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1.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 29(1): 20-25, 2023 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36573519

ABSTRACT

Seoul orthohantavirus (SEOV) is not considered a major public health threat on the continent of Africa. However, Africa is exposed to rodentborne SEOV introduction events through maritime traffic after exponential growth of trade with the rest of the world. Serologic studies have already detected hantavirus antibodies in human populations, and recent investigations have confirmed circulation of hantavirus, including SEOV, in rat populations. Thus, SEOV is a possible emerging zoonotic risk in Africa. Moreover, the range of SEOV could rapidly expand, and transmission to humans could increase because of host switching from the usual brown rat (Rattus norvegicus) species, which is currently invading Africa, to the more widely installed black rat (R. rattus) species. Because of rapid economic development, environmental and climatic changes, and increased international trade, strengthened surveillance is urgently needed to prevent SEOV dissemination among humans in Africa.


Subject(s)
Hantavirus Infections , Hemorrhagic Fever with Renal Syndrome , Seoul virus , Animals , Rats , Humans , Commerce , Seoul , Internationality , Hantavirus Infections/epidemiology , Hantavirus Infections/veterinary
2.
Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue Za Zhi ; 43(11): 1804-1810, 2022 Nov 10.
Article in Chinese | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36444466

ABSTRACT

Objective: To study the molecular epidemiological characteristics and genotypes of hantavirus carried by rodents in Shenzhen. Methods: Rodents were captured, and their lung samples were collected and grinded for RNA extraction. The hantavirus positive samples were classified by real-time fluorescence PCR. Rat lung nucleic acid samples were selected to amplify the nucleotide sequences of partial M fragments (G2 segment) and S fragments by reverse transcription-nested polymerase chain reaction (RT-nested PCR). The PCR products were then sequenced and homology and phylogenetic tree analyses were conducted. Results: A total of 200 rodents were captured, including 189 Rattus norvegicus, 9 Rattus flavipectus and 2 Mus musculus. The positive rate of hantavirus was 21.0% (42/200), all of the isolates were seoul virus (SEOV) strains. The positive rate of hantavirus in Bao'an district was highest (45.7%), and the difference in detection rate among districts were significant (χ2=25.60,P<0.05). A total of 25 G2 segment sequences and S fragment sequences of SEOV were obtained by virus gene sequencing, and their nucleotide homology was 95.3%-100.0% and 97.6%-100.0%, respectively. Compared with other reference sequences of S2 subtype, the nucleotide homology between the sample sequence and the reference sequence from Guangzhou was high. Analysis on nucleotide homology and phylogenetic tree showed that hantavirus carried by the rodents captured in Shenzhen belonged to SEOV S2 subtype. Analysis on amino acid variation sites revealed that there was a variation in the nucleocapsid protein encoded by S gene from Alanine to Threonine at the 973 position of BA-111. Conclusion: Hantavirus carried by rodents in Shenzhen belongs to S2 subtype of Seoul virus, which have little variation compared with the hantavirus strains obtained in other years in Shenzhen and surrounding provinces.


Subject(s)
Communicable Diseases , Hantavirus Infections , Mice , Rats , Animals , Rodentia , Phylogeny , Hantavirus Infections/epidemiology , Hantavirus Infections/veterinary , Nucleotides , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction
3.
Viruses ; 14(11)2022 Oct 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36366466

ABSTRACT

A novel hantavirus, named Kiwira virus, was molecularly detected in six Angolan free-tailed bats (Mops condylurus, family Molossidae) captured in Tanzania and in one free-tailed bat in the Democratic Republic of Congo. Hantavirus RNA was found in different organs, with the highest loads in the spleen. Nucleotide sequences of large parts of the genomic S and L segments were determined by in-solution hybridisation capture and high throughput sequencing. Phylogenetic analyses placed Kiwira virus into the genus Mobatvirus of the family Hantaviridae, with the bat-infecting Quezon virus and Robina virus as closest relatives. The detection of several infected individuals in two African countries, including animals with systemic hantavirus infection, provides evidence of active replication and a stable circulation of Kiwira virus in M. condylurus bats and points to this species as a natural host. Since the M. condylurus home range covers large regions of Sub-Saharan Africa and the species is known to roost inside and around human dwellings, a potential spillover of the Kiwira virus to humans must be considered.


