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1.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 20(10)2023 05 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20236361

ABSTRACT

Patients with long-term health sequelae of COVID-19 (post-COVID-19 condition) experience both physical and cognitive manifestations. However, there is still uncertainty about the prevalence of physical impairment in these patients and whether there is a link between physical and cognitive function. The aim was to assess the prevalence of physical impairment and investigate the association with cognition in patients assessed in a post-COVID-19 clinic. In this cross-sectional study, patients referred to an outpatient clinic ≥ 3 months after acute infection underwent screening of their physical and cognitive function as part of a comprehensive multidisciplinary assessment. Physical function was assessed with the 6-Minute Walk Test, the 30 s Sit-to-Stand Test and by measuring handgrip strength. Cognitive function was assessed with the Screen for Cognitive Impairment in Psychiatry and the Trail Making Test-Part B. Physical impairment was tested by comparing the patients' performance to normative and expected values. Association with cognition was investigated using correlation analyses and the possible explanatory variables regarding physical function were assessed using regression analyses. In total, we included 292 patients, the mean age was 52 (±15) years, 56% were women and 50% had been hospitalised during an acute COVID-19 infection. The prevalence of physical impairment ranged from 23% in functional exercise capacity to 59% in lower extremity muscle strength and function. There was no greater risk of physical impairment in previously hospitalised compared with the non-hospitalised patients. There was a weak to moderate association between physical and cognitive function. The cognitive test scores had statistically significant prediction value for all three outcomes of physical function. In conclusion, physical impairments were prevalent amongst patients assessed for post-COVID-19 condition regardless of their hospitalisation status and these were associated with more cognitive dysfunction.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cognitive Dysfunction , Humans , Female , Middle Aged , Male , Cross-Sectional Studies , Hand Strength/physiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cognition/physiology , Cognitive Dysfunction/psychology
2.
BMJ Open ; 13(6): e071098, 2023 06 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20244342

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Long COVID is a prevalent condition with many multisystemic symptoms, such as fatigue, dyspnoea, muscle weakness, anxiety, depression and sleep difficulties, impacting daily life and (social and physical) functioning. Pulmonary rehabilitation (PR) may improve physical status and symptoms of patients with long COVID, yet the evidence is limited. Therefore, this trial aims to study the effect of primary care PR on exercise capacity, symptoms, physical activity and sleep in patients with long COVID. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: PuRe-COVID is a prospective, pragmatic, open-label, randomised controlled trial. A sample of 134 adult patients with long COVID will be randomised to a 12 week PR programme in primary care, supervised by a physiotherapist or to a control group, following no PR. A 3 month and 6 month follow-up period is foreseen. The primary endpoint will be the change in exercise capacity measured by 6-minute walk distance (6MWD) at 12 weeks, hypothesising a more significant improvement in the PR group. Other parameters, such as pulmonary function tests (including maximal inspiratory pressure/maximal expiratory pressure), patient-reported outcomes (COPD Assessment Test, modified Medical Research Council Dyspnoea Scale, Checklist Individual Strength, post-COVID-19 Functional Status, Nijmegen questionnaire, Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, Work Productivity and Activity Impairment Questionnaire and EuroQol-5D-5L), physical activity measured by an activity tracker, hand grip strength and sleep efficiency, are secondary and exploratory outcomes.The recruitment started on 19 April 2022, and 52 patients were included as of 14 December 2022. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: Ethical approval was obtained in Belgium from the relevant institutional review boards on 21 February 2022 (Antwerp University Hospital, approval number 2022-3067) and on 1 April 2022 (Ziekenhuis Oost-Limburg in Genk, approval number Z-2022-01). Findings from this randomised controlled trial will be disseminated in peer-reviewed publications and presentations at international scientific meetings. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: NCT05244044.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adult , Humans , Post-Acute COVID-19 Syndrome , Hand Strength , Belgium , Exercise Tolerance , Prospective Studies , Exercise , Dyspnea/etiology , Dyspnea/rehabilitation , Primary Health Care , Quality of Life , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic
3.
Oncologist ; 27(1): 67-78, 2022 02 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20239746

