blood pressure, blood parameters, Mediterranean diet adherence, and physical activity levels. RESULTS: After the lockdown, both healthy and unhealthy lifestyle groups showed a significant worsening of HDL, cholesterol/HDL lipids, and isometric knee extension strength parameters. However, individuals with an unhealthy lifestyle also showed a significant worsening in LDL lipids, Non-HDL lipids, bone mineral density of the femoral neck, fat mass/height (%), truncal fat mass (absolute and percentage), total fat mass (absolute and percentage) and handgrip strength. CONCLUSIONS: The COVID-19 pandemic had a negative impact on the overall health status of Spanish older women, potentially increasing their susceptibility to comorbidities, such as lipid cholesterol, body fat, and decreased muscle strength.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Aged , Cholesterol , Communicable Disease Control , Female , Hand Strength , Humans , Lipids , Longitudinal Studies , Muscle Strength/physiology , Pandemics
9.
J Frailty Aging ; 11(2): 231-235, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1811431

ABSTRACT

Social detachment due to coronavirus disease (COVID-19) has caused a decline in physical activity, leading to sarcopenia and frailty in older adults. This study aimed to compare muscle mass, strength, and function values in older women before and after the first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic (April-May 2020). Furthermore, changes in muscle measures across women who experienced different levels of impact on their social participation due to the COVID-19 pandemic were examined. Muscle mass (total, trunk, and appendicular muscle), grip strength, oral motor skills, social interactions (social network and participation), and social support were assessed in 46 Japanese community-dwelling older women (mean, 77.5 y; range 66-93 y) before and after the first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic. Trunk muscle mass significantly decreased after the first wave of the pandemic. When comparing changed values between the enhanced/maintained and reduced group during the pandemic, significant group difference was observed in trunk muscular mass, grip strength, and oral motor skills. Intriguingly, those who enhanced social participation had a positive change of grip strength values, showing that social participation might influence muscle function during the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Sarcopenia , Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , Female , Hand Strength/physiology , Humans , Independent Living , Japan/epidemiology , Muscle Strength , Muscle, Skeletal/pathology , Pandemics , Sarcopenia/diagnosis , Sarcopenia/epidemiology
10.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(8)2022 04 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1809868

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The increasing aging of many populations requires a continuous evolution of assessment methods in geriatrics, especially methods for identifying sarcopenia. Early diagnosis of unfavorable changes in the condition of skeletal muscles and the implementation of therapeutic methods may reduce the risk of functional limitations in the elderly. The aim of the study was to evaluate the association between the bioelectrical impedance phase angle and the occurrence of pre-sarcopenia in people aged 50 and above. METHODS: 1567 people aged 50-87 were examined. Anthropometric as well as muscle strength and walking speed measurements were performed. Using bioelectrical impedance analysis, the phase angle was measured and the appendicular skeletal muscle mass was estimated. The contribution of the phase angle in explaining the probability of the occurrence of pre-sarcopenia was verified by multivariate logistic regression. RESULTS: Sarcopenia was diagnosed in 12 people (0.8%) and pre-sarcopenia in 276 people (17.6%). Significantly lower impedance phase angle and muscle functional quality were found in people with confirmed pre-sarcopenia compared to people without sarcopenia. The relative differences for the phase angle were greater than for the indicator of muscle functional quality. Significant logit models were obtained for the probability of occurrence of pre-sarcopenia, in which the strongest predictor was the phase angle, regardless of the type and number of covariates. The cut-off point of the phase angle for identification of pre-sarcopenia was 5.42° in men and 4.76° in women. CONCLUSION: The strong association between the risk of pre-sarcopenia and the phase angle, which can be easily and quickly assessed by bio-impedance analysis, suggests the necessity to include this parameter in routine geriatric evaluation in order to identify the risk of sarcopenia.