Subject(s)
Chiroptera , Communicable Diseases , Hantavirus Infections , RNA Viruses , Animals , Humans , Phylogeny , Hantavirus Infections/epidemiology , Hantavirus Infections/veterinary , Africa, Central
4.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(20)2022 Oct 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36294012

ABSTRACT

For a long time, the epidemic situation of hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) caused by hantavirus (HV) in Yunnan Province of China has been relatively severe. The molecular epidemiology and host characteristics of HV in Yunnan Province are still not completely clear, and the systematic and long-term investigation of the epidemic area is very limited. In this study, a total of 488 murine-shaped animals were captured in the three regions of Mile City, Mangshi City and Lianghe County in Yunnan Province, and then the type of HV was identified by multiplex real-time RT-PCR and sequenced. The results indicate that 2.46% of the murine-shaped animal specimens were infected with HV. A new subtype of Seoul virus (SEOV) was found in the rare rat species Rattus nitidus in Lianghe County, and the two strains of this new subtype were named YNLH-K40 and YNLH-K53. Through the phylogenetic analysis of this new subtype, it is shown that this new subtype is very similar to the type S5 of SEOV, which is previously described as the main cause for the high incidence of HFRS in Longquan City, Zhejiang Province, China. This new subtype is highly likely to cause human infection and disease. Therefore, in addition to further promoting the improvement of the HV gene database and strengthening the discovery and monitoring of the host animals in Yunnan Province, more attention should be paid to the pathogenic potential of the newly discovered HV type.


Subject(s)
Communicable Diseases , Hantavirus Infections , Hemorrhagic Fever with Renal Syndrome , Humans , Rats , Mice , Animals , Hemorrhagic Fever with Renal Syndrome/epidemiology , Phylogeny , China/epidemiology , Hantavirus Infections/epidemiology , Hantavirus Infections/veterinary , Evolution, Molecular
5.
Rev Med Suisse ; 18(799): 1900-1903, 2022 Oct 12.
Article in French | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36226452

ABSTRACT

Hantaviruses are enveloped zoonotic RNA viruses hosted by rodents and responsible in the Americas for hantavirus pulmonary syndrome. In Europe, they cause hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome and its milder form, nephropathia epidemica. The disease begins abruptly with high fever, chills, headache, back pain and abdominal pain associated with nausea and vomiting. Diagnosis is primarily made by serology. There is currently no specific medication or preventive available in Europe. Treatment is symptomatic.


Les hantavirus sont des virus zoonotiques à ARN enveloppés hébergés principalement par des rongeurs et responsables, aux Amériques, du syndrome pulmonaire à hantavirus. En Europe, ils provoquent la fièvre hémorragique avec syndrome rénal et sa forme plus légère appelée néphropathie épidémique. La maladie se présente de manière aiguë avec une forte fièvre, des frissons, des céphalées, des dorsalgies ainsi que des douleurs abdominales associées à des nausées et vomissements. Le diagnostic se fait principalement par sérologie. Il n'existe actuellement pas de médication spécifique, ni de vaccination disponible en Europe. Le traitement repose sur un soutien symptomatique.


Subject(s)
Hantavirus Infections , Hemorrhagic Fever with Renal Syndrome , Hantavirus Infections/diagnosis , Hantavirus Infections/epidemiology , Hantavirus Infections/therapy , Hemorrhagic Fever with Renal Syndrome/complications , Hemorrhagic Fever with Renal Syndrome/diagnosis , Humans , Nausea/complications , Vomiting
6.
Microbiol Spectr ; 10(5): e0130622, 2022 Oct 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36169417