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Older patients with cancer are at risk of physical decline and impaired quality of life during oncological treatment. Exercise training has the potential to reduce these challenges. The study aim was to investigate the feasibility and effect of a multimodal exercise intervention in older patients with advanced cancer (stages III/IV). PATIENTS AND METHODS: Eighty-four older adults (≥65 years) with advanced pancreatic, biliary tract, or non-small cell lung cancer who received systemic oncological treatment were randomized 1:1 to an intervention group or a control group. The intervention was a 12-week multimodal exercise-based program including supervised exercise twice weekly followed by a protein supplement, a home-based walking program, and nurse-led support and counseling. The primary endpoint was change in physical function (30-second chair stand test) at 13 weeks. RESULTS: Median age of the participants was 72 years (interquartile range [IQR] 68-75). Median adherence to the exercise sessions was 69% (IQR 21-88) and 75% (IQR 33-100) for the walking program. At 13 weeks, there was a significant difference in change scores of 2.4 repetitions in the chair stand test, favoring the intervention group (p < .0001). Furthermore, significant beneficial effects were seen for physical endurance (6-minute walk test), hand grip strength, physical activity, symptom burden, symptoms of depression and anxiety, global health status (quality of life), and lean body mass. No effects were seen for dose intensity, hospitalizations, or survival. CONCLUSION: A 12-week multimodal exercise intervention with targeted support proved effective in improving physical function in older patients with advanced cancer during oncological treatment.


Subject(s)
Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung , Lung Neoplasms , Aged , Exercise Therapy , Hand Strength , Humans , Lung Neoplasms/therapy , Quality of Life
4.
PLoS One ; 18(5): e0279310, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2314921

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Current evidence suggests the emergence of a novel syndrome (long COVID syndrome) due to sequels and persistent COVID-19 symptoms. Respiratory muscle training improves respiratory muscle strength, exercise capacity, diaphragm thickness, and dyspnea, especially in patients with decreased respiratory muscle strength. This study aims to evaluate the effectiveness of a protocol for home-based inspiratory muscle training to improve respiratory muscle strength, dyspnea, and quality of life of patients post-COVID-19. METHODS AND ANALYSES: This randomized, controlled, double-blind clinical trial will be conducted at the Instituto de Medicina Tropical of Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (Brazil). Sample size will be determined using maximal inspiratory pressure after a pilot study with five patients per group (total of 10 patients). Patients included in the study will be evaluated in three moments: pre-training (initial), post-training (three weeks), and retention (24 weeks). The sample will be randomized in two groups: active (IMT using 30% of IMT and load increase of 10% of initial IMT every week. Patients will perform 30 repetitions, twice a day (morning and afternoon), for seven consecutive days, and six weeks) and SHAM (IMT without load). The following measurements will be assessed: anthropometry, respiratory muscle strength, pulmonary volume and capacity, dyspnea, perception of effort and lower limb fatigue, handgrip strength, functional capacity, anxiety, depression, and functional status. After initial evaluation, all patients will receive a POWERbreathe® (POWERbreathe®, HaB Ltd, Southam, UK) device to perform the training. Normality will be verified using Shapiro-Wilk or Kolmogorov-Smirnov, according to the number of patients included. Variables presenting nonparametric distribution will be compared using Wilcoxon (intragroup analysis) and Mann-Whitney test (intergroup analysis), whereas repeated measures two-way ANOVA will be performed in case of parametric distribution. Dunn's post hoc test will be used to identify significant differences in the two-way ANOVA test. PRIMARY OUTCOMES: Respiratory muscle strength, dyspnea, and quality of life of post-COVID-19 patients. SECOND OUTCOMES: Pulmonary function, dyspnea, exercise tolerance, handgrip strength, anxiety, depression, and functional status. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Trial register number NCT05077241.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Quality of Life , Humans , Hand Strength , Pilot Projects , Post-Acute COVID-19 Syndrome , Breathing Exercises/methods , Diaphragm , Respiratory Muscles , Dyspnea/therapy , Muscle Strength/physiology , Exercise Tolerance/physiology , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic
5.
J Back Musculoskelet Rehabil ; 36(3): 527-539, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2314860