Subject(s)
Sarcopenia , Aged , Electric Impedance , Female , Hand Strength , Humans , Male , Muscle Strength , Muscle, Skeletal , Poland/epidemiology , Sarcopenia/diagnosis , Sarcopenia/epidemiology
11.
BMJ Open Respir Res ; 9(1)2022 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1807446

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The Clinical Frailty Scale (CFS) is increasingly used for clinical decision making in acute care but little is known about frailty after COVID-19. OBJECTIVES: To investigate frailty and the CFS for post-COVID-19 follow-up. METHODS: This prospective multicentre cohort study included COVID-19 survivors aged ≥50 years presenting for a follow-up visit ≥3 months after the acute illness. Nine centres retrospectively collected pre-COVID-19 CFS and prospectively CFS at follow-up. Three centres completed the Frailty Index (FI), the short physical performance battery (SPPB), 30 s sit-to-stand test and handgrip strength measurements. Mixed effect logistic regression models accounting for repeated measurements and potential confounders were used to investigate factors associated with post-COVID-19 CFS. Criterion and construct validity were determined by correlating the CFS to other concurrently assessed frailty measurements and measures of respiratory impairment, respectively. RESULTS: Of the 288 participants 65% were men, mean (SD) age was 65.1 (9) years. Median (IQR) CFS at follow-up was 3 (2-3), 21% were vulnerable or frail (CFS ≥4). The CFS was responsive to change, correlated with the FI (r=0.69, p<0.001), the SPPB score (r=-0.48, p<0.001) (criterion validity) and with the St George's Respiratory Questionnaire score (r=0.59, p<0.001), forced vital capacity %-predicted (r=-0.25, p<0.001), 6 min walk distance (r=-0.39, p<0.001) and modified Medical Research Council (mMRC) (r=0.59, p<0.001). Dyspnoea was significantly associated with a higher odds for vulnerability/frailty (per one mMRC adjusted OR 2.01 (95% CI 1.13 to 3.58), p=0.02). CONCLUSIONS: The CFS significantly increases with COVID-19, and dyspnoea is an important risk factor for post-COVID-19 frailty and should be addressed thoroughly.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Fatigue Syndrome, Chronic , Frailty , Cohort Studies , Dyspnea/epidemiology , Dyspnea/etiology , Female , Frailty/diagnosis , Frailty/epidemiology , Hand Strength , Humans , Male , Prospective Studies , Retrospective Studies
12.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(5)2022 02 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1736898

ABSTRACT

(1) Background: Childhood obesity is an important public health problem. Children with overweight or obesity often tend to show the pediatric inactivity triad components; these involve exercise deficit disorder, pediatric dynapenia, and physical illiteracy. The aim of the study was to examine the influence of an active video games (AVG) intervention combined with multicomponent exercise on muscular fitness, physical activity (PA), and motor skills in children with overweight or obesity. (2) Methods: A total of 29 (13 girls) children (10.07 ± 0.84 years) with overweight or obesity were randomly allocated in the intervention group (AVG group; n = 21) or in the control group (CG; n = 8). The intervention group performed a 5-month AVG training using the Xbox 360® with the Kinect, the Nintendo Wii®, dance mats, and the BKOOL® interactive cycling simulator, combined with multicomponent exercise, performing three sessions per week. The control group continued their daily activities without modification. Weight, PA using accelerometers, and motor competence using the Test of Gross Motor Development 3rd edition were measured. Muscular fitness was evaluated through the Counter Movement Jump height, maximal isometric strength of knee extension and handgrip strength, and lean mass using Dual-energy X-ray Absorptiometry. Mann-Whitney U and Wilcoxon signed rank tests were performed. The biserial correlation coefficients (r) were calculated. Spearman's correlation coefficients among PA, muscular fitness, and motor competence variables were also calculated. (3) Results: The AVG group significantly increased their knee extension maximal isometric strength (4.22 kg; p < 0.01), handgrip strength (1.93 kg; p < 0.01), and jump height (1.60 cm; p < 0.01), while the control group only increased the knee extension maximal isometric strength (3.15 kg; p < 0.01). The AVG group improved motor competence and light physical activity (p < 0.05) and decreased sedentary time (p < 0.05). Lean mass improved in both AVG group and CG (p < 0.05). Lastly, the percentage of improvement of motor skills positively correlated with the percentage of improvement in vigorous PA (r = 0.673; p = 0.003) and the percentage of improvement in CMJ (r = 0.466; p = 0.039). (4) Conclusions: A 5-month intervention combining AVG with multicomponent training seems to have positive effects on muscle fitness, motor competence, and PA in children with overweight or obesity.