ABSTRACT

Orthohantaviruses (genus Orthohantavirus) are a diverse group of viruses that are closely associated with their natural hosts (rodents, shrews, and moles). Several orthohantaviruses cause severe disease in humans. Central and western Europe are areas with emerging orthohantavirus occurrences. In our study, several orthohantaviruses, including the pathogenic Kurkino virus (KURV), were detected in their natural hosts trapped at several study sites in the Czech Republic. KURV was detected mainly in its typical host, the striped field mouse (Apodemus agrarius). Nevertheless, spillover infections were also detected in wood mice (Apodemus sylvaticus) and common voles (Microtus arvalis). Similarly, Tula virus (TULV) was found primarily in common voles, and events of spillover to rodents of other host species, including Apodemus spp., were recorded. In addition, unlike most previous studies, different tissues were sampled and compared to assess their suitability for orthohantavirus screening and possible tissue tropism. Our data suggest possible virus-specific tissue tropism in rodent hosts. TULV was most commonly detected in the lung tissue, whereas KURV was more common in the liver, spleen, and brain. Moreover, Seewis and Asikkala viruses were detected in randomly found common shrews (Sorex araneus). In conclusion, we have demonstrated the presence of human-pathogenic KURV and the potentially pathogenic TULV in their typical hosts as well as their spillover to atypical host species belonging to another family. Furthermore, we suggest the possibility of virus-specific tissue tropism of orthohantaviruses in their natural hosts. IMPORTANCE Orthohantaviruses (genus Orthohantavirus, family Hantaviridae) are a diverse group of globally distributed viruses that are closely associated with their natural hosts. Some orthohantaviruses are capable of infecting humans and causing severe disease. Orthohantaviruses are considered emerging pathogens due to their ever-increasing diversity and increasing numbers of disease cases. We report the detection of four different orthohantaviruses in rodents and shrews in the Czech Republic. Most viruses were found in their typical hosts, Kurkino virus (KURV) in striped field mice (Apodemus agrarius), Tula virus (TULV) in common voles (Microtus arvalis), and Seewis virus in common shrews (Sorex araneus). Nevertheless, spillover infections of atypical host species were also recorded for KURV, TULV, and another shrew-borne orthohantavirus, Asikkala virus. In addition, indications of virus-specific patterns of tissue tropism were observed. Our results highlight the circulation of several orthohantaviruses, including KURV, which is pathogenic to humans, among rodents and shrews in the Czech Republic.


Subject(s)
Hantavirus Infections , Animals , Humans , Mice , Hantavirus Infections/epidemiology , Hantavirus Infections/veterinary , Shrews , Czech Republic/epidemiology , Phylogeny , Arvicolinae , Murinae , Tropism
7.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 16(6): e0010526, 2022 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35737659

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) caused by hantaviruses is a frequently reported acute hemorrhagic fever in South Korea. These viruses are transmitted by various rodent species such as Apodemus agrarius. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: To investigate hantavirus infection and seroprevalence in rodents, wild rodents were captured from two districts in the suburbs of Gwangju Metropolitan City from January 2016 to December 2018. Nested reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) targeting the hantavirus-specific L segment and indirect immunofluorescence antibody (IFA) assay using Hantaan virus antigen slides were performed. A total of 585 wild rodents were captured-512 A. agrarius, 49 Crocidura lasiura, and 24 Myodes regulus. Nested RT-PCR was performed to examine the rate of hantavirus infection in wild rodents, and 1.88% (11/585) of all rodents, 1.17% (6/512) of A. agrarius, 6.12% (3/49) of C. lasiura, and 8.33% (2/24) of M. regulus tested positive. The nucleotide sequence analysis of the eleven PCR-positive products revealed that six PCR products showed over 85% sequence similarity with the Jeju virus, four showed over 99.7% similarity with the Hantaan virus, and one showed over 95.3% homology with the Imjin virus. Moreover, IgG antibodies against the Hantaan virus were detected in 6.15% (36/585) of all rodents, 6.8% (35/512) of A. agrarius, and 4.17% (1/24) of M. regulus. IgG antibodies were not detected in C. lasiura. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Hantaviruses were detected in all three wild rodent species of A. agrarius, C. lasiura, and M. regulus captured in the suburbs of Gwangju Metropolitan City, South Korea, and it was demonstrated that they were various strains of hantaviruses such as the Hantaan, Jeju, and Imjin viruses.


Subject(s)
Hantaan virus , Hantavirus Infections , Hemorrhagic Fever with Renal Syndrome , Animals , Hantaan virus/genetics , Hantavirus Infections/epidemiology , Hantavirus Infections/veterinary , Hemorrhagic Fever with Renal Syndrome/epidemiology , Hemorrhagic Fever with Renal Syndrome/veterinary , Immunoglobulin G , Murinae , Phylogeny , Republic of Korea/epidemiology , Seroepidemiologic Studies
8.
Dtsch Med Wochenschr ; 147(24-25): 1629-1634, 2022 12.
Article in German | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35732176

ABSTRACT

Eight decades ago, a report on "a swamp fever-like disease in German troups in Lapland" was published in this journal. The disease outbreak had occurred in 1942 and affected more than 1000 soldiers at the Finish front. The published, precise analysis of the clinical picture was obviously the first description of hantavirus disease in the German language area. Nowadays, hantavirus disease - in Central and Northern Europe also known as Nephropathia epidemica - is one of the most frequent notifiable virus diseases in Germany and Finland.