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Various tools have been created to measure physical function during intensive care unit (ICU) stay and after ICU discharge, but those have not been validated in coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19) patients. There is a need for a reliable, valid and feasible tool to define the rehabilitation needs of post-ICU COVID-19 patients entering the acute wards and then rehabilitation clinics. OBJECTIVE: This study aims to investigate the validity, inter-rater reliability and feasibility of Chelsea Physical Assessment Tool (CPAx) in assessing the functional status of COVID-19 patients after discharge from the ICU. METHODS: Demographic and clinical characteristics of the patients were recorded. Patients were evaluated using the modified Medical Research Council (MRC) dyspnea scale, Functional Oral Intake Scale, Glasgow Coma Scale, CPAx, Barthel Index, Katz Index and MRC sum score, measurements of grip strength obtained by dynamometer, the 5 time sit-to-stand test and 30 seconds and sit-to-stand test. CPAx and the other functional assessment tools were administered to 16 patients within 48 hours following ICU discharge. For inter-rater reliability, another physiatrist independently re-assessed the patients. MRC sum score, Barthel and Katz indexes were used to assess construct validity of CPAx. The discriminative validity of CPAx was determined by its ability to differentiate between patients with and without ICU acquired muscle weakness based on MRC sum score. The intra-class correlation coefficients (ICC) were calculated to determine inter-rater reliability for total scores of the functional assessment tools. Cohen's Kappa (κ) coefficient and weighed Kappa (κw) were calculated to determine inter-rater reliability of individual CPAx items. Ceiling and flooring effects were calculated by percentage frequency of lowest or highest possible score achieved. The number and percentages of the patients who were able to complete each tool were calculated to assess feasibility. The CPAx score was strongly correlated with MRC sum score (rho: 0.83), Barthel Index (rho: 0.87) and Katz Index (rho: 0.89) (p< 0.001) showing construct validity. Area under the ROC curve demonstrated that cut off score for CPAx was ⩽ 12 to discriminate patients with MRC sum score < 48, with a sensitivity and a specificity of 100% and 63%, respectively (AUC = 0.859, p< 0.001). ICC was high for CPAx, MRC sum score, Barthel and Katz indexes, Glasgow Coma Scale, and hand grip strength measurement, with the highest value observed for CPAx (ICC, 0.96; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.71-0.98). κ and κw analysis showed good to excellent inter-rater reliability for individual CPAx items. No floor or ceiling effect was observed at CPAx while floor effect was observed at Barthel Index scores (25%) and Katz Index scores (37.5%). All patients could be evaluated using CPAx while less were physically able to complete the 5 time sit-to-stand, 30 seconds sit-to-stand tests (n= 4) and MRC sum score (n= 14). CONCLUSION: CPAx is a valid, reliable, and feasible tool to assess the physical functional state in COVID-19 patients following discharge from the ICU.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hand Strength , Humans , Cross-Sectional Studies , Reproducibility of Results , Feasibility Studies
6.
Trials ; 24(1): 321, 2023 May 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2313666

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Disruptions to clinical trials conducted in the intensive care unit (ICU) due to the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV2; coronavirus disease 2019 [COVID-19]) pandemic included fewer new trials activated and more trials stopped. While a number of ongoing, non-COVID-19 clinical trials remained open to enrollment, the direct impact of the pandemic on ICUs instilled chaos in this already challenging environment. The numerous challenges need to be reported so investigators can proactively plan and manage these myriad challenges. Thus, the purpose of this study was to describe the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on screening and accrual for a non-COVID-19 parent clinical trial enrolling critically ill ICU patients receiving mechanical ventilatory support. METHODS: A descriptive, retrospective design using quantitative data from detailed screening logs and qualitative observations with field notes from a parent clinical trial were used to address the objectives. The primary aims of the two-site parent clinical trial (n = 190) are to test the efficacy of self-administration of sedative therapy by mechanically ventilated ICU patients on anxiety and delirium occurrence. ICUs from two academic medical centers [names removed for blinding] plus a community hospital in Minnesota were screened daily for alert patients (Richmond Agitation Sedation Scale [RASS] - 2 to + 1), following commands, hemodynamically stable with sufficient hand grip strength to depress a push-button device. Screening data were summarized based on the primary reason patients were not enrolled (screen failures, declinations of consent). Descriptive statistics (frequencies, percentages), chi-square, and Fisher's Exact test were used to describe the data and to determine any differences among distributions of screening failures and recruitment declinations during the defined pre-pandemic (August 27, 2018-March 15, 2020, 2976 screened patients) and pandemic timeframes (March 16, 2020-February 28, 2022, 3912 screened patients). Qualitative data from varied sources such as screening logs, institutional email communications, staff field notes, and research team meeting minutes were summarized into themes. RESULTS: Despite significantly fewer screen failures due to hypotension, cognitive impairment/dementia, coma, or chemical paralysis with 938 additional patients on the screening log, more were accrued pre-pandemic (n = 55) than during the pandemic period (n = 45); declination reasons were non-significant. Pandemic burdens experienced by study personnel, ICU care providers, and patients/families were revealed that attributed to decreased accrual. CONCLUSIONS: While the parent clinical trial remained opened, cumulative factors adversely impacted the trial during the pandemic period with fewer patients accrued. The human toll of the pandemic on research staff, clinicians, and patients/family members demands that investigators be proactive in managing these challenges to conduct ICU clinical trials successfully, including careful oversight of human and financial resources. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT#02,819,141 Registered 29 June 2016.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Pandemics , Hand Strength , RNA, Viral , Retrospective Studies , Intensive Care Units
7.
Front Immunol ; 13: 1006076, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2313815