Subject(s)
Exercise , Motor Skills/physiology , Pediatric Obesity , Physical Fitness , Video Games , Body Mass Index , Child , Female , Hand Strength/physiology , Humans , Isometric Contraction/physiology , Knee/physiology , Male , Pediatric Obesity/therapy , Physical Fitness/physiology , Video Games/classification
13.
J Sports Sci ; 40(10): 1088-1096, 2022 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1730403

ABSTRACT

We aimed to assess one-year changes in physical fitness, health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and body mass index (BMI), encompassing the 2020 COVID-19 UK lockdowns. Data were collected (October 2019, November 2020) from 178 8-10-year-olds in Newcastle-upon-Tyne, England, 85% from England's most deprived quintile. Twenty-metre shuttle run test performance (20mSRT), handgrip strength (HGS), standing broad jump (SBJ), sit-and-reach, height, body mass, HRQoL (Kidscreen-27 questionnaire) and sports club participation were measured. BMI z-scores and overweight/obesity were calculated (≥85th centile). Paired t-tests and linear regression assessed change, adjusting for baseline BMI. Significant (p<0.001) changes were observed: increases in mean BMI (+1.5kg·m-2), overweight/obesity (33% to 47%), SBJ (+6.8cm) and HGS (+1.5kg); decreases in 20mSRT performance (-3 shuttles), sit-and-reach (-1.8cm). More children at follow-up were categorized "very low" for 20mSRT performance (35% baseline v 51%). Increased BMI z-score was associated with decreased "Physical Wellbeing" HRQoL. Follow-up sports club participation was associated with better 20mSRT performance (p=0.032), and "Autonomy & Parents" (p=0.011), "Social Support & Peers" (p=0.038) HRQoL. Children's 20mSRT performance and BMI changed adversely over one year; national lockdowns potentially made negative contributions. Physical fitness, physical activity and sports programmes should be part of children's physical and mental recovery from the pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Overweight , Body Mass Index , COVID-19/epidemiology , Child , Communicable Disease Control , Hand Strength , Humans , Longitudinal Studies , Obesity , Overweight/epidemiology , Physical Fitness , Quality of Life
14.
Biomed Pharmacother ; 148: 112757, 2022 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1707495

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Muscle pain and muscle weakness, common symptoms among statin-treated patients, may worsen with COVID-19 infection. AIMS: The aim of the paper was to find out if concomitant COVID-19 infections increase the frequency of specific side effects of statins such as muscle pain and muscle weakness. METHOD: A total of 66 patients diagnosed with COVID-19 without comorbidities participated in the study. The patients were divided into two groups: statin-users who had not experienced adverse effects of statins in the past (statin group (SG)) and patients who had not used any drugs in the past six months (control group (CG)). The severity of muscle pain and creatinine kinase (CK) activity was evaluated in each patient, and muscle weakness was confirmed by a dynamometer test (grip strength on both hands). RESULTS: In SG, muscle pain was more common and it was characterized by a high level of intensity. Muscle weakness occurred more frequently in the SG and it was more frequent compared to CG. The CK parameter was observed to be higher in the SG compared to the CG and was often associated with the severity of muscle pain in the range of moderate to severe. CONCLUSIONS: Our study indicates that COVID-19 is associated with the higher risk of occurrence of typical statin-related side effects, especially with more advanced age, which should be considered in future trials and treatments.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/physiopathology , Hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA Reductase Inhibitors/adverse effects , Muscle Weakness/chemically induced , Myalgia/chemically induced , Adult , Age Factors , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Creatine Kinase/blood , Female , Hand Strength , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Patient Acuity , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
15.
Nutrients ; 14(4)2022 Feb 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1704383