Subject(s)
Communicable Diseases , Hantavirus Infections , Hemorrhagic Fever with Renal Syndrome , Humans , Language , World War II , Hemorrhagic Fever with Renal Syndrome/epidemiology , Disease Outbreaks , Hantavirus Infections/diagnosis , Hantavirus Infections/epidemiology
9.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 28(6): 1294-1296, 2022 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35608945

ABSTRACT

We screened 526 wild small mammals for zoonotic viruses in northwest Spain and found hantavirus in common voles (Microtus arvalis) (1.5%) and high prevalence (48%) of orthopoxvirus among western Mediterranean mice (Mus spretus). We also detected arenavirus among small mammals. These findings suggest novel risks for viral transmission in the region.


Subject(s)
Communicable Diseases , Hantavirus Infections , RNA Viruses , Rodent Diseases , Animals , Arvicolinae , Hantavirus Infections/epidemiology , Hantavirus Infections/veterinary , Mammals , Mice , Rodent Diseases/epidemiology , Spain/epidemiology , Viral Zoonoses , Zoonoses/epidemiology
10.
Medwave ; 22(3): e002526, 29-04-2022.
Article in English, Spanish | LILACS (Americas) | ID: biblio-1368125

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCCIÓN: El síndrome cardiopulmonar por hantavirus es una enfermedad causada por un virus perteneciente al orden bunyanvirales, y transmitida hacia los humanos a través de roedores. Esta enfermedad en Chile es considerada endémica, la cual tiene una alta tasa de letalidad. En la actualidad existen estudios que evidencian el contagio entre personas del virus Andes, cuya localidad se concentra en los países de Argentina y Chile. OBJETIVOS: Analizar la posibilidad de transmisión de hantavirus entre humanos, mediante un modelo matemático tipo SEIR. MÉTODOS: Se plantea un modelo matemático tipo SEIR (susceptible, expuesto, infeccioso y recuperado) para expresar la dinámica de la enfermedad por hantavirus, incluyendo la posibilidad de transmisión entre humanos y la percepción del riesgo. Resultados: El máximo de contagio entre humanos disminuye cerca de 25% tras aumentar la percepción de riesgo de las personas, mediante la reducción de la tasa de resistencia al cambio y aumento la velocidad de reaccionar de las personas. CONCLUSIONES: Es urgente revisar las estrategias de comunicación de riesgo y medidas de prevención ante esta posibilidad de contagios masivos entre humanos, además de fortalecer la investigación y proyectar el desarrollo de una vacuna para proteger las poblaciones expuestas a esta enfermedad con alta tasa de letalidad.


INTRODUCTION: Hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome is an infection caused by rodents of the Bunyanvirales family towards humans. This disease in Chile is considered endemic, which has a high fatality rate. At present, some studies show the contagion between people of the Andes virus, whose locality is concentrated in Argentina and Chile. OBJECTIVES: Analyze the possibility of hantavirus transmission between humans using an SEIR-type mathematical model. METHODS: An SEIR (Susceptible, Exposed, Infectious and Recovered) mathematical model to express the dynamics of hantavirus disease is proposed, including the possibility of human-to-human transmission and the perception of risk. RESULTS: The peak of human-to-human contagion decreases by about 25% after increasing people's perception of risk by reducing the rate of resistance to changeand increasing the speed of people's reaction. CONCLUSIONS: It is urgent to review risk communication strategies and prevention measures in the face of this possibility of massive human-tohuman infections, in addition to strengthening research and planning the development of a vaccine to protect populations exposed to this disease with a high fatality rate.