ABSTRACT

Background: The global burden of persistent COVID-19 in hemodialysis (HD) patients is a worrisome scenario worth of investigation for the critical care of chronic kidney disease (CKD). We performed an exploratory post-hoc study from the trial U1111-1237-8231 with two specific aims: i) to investigate the prevalence of COVID-19 infection and long COVID symptoms from our Cohort of 178 Brazilians HD patients. ii) to identify whether baseline characteristics should predict long COVID in this sample. Methods: 247 community-dwelling older (>60 years) patients (Men and women) undergoing HD (glomerular filtration rate < 15 mL/min/1.73m2) with arteriovenous fistula volunteered for this study. All patients presented hypertension and diabetes. Patients were divided in two groups: without long-COVID and with long-COVID. Body composition, handgrip strength, functional performance, iron metabolism, phosphate, and inflammatory profile were assessed. Patients were screened for 11-months after COVID-19 infection. Results were considered significant at P < 0.05. Results: We found that more than 85% of the COVID-19 infected patients presented a severe condition during the infection. In our sample, the mortality rate over 11-month follow was relatively low (8.4%) when compared to worldwide (approximately 36%). Long COVID was highly prevalent in COVID-19 survivors representing more than 80% of all cases. Phosphate and IL-10 were higher in the long COVID group, but only phosphate higher than 5.35 mg/dL appears to present an increased prevalence of long COVID, dyspnea, and fatigue. Conclusion: There was a high prevalence of COVID-19 infection and long COVID in HD patients from the Brazilian trial 'U1111-1237-8231'. HD clinics should be aware with phosphate range in HD patients as a possible target for adverse post-COVID events.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Brazil/epidemiology , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , Female , Hand Strength , Humans , Interleukin-10 , Iron , Male , Phosphates , Renal Dialysis/adverse effects , Renal Dialysis/methods , Post-Acute COVID-19 Syndrome
8.
Nutrients ; 15(8)2023 Apr 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2306658

ABSTRACT

Hospitalized patients with respiratory failure due to SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia are at increased risk of malnutrition and related mortality. The predictive value of the Mini-Nutritional Assessment short form (MNA-sf®), hand-grip strength (HGS), and bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) was determined with respect to in-hospital mortality or endotracheal intubation. The study included 101 patients admitted to a sub-intensive care unit from November 2021 to April 2022. The discriminative capacity of MNA-sf, HGS, and body composition parameters (skeletal mass index and phase angle) was assessed computing the area under the receiver operating characteristic curves (AUC). Analyses were stratified by age groups (<70/70+ years). The MNA-sf alone or in combination with HGS or BIA was not able to reliably predict our outcome. In younger participants, HGS showed a sensitivity of 0.87 and a specificity of 0.54 (AUC: 0.77). In older participants, phase angle (AUC: 0.72) was the best predictor and MNA-sf in combination with HGS had an AUC of 0.66. In our sample, MNA- sf alone, or in combination with HGS and BIA was not useful to predict our outcome in patients with COVID-19 pneumonia. Phase angle and HGS may be useful tools to predict worse outcomes in older and younger patients, respectively.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Malnutrition , Humans , Aged , Nutritional Status , SARS-CoV-2 , Hand Strength , Electric Impedance , COVID-19/diagnosis , Malnutrition/diagnosis , Nutrition Assessment , Geriatric Assessment/methods
9.
Nutrition ; 111: 112025, 2023 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2298407

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Patients discharged from the intensive care unit (ICU) often experience physical complaints and poor nutritional intake, which negatively affect their nutritional status (NS). The aim of this study was to describe the NS of patients with COVID-19 1-y post-ICU stay. METHODS: This was an observational study of adult patients with COVID-19 1-y post-ICU stay. NS assessment (nutrient balance, body composition, and physical status) was performed. We examined nutritional intake and nutrition-related complaints. Nutritional requirements were determined with indirect calorimetry and body composition with bioelectrical impedance. Fat-free mass index (FFMI) and fat mass index (FMI) were calculated. Physical status was determined using handgrip strength, the 6-min walk test, and the 1-min sit-to-stand test. Descriptive statistics and paired sample t tests were used for analysis. RESULTS: We included 48 patients (73% men; median age 60 y [IQR 52;65]). Median weight loss during the ICU stay was 13%. One-y post-ICU stay, 12% of weight was regained. Median body mass index was 26 kg/m2 and 23% of the patients were obese (body mass index >30 kg/m2 and high FMI). Of the patients, 50% had high FMI and 19% had low FFMI. Median reported nutritional intake was 90% of measured resting energy expenditure. Nutrition-related complaints were seen in 16%. Percentages of normal values reached in physical tests were 92% of handgrip strength, 95% of 6-min walking distance, and 79% of 1-min sit-to-stand test. CONCLUSIONS: Despite almost fully regained weight and good physical recovery in adult patients 1-y post-ICU stay, NS remained impaired because of elevated FMI, even though reported nutritional intake was below the estimated requirements.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Nutritional Status , Male , Adult , Humans , Middle Aged , Female , Hand Strength , Body Composition , Body Mass Index , Intensive Care Units
10.
BMC Psychiatry ; 23(1): 284, 2023 04 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2297804