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The post-COVID-19 condition, defined as COVID-19-related signs and symptoms lasting at least 2 months and persisting more than 3 months after infection, appears now as a public health issue in terms of frequency and quality of life alterations. Nevertheless, few data are available concerning long term evolution of malnutrition and sarcopenia, which deserve further attention. METHOD: Sarcopenia was investigated prospectively, together with weight evolution, at admission and at 3 and 6 months after hospital discharge in 139 COVID-19 patients, using the European Working Group on Sarcopenia in Older People (EWGSOP2) criteria, associating both decreased muscle strength and muscle mass, assessed, respectively, with hand dynamometer and dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. RESULTS: Of the 139 patients, 22 presented with sarcopenia at 3 months; intensive care units (ICU) length of stay was the sole factor associated with sarcopenia after multivariate analysis. Although the entire group did not demonstrate significant weight change, weight decreased significantly in the sarcopenia group (Five and eight patients, showing, respectively, >5 or >10% weight decrease). Interestingly, at 6 months, 16 of the 22 patients recovered from sarcopenia and their weight returned toward baseline values. CONCLUSIONS: Sarcopenia and malnutrition are frequently observed in patients hospitalized for COVID-19, even 3 months after infection occurrence, but can largely be reversed at 6 months after discharge. Enhanced patient care is needed in sarcopenic patients, particularly during long stays in an ICU.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Malnutrition , Sarcopenia , Aged , COVID-19/complications , Follow-Up Studies , Hand Strength , Hospitalization , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Malnutrition/diagnosis , Malnutrition/epidemiology , Quality of Life , SARS-CoV-2 , Sarcopenia/diagnosis , Sarcopenia/epidemiology , Sarcopenia/etiology
16.
Eur J Phys Rehabil Med ; 58(3): 405-411, 2022 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1699641

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: A history of falls is an important risk factor for future falls, including for individuals with spinal cord injury (SCI) who often experience falls and subsequent injuries. This may be even more pronounced during the current COVID-19 pandemic because of the extreme shortage of hospital admission and restricted access to important services. Therefore, the ability of detecting a history of falls that can be applied to wheelchair users and ambulatory individuals with SCI in various settings are essential. AIM: To investigate the discriminative ability of three clinical measures-the handgrip (HG) test, Spinal Cord Independence Measure (SCIM) III and Upper Limb Loading During a Seated Push-Up Test (ULL-SPUT)-in discriminating individuals with SCI with and without a history of falls over the past six months. DESIGN: A 6-month retrospective observational cohort study. SETTING: Inpatient tertiary rehabilitation center. POPULATION: One hundred and fourteen wheelchair users and ambulatory individuals with SCI. METHODS: The participants were interviewed and assessed for their demographics, SCI characteristics and fall data over the past six months, with data confirmation from related events, their caregivers and medical records. Subsequently, they were assessed using the HG test, SCIM III, and ULL-SPUT. RESULTS: In total, 29 participants (25%) fell during the past six months (with the number of falls ranging from 1-20, with minor consequences after the falls). Among the three clinical measures assessed in this study, the ULL-SPUT data of faller participants were significantly higher than those of non-fallers (P<0.05). CONCLUSIONS: The limited rehabilitation length and increased staying home and social isolation prompted by the COVID-19 pandemic may have reduced the fall rates of the participants. The findings suggest a higher likelihood of falls among wheelchair users and ambulatory individuals with SCI who have good mobility as determined using ULL-SPUT data. CLINICAL REHABILITATION IMPACT: Apart from being an important rehabilitation strategy, the present findings suggest an additional benefit of ULL-SPUT to identify individuals with SCI with a likelihood of future falls. The measurement can be done easily using digital bathroom scales placing over a flat and smooth surface. Therefore, it would enable the timely initiation of fall prevention strategies in various clinical, community, home and research settings; particularly in this COVID-19 pandemic of limited beds and hospital services for these individuals.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Spinal Cord Injuries , COVID-19/epidemiology , Hand Strength , Humans , Pandemics , Retrospective Studies , Spinal Cord Injuries/rehabilitation , Upper Extremity
17.
Trials ; 23(1): 129, 2022 Feb 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1690888

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Encouraging upper limb use and increasing intensity of practice in rehabilitation are two important goals for optimizing upper limb recovery post stroke. Feedback from novel wearable sensors may influence practice behaviour to promote achieving these goals. A wearable sensor can potentially be used in conjunction with a virtually monitored home program for greater patient convenience, or due to restrictions that preclude in-person visits, such as COVID-19. This trial aims to (1) determine the efficacy of a virtual behaviour change program that relies on feedback from a custom wearable sensor to increase use and function of the upper limb post stroke; and (2) explore the experiences and perceptions of using a program coupled with wearable sensors to increase arm use from the perspective of people with stroke. METHODS: This mixed-methods study will utilize a prospective controlled trial with random allocation to immediate or 3-week delayed entry to determine the efficacy of a 3-week behaviour change program with a nested qualitative description study. The intervention, the Virtual Arm Boot Camp (V-ABC) features feedback from a wearable device, which is intended to increase upper limb use post stroke, as well as 6 virtual sessions with a therapist. Sixty-four adults within 1-year post stroke onset will be recruited from seven rehabilitation centres. All outcomes will be collected virtually. The primary outcome measure is upper limb use measured by grasp counts over 3 days from the wearable sensor (TENZR) after the 3-week intervention. Secondary outcomes include upper limb function (Arm Capacity and Movement Test) and self-reported function (Hand Function and Strength subscale from the Stroke Impact Scale). Outcome data will be collected at baseline, post-intervention and at 2 months retention. The qualitative component will explore the experiences and acceptability of using a home program with a wearable sensor for increasing arm use from the point of view of individuals with stroke. Semi-structured interviews will be conducted with participants after they have experienced the intervention. Qualitative data will be analysed using content analysis. DISCUSSION: This study will provide novel information regarding the efficacy and acceptability of virtually delivered programs to improve upper extremity recovery, and the use of wearable sensors to assist with behaviour change. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT04232163 . January 18, 2020.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Stroke Rehabilitation , Adult , Arm , Hand Strength , Humans , Prospective Studies , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , Recovery of Function , SARS-CoV-2 , Treatment Outcome , Upper Extremity
18.
J Diabetes Investig ; 13(1): 148-155, 2022 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1621938

ABSTRACT

AIMS/INTRODUCTION: To explore the relationship between handgrip strength per weight (HGS/W), triglyceride glucose index (TyG) and diabetes, and whether lower HGS levels precede TyG in the Chinese elderly population. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Two linear regression models were used to explore the association of whether baseline HGS/W predicted follow-up variation of TyG or baseline TyG predicted follow-up variation of HGS/W. The logistic regression model was used to examine the relationship between baseline HGS/W and future diabetes. RESULTS: A total of 4,561 participants in the China Health and Retirement Longitudinal Study were enrolled, of which 47.0% were men, and the mean age was 58.7 years (standard deviation 8.68 years). A lower baseline HGS/W significantly correlated with a higher level of follow-up TyG (ß = -0.173, P = 0.002). The baseline level of HGS/W was significantly negatively associated with the incidence risk of diabetes (rate ratio 0.375, P = 0.004). However, in sex stratification, the statistical association between HGS/W and TyG and diabetes was only in men. CONCLUSIONS: Our results showed that HGS/W was inversely associated with TyG and diabetes, and lower HGS/W levels preceded TyG levels in the elderly population. However, the effect was inconsistent between men and women, and the possible mechanism would require further clarification.