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: In 2020, Lebanon has witnessed its worst economic crisis, exacerbated by the COVID-19 pandemic and a massive explosion of its capital. Amidst these stressors, this study aims at assessing the prevalence of depression, anxiety, suicidality, post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and cognitive impairment in patients undergoing hemodialysis in an academic hospital destroyed by the explosion. METHODS: This cross-sectional study conducted 6 months after the blast included adults on hemodialysis, with no previous diagnoses of dementia or intellectual disability. It explores prevalence rates of psychiatric disorders, in addition to other medical and psychosocial variables such as frailty, malnutrition, sarcopenia, quality of life and religiosity. RESULTS: Forty two patients (mean age 66.1; SD: 11.2 years) undergoing hemodialysis for 6.12 years (SD:7.22 years) were included. Anxiety and depression rates reached 54.8% and 57.1% using cut-offs of 6 and 7 respectively on the Hospital Anxiety and Depression rating Scale. 9.5% of the patients reported being in the hospital at the time of the blast and 7.1% reported being injured. 33.3% screened positively for PTSD using a cut-off of 23 on the PCL-5. 26.2% had passive death wishes and 7.1% had suicide plans, however no one had attempted it. 23.8% were found cognitively impaired as shown by the Mini-Cog (<3). Around two-third of participants were moderately to severely malnourished per the GLIM criteria. One third suffered from frailty, according to the FRAIL screening tool. Around 60% suffered from sarcopenia, based on handgrip strength measures. These findings contrast with "acceptable to good" quality of life subjectively reported by participants on the Short Form 36 (SF-36) Health Survey. While one-third of participants participated in organizational religious activities, 88% reported significant subjective meaning of religion in their heart. CONCLUSIONS: Rates of depression, anxiety, PTSD, suicidality, and cognitive impairment were found to be alarming in the setting of an urban dialysis unit following a major explosion. Psychiatric disorders were found to be compounded with increased prevalence of malnutrition, frailty, and sarcopenia. These findings urge healthcare providers to implement early diagnostic and intervention strategies to improve both mental and physical wellbeing of this vulnerable population, in similar settings.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Frailty , Sarcopenia , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic , Adult , Humans , Aged , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/diagnosis , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/epidemiology , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/psychology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Pandemics , Depression/diagnosis , Depression/epidemiology , Quality of Life , Frailty/epidemiology , Hand Strength , Sarcopenia/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Anxiety/diagnosis , Anxiety/epidemiology , Renal Dialysis
11.
Nutr Clin Pract ; 37(6): 1307-1315, 2022 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2254922

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: When nutrition assessments must be performed virtually, such as during the coronavirus pandemic, it is difficult to fully assess patients for malnutrition without the ability to perform a nutrition-focused physical exam. Practitioners may ask patients about their physical appearance, but there is currently no validated set of questions whose answers correlate with nutrition-focused physical findings for the diagnosis of malnutrition in such situations. The aim of this study was to evaluate correlations between patients' responses to verbalized questions and physical signs of malnutrition. METHODS: Questions related to the physical findings of malnutrition were developed and evaluated for content validity. Thirty patients receiving nutrition assessments at an acute care veterans' hospital were asked the questions prior to a nutrition-focused physical exam. Patients' responses were compared with a diagnosis of malnutrition and physical findings of muscle, fat, fluid accumulation, and handgrip strength. RESULTS: Four questions significantly correlated with malnutrition: "Does the area around your eyes appear sunken in?" (P = 0.03), "Are you able to see your ribs?" (P = 0.05), "Do you feel you are unusually skinny for you?" (P = 0.001), and "Do you find yourself eating less due to swelling in your belly?" (P = 0.008). CONCLUSION: There are relationships between patients' responses to certain verbalized questions and their physical status. Such questions can be used to identify physical signs of malnutrition when nutrition-focused physical exams cannot be performed. Further research is needed to validate these questions in other populations.


Subject(s)
Hand Strength , Malnutrition , Humans , Malnutrition/diagnosis , Nutrition Assessment , Nutritional Status , Physical Examination , Surveys and Questionnaires
12.
Tuberk Toraks ; 71(1): 58-66, 2023 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2279920

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Post-illness pulmonary rehabilitation indications of Coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) may include fatigue, respiratory restriction, exercise limitation, muscle weakness, deterioration in body composition, quality of life, and psychological status. Since tele-pulmonary rehabilitation (tele-PR) is the prominent approach in the current situation and questions such as who, how, and when are still unclear, in this study we aimed to investigate the efficacy of tele-PR as a hybrid model with face-to-face in post-COVID-19 patients. Materials and Methods: Thirty one patients who had completed viral infection treatment with the diagnosis of COVID-19 but still had persistent symptoms were enrolled in an eight-week synchronized video-conference mediated telePR program in a hybrid format, with the initial and final assessments and the first two sessions conducted in person. Before and after the tele-PR, pulmonary functions, exercise capacity, respiratory and peripheral muscle strength, body composition, quality of life, and psychological states were evaluated. Result: After the tele-PR program; a statistically significant improvement was observed in dyspnea sensation evaluated with modified Medical Research Council (mMRC) and BORG levels, body mass index (BMI), incremental shuttle walk test (ISWT), endurance shuttle walk test (ESWT), handgrip test, deltoid, and quadriceps 1-repetition maximum (1RM) results, maximal inspiratory and expiratory pressure (MIP, MEP), peripheral muscle strengths, fatigue severity scale and Nottingham extended activities of daily living scale (NEADLS). Conclusions: In this study, it has been shown that the hybrid model of tele-PR enables a comprehensive evaluation as well as the effective and safe applicability of a multidisciplinary and remotely directed program even in high workloads for post-COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive , Humans , Activities of Daily Living , Hand Strength , Quality of Life , Pandemics , Dyspnea , Fatigue , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/rehabilitation , Exercise Tolerance/physiology
13.
Nutrients ; 15(6)2023 Mar 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2275553

ABSTRACT

Phase angle (PhA) and muscle strength are predictors of clinical outcomes in critically ill patients. Malnutrition may affect body composition measurements. The aim of this prospective study was to investigate the association between PhA and handgrip strength (HGS), and clinical outcomes in hospitalized COVID-19 patients. The study included a total of 102 patients. Both PhA and HGS were measured twice, within 48 h of hospital admission and on the 7th day of hospitalization. The primary outcome was the clinical status on the 28th day of hospitalization. Secondary outcomes included the hospital length of stay (LOS), the concentrations of ferritin, C-reactive protein and albumin, oxygen requirements and the severity of pneumonia. A one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) test and Spearman rS correlation coefficient were used for statistical analysis. No differences were found for PhA [on day 1 (p = 0.769) and day 7 (p = 0.807)] and the primary outcome. A difference was found between HGS on day 1 and the primary outcome (p = 0.008), while no difference was found for HGS on day 7 (p = 0.476). Body mass index was found to be associated with the oxygen requirement on day 7 (p = 0.005). LOS was correlated neither with PhA (rs = -0.081, p = 0.422) nor with HGS (rs = 0.137, p = 0.177) on the first day. HGS could be a useful indicator of clinical outcomes in COVID-19 patients, while PhA does not seem to have a clinical impact. However, further research is needed to validate the results of our study.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Malnutrition , Humans , Hand Strength/physiology , Prospective Studies , COVID-19/therapy , Body Mass Index
14.
Exp Gerontol ; 174: 112128, 2023 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2268762