Subject(s)
Blood Glucose/analysis , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/etiology , Hand Strength , Sex Factors , Triglycerides/blood , Aged , Body Weight , China/epidemiology , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Incidence , Linear Models , Logistic Models , Longitudinal Studies , Male , Middle Aged , Risk Assessment , Risk Factors
19.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(2)2022 Jan 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1613788

ABSTRACT

Handgrip strength is an indirect indicator of physical fitness that is used in medical rehabilitation for its potential prognostic value. An increasing number of studies indicate that COVID-19 survivors experience impaired physical fitness for months following hospitalization. The aim of our study was to assess physical fitness indicator differences with another prevalent and hypoxia-driven disease, Obstructive Sleep Apnea Syndrome (OSAS). Our findings showed differences between post-COVID-19 and OSAS groups in cardiovascular responses, with post-COVID-19 patients exhibiting higher values for heart rate and in mean arterial blood pressure. Oxygen saturation (SpO2) was lower in post-COVID-19 patients during a six-minute walking test (6MWT), whereas the ΔSpO2 (the difference between the baseline to end of the 6MWT) was higher compared to OSAS patients. In patients of both groups, statistically significant correlations were detected between handgrip strength and distance during the 6MWT, anthropometric characteristics, and body composition parameters. In our study, COVID-19 survivors demonstrated a long-term reduction in muscle strength compared to OSAS patients. Lower handgrip strength has been independently associated with a prior COVID-19 hospitalization. The differences in muscle strength and oxygenation could be attributed to the abrupt onset of the disorder, which does not allow compensatory mechanisms to act effectively. Targeted rehabilitation focusing on such residual impairments may thus be indispensable within the setting of post-COVID-19 syndrome.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Sarcopenia , Sleep Apnea, Obstructive , COVID-19/complications , Hand Strength , Humans , Hypoxia , Physical Fitness , SARS-CoV-2
20.
Int J Obes (Lond) ; 46(4): 817-824, 2022 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1607588

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Different pathogens can cause community-acquired pneumonia (CAP); however, the novel severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) causing coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has re-emphasized the vital role of respiratory viruses as a cause of CAP. The aim was to explore differences in metabolic profile, body composition, physical capacity, and inflammation between patients hospitalized with CAP caused by different etiology. METHODS: A prospective study of Danish patients hospitalized with CAP caused by SARS-CoV-2, influenza, or bacteria. Fat (FM) and fat-free mass (FFM) were assessed with bioelectrical impedance analysis. Physical activity and capacity were assessed using questionnaires and handgrip strength. Plasma (p)-glucose, p-lipids, hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c), p-adiponectin, and cytokines were measured. RESULTS: Among 164 patients with CAP, etiology did not affect admission levels of glucose, HbA1c, adiponectin, or lipids. Overall, 15.2% had known diabetes, 6.1% had undiagnosed diabetes, 51.3% had pre-diabetes, 81% had hyperglycemia, and 60% had low HDL-cholesterol, with no difference between groups. Body mass index, FM, and FFM were similar between groups, with 73% of the patients being characterized with abdominal obesity, although waist circumference was lower in patients with COVID-19. Physical capacity was similar between groups. More than 80% had low handgrip strength and low physical activity levels. Compared to patients with influenza, patients with COVID-19 had increased levels of interferon (IFN)-γ (mean difference (MD) 4.14; 95% CI 1.36-12.58; p = 0.008), interleukin (IL)-4 (MD 1.82; 95% CI 1.12-2.97; p = 0.012), IL-5 (MD 2.22; 95% CI 1.09-4.52; p = 0.024), and IL-6 (MD 2.41; 95% CI 1.02-5.68; p = 0.044) and increased IFN-γ (MD 6.10; 95% CI 2.53-14.71; p < 0.001) and IL-10 (MD 2.68; 95% CI 1.53-4.69; p < 0.001) compared to patients with bacterial CAP, but no difference in IL-1ß, tumor necrosis factor-α, IL-8, IL-18, IL-12p70, C-reactive protein, and adiponectin. CONCLUSION: Despite higher inflammatory response in patients with COVID-19, metabolic profile, body composition, and physical capacity were similar to patients with influenza and bacterial CAP.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Influenza, Human , Pneumonia , Bacteria , Body Composition , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , Hand Strength , Humans , Influenza, Human/complications , Influenza, Human/epidemiology , Metabolome , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
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