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic has greatly impacted people's lifestyles and changed the delivery of health interventions, especially interventions for community-dwelling older people with sarcopenia. OBJECTIVE: To summarize the components and explore the effectiveness of home-based interventions for improving sarcopenia and other health-related outcomes among community-dwelling older people with sarcopenia. DESIGN: Systematic review and meta-analysis. METHODS: The Cochrane Library, Scopus, EMBASE, Web of Science, CINAHL, Medline (via PubMed), and PsycINFO were searched for relevant papers published from January 1, 2010 to March 29, 2022. Only papers written in English were included. The modified version of Cochrane's risk-of-bias tool was used to assess the risks of bias in the included studies. The template for intervention description and replication checklist was used to summarize the intervention components. The mean difference (MD) or standard mean difference with a 95 % confidence interval (CI) was used to determine the effect size of studies using the same or different measuring methods. Random-effects models were in meta-analyses to pool the effects of home-based interventions on the included outcomes. RESULTS: After detailed screening and exclusion, 11 randomized controlled trials including 1136 older people with sarcopenia were included in our analyses. Three categories of home-based interventions were identified: exercise interventions, nutritional interventions, and combined exercise and nutritional interventions. The overall analysis of the outcomes (e.g., appendicular skeletal muscle mass index, lean mass, body fat mass, handgrip strength, and gait speed), showed that the effects of home-based exercise interventions were inconclusive. Compared with passive controls, home-based exercise interventions significantly improved knee extension strength (MD = 0.56 kg, 95 % CI: 0.09, 1.03, p = 0.020) and reduced the time required to complete the Timed Up and Go Test (MD = -1.41 s, 95 % CI: -2.28, -0.54, p = 0.001). Home-based nutritional interventions were effective in improving appendicular skeletal muscle mass (MD = 0.25 kg, 95 % CI: 0.02, 0.49, p = 0.030), gait speed (MD = 0.06 m/s, 95 % CI: 0.03, 0.09, p = 0.0001), and quality of life in terms of both the physical component summary (MD = 13.54, 95 % CI: 0.73, 26.34, p = 0.040) and mental component summary scores (MD = 8.69, 95 % CI: 2.98, 14.41, p = 0.003). CONCLUSION: Home-based exercise interventions have the potential to improve muscle strength and physical function, while home-based nutritional interventions are effective in increasing muscle mass, physical function, and quality of life. Both of these can be applied at home during and after the COVID-19 pandemic to alleviate sarcopenia and improve health-related outcomes in community-dwelling older people.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Sarcopenia , Humans , Aged , Sarcopenia/therapy , Independent Living , Quality of Life , Hand Strength , Postural Balance , Pandemics , Time and Motion Studies
15.
BMJ ; 380: 12, 2023 01 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2263754
16.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(24)2022 12 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2256088

ABSTRACT

We compared hand activity and force ratings in women and men doing identical hand-intensive work tasks. Musculoskeletal disorders are more common in women and hand-intensive work leads to an increased risk of these disorders. Knowledge of the gender influence in the rating of work exposure is lacking. The aim of this study was to investigate whether women and men performing identical hand-intensive work tasks were equally rated using hand activity and normalized peak force levels with the Hand Activity Threshold Limit Value®. Fifty-six workers participated, comprising 28 women-men pairs. Four observers-two woman-man pairs-were also involved. Self-ratings and observers' ratings of hand activity and force level were collected. The results of these ratings showed no significant gender differences in self-rated hand activity and force, as well as observer-rated hand activity. However, there was a significant gender difference in the observer-rated force, where the women were rated higher (mean (SD): women 3.9 (2.7), men 3.1 (1.8) (p = 0.01)). This difference remained significant in the adjusted model (p = 0.04) with grip strength and forearm-finger anthropometrics. The results provide new insights that observers' estimates of force can be higher in women compared with men in the same work tasks. Force should be further investigated and preferably compared to objective measurements.


Subject(s)
Musculoskeletal Diseases , Task Performance and Analysis , Male , Humans , Female , Hand , Upper Extremity , Fingers , Musculoskeletal Diseases/epidemiology , Musculoskeletal Diseases/etiology , Hand Strength
17.
J Crit Care ; 76: 154285, 2023 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2276605

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: This work aimed to compare physical impairment in survivors of classic ARDS compared with COVID-19-associated ARDS (CARDS) survivors. MATERIAL AND METHODS: This is a prospective observational cohort study on 248 patients with CARDS and compared them with a historical cohort of 48 patients with classic ARDS. Physical performance was evaluated at 6 and 12 months after ICU discharge, using the Medical Research Council Scale (MRCss), 6-min walk test (6MWT), handgrip dynamometry (HGD), and fatigue severity score (FSS). We also assessed activities of daily living (ADLs) using the Barthel index. RESULTS: At 6 months, patients with classic ARDS had lower HGD (estimated difference [ED]: 11.71 kg, p < 0.001; ED 31.9% of predicted value, p < 0.001), 6MWT distance (ED: 89.11 m, p < 0.001; ED 12.96% of predicted value, p = 0.032), and more frequent significant fatigue (OR 0.35, p = 0.046). At 12 months, patients with classic ARDS had lower HGD (ED: 9.08 kg, p = 0.0014; ED 25.9% of predicted value, p < 0.001) and no difference in terms of 6MWT and fatigue. At 12 months, patients with classic ARDS improved their MRCss (ED 2.50, p = 0.006) and HGD (ED: 4.13 kg, p = 0.002; ED 9.45% of predicted value, p = 0.005), while those with CARDS did not. Most patients in both groups regained independence in ADLs at 6 months. COVID-19 diagnosis was a significant independent predictor of better HGD (p < 0.0001) and 6MWT performance (p = 0.001), and lower prevalence of fatigue (p = 0.018). CONCLUSIONS: Both classic ARDS and CARDS survivors experienced long-term impairments in physical functioning, confirming that post-intensive care syndrome remains a major legacy of critical illness. Surprisingly, however, persisting disability was more common in survivors of classic ARDS than in CARDS survivors. In fact, muscle strength measured with HGD was reduced in survivors of classic ARDS compared to CARDS patients at both 6 and 12 months. The 6MWT was reduced and fatigue was more common in classic ARDS compared to CARDS at 6 months but differences were no longer significant at 12 months. Most patients in both groups regained independent function in ADLs at 6 months.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Respiratory Distress Syndrome , Humans , Quality of Life , COVID-19/complications , Cohort Studies , Activities of Daily Living , COVID-19 Testing , Hand Strength , Survivors , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/complications
18.
J Physiol Anthropol ; 42(1): 4, 2023 Mar 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2288134

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has reduced people's physical activity. It is essential to accumulate knowledge regarding the influence of COVID-19 on the stimulation of physical fitness and physical functions. Several studies have reported the effects of COVID-19 on physical fitness; however, there are very few reports regarding preschoolers. This study aimed to compare the physical fitness of preschoolers before and during the COVID-19 pandemic to clarify the effects of curtailment of outings implemented to control the pandemic on physical fitness among preschoolers. METHODS: The subjects were 593 Japanese preschool children enrolled at a kindergarten during 2015-2019 and in 2021 who received a physical fitness test. Children enrolled in 2020 who did not receive a physical fitness test because of the COVID-19 pandemic were excluded. The physical fitness test included grip strength, standing long jump, and a 25-m run. The relationship between physical fitness level and survey year was analyzed using a general linear model, with grip strength and standing long jump as dependent variables, year of study as the independent variable, and sex and age in months as adjusted variables. Kruskal-Wallis test was used to analyze data for the 25-m run. Multiple comparisons were used to compare fitness levels between 2021 (during the COVID-19 pandemic) with levels in previous years. RESULTS: Significant relationships were found between survey year and each of grip strength (p < 0.001), standing long jump (p < 0.05), and 25-m run (p < 0.001) among the overall subjects. Grip strength was significantly lower in 2021 compared with the 2016-2019 period. Similarly, sub-stratification analysis by sex showed that grip strength was lower in 2021 than in previous survey years, in both sexes. However, there was no difference in standing long jump or 25-m run times between before and during the pandemic among the overall subjects or according to sex. CONCLUSIONS: These findings indicate that the COVID-19 pandemic has had a negative effect on the development of muscle strength in preschoolers, and suggest the need to develop strategies that could promote the development of muscle strength of preschool children when limitations are placed on activity during prolonged infectious disease pandemics.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Male , Female , Humans , Child, Preschool , Physical Fitness/physiology , Exercise , Muscle Strength/physiology , Hand Strength
19.
Med Sci Sports Exerc ; 54(11): 1795-1803, 2022 11 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2249417

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The present randomized, single-center, and single-blinded clinical trial tested the hypothesis that tele-supervised home-based exercise training (exercise) is an effective strategy for improving cardiovascular, respiratory, and functional capacity parameters in individuals who were hospitalized due to coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). METHODS: Thirty-two individuals (52 ± 10 yr; 17 were female) randomly assigned to exercise ( n = 12) or control groups ( n = 20) had their anthropometric (weight, body mass index), hemodynamic (brachial and central blood pressure), vascular (arterial stiffness), ventilatory (pulmonary function and respiratory muscle strength), and functional parameters (handgrip strength, five-time sit to stand, timed up and go test, and 6-min walking test) assessed at baseline (30-45 d of hospital discharged) and after 12 wk of follow-up. RESULTS: Both groups similarly increased ( P < 0.001) forced vital capacity (absolute and percent of predicted), forced expiratory volume in the first second (absolute and percent of predicted), and handgrip strength during follow-up. However, only the exercise group reduced carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (-2.0 ± 0.6 m·s -1 , P = 0.048) and increased ( P < 0.05) resting oxygen saturation (1.9% ± 0.6%), mean inspiratory pressure (24.7 ± 7.1 cm H 2 O), mean expiratory pressure (20.3 ± 5.8 cm H 2 O), and percent of predicted mean expiratory pressure (14% ± 22%) during follow-up. No significant changes were found in any other variable during follow-up. CONCLUSIONS: Present findings suggest that tele-supervised home-based exercise training can be a potential adjunct therapeutic to rehabilitate individuals who were hospitalized due to COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Female , Humans , Male , Exercise/physiology , Exercise Tolerance/physiology , Hand Strength , Hospitalization , Postural Balance , Pulse Wave Analysis , Respiratory Muscles , Time and Motion Studies
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