Subject(s)
Humans , Communicable Diseases , Hantavirus , Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome/epidemiology , Hantavirus Infections/epidemiology , Chile/epidemiology
11.
Medwave ; 22(3): e8722, 2022 Apr 26.
Article in Spanish, English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35507807

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome is an infection caused by rodents of the Bunyanvirales family towards humans. This disease in Chile is considered endemic, which has a high fatality rate. At present, some studies show the contagion between people of the Andes virus, whose locality is concentrated in Argentina and Chile. Objectives: Analyze the possibility of hantavirus transmission between humans using an SEIR-type mathematical model. Methods: An SEIR (Susceptible, Exposed, Infectious and Recovered) mathematical model to express the dynamics of hantavirus disease is proposed, including the possibility of human-to-human transmission and the perception of risk. Results: The peak of human-to-human contagion decreases by about 25% after increasing peoples perception of risk by reducing the rate of resistance to changeand increasing the speed of peoples reaction. Conclusions: It is urgent to review risk communication strategies and prevention measures in the face of this possibility of massive human-tohuman infections, in addition to strengthening research and planning the development of a vaccine to protect populations exposed to this disease with a high fatality rate.


Introducción: El síndrome cardiopulmonar por hantavirus es una enfermedad causada por un virus perteneciente al orden bunyanvirales, y transmitida hacia los humanos a través de roedores. Esta enfermedad en Chile es considerada endémica, la cual tiene una alta tasa de letalidad. En la actualidad existen estudios que evidencian el contagio entre personas del virus Andes, cuya localidad se concentra en los países de Argentina y Chile. Objetivos: Analizar la posibilidad de transmisión de hantavirus entre humanos, mediante un modelo matemático tipo SEIR. Métodos: Se plantea un modelo matemático tipo SEIR (susceptible, expuesto, infeccioso y recuperado) para expresar la dinámica de la enfermedad por hantavirus, incluyendo la posibilidad de transmisión entre humanos y la percepción del riesgo. Resultados: El máximo de contagio entre humanos disminuye cerca de 25% tras aumentar la percepción de riesgo de las personas, mediante la reducción de la tasa de resistencia al cambio y aumento la velocidad de reaccionar de las personas. Conclusiones: Es urgente revisar las estrategias de comunicación de riesgo y medidas de prevención ante esta posibilidad de contagios masivos entre humanos, además de fortalecer la investigación y proyectar el desarrollo de una vacuna para proteger las poblaciones expuestas a esta enfermedad con alta tasa de letalidad.


Subject(s)
Communicable Diseases , Hantavirus Infections , Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome , Chile/epidemiology , Hantavirus Infections/epidemiology , Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome/epidemiology , Humans
12.
Jpn J Infect Dis ; 75(5): 533-536, 2022 Sep 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35491227

ABSTRACT

Hantavirus hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) is an emerging zoonotic disease in Europe and Asia, which is clinically indistinguishable from leptospirosis. A total of 1,032 patients with clinical suspicion of HFRS-like illness were included in the analysis from March 2013 to March 2021. Of these, 168 were positive for hantavirus immunoglobulin M (IgM) antibodies. Thirty-one of 35 patients had a 4-fold increase in IgG antibody titer with paired serum, confirming acute hantavirus infections. The detected antibodies showed a diverse pattern, strongly cross-reacting with the Seoul, Hantaan, and Puumala virus antigens. All the IgM-positive patients had no serological evidence of acute dengue or leptospirosis and had classical features of HFRS, including fever, thrombocytopenia, and renal involvement. More than 90% of patients had a history of rodent exposure 2-3 weeks prior to the onset of the fever. The highest number of positive cases was diagnosed in the Western and North Central Provinces of Sri Lanka during the paddy harvesting seasons. A significant number of patients develop severe complications with high mortality rates. Therefore, hantavirus infection should be considered as a differential diagnosis for leptospirosis-like illnesses in Sri Lanka.


Subject(s)
Communicable Diseases , Hantavirus Infections , Hemorrhagic Fever with Renal Syndrome , Leptospirosis , Antibodies, Viral , Hantavirus Infections/diagnosis , Hantavirus Infections/epidemiology , Hemorrhagic Fever with Renal Syndrome/diagnosis , Hemorrhagic Fever with Renal Syndrome/epidemiology , Humans , Immunoglobulin G , Immunoglobulin M , Leptospirosis/diagnosis , Leptospirosis/epidemiology , Sri Lanka/epidemiology
13.
Viruses ; 14(4)2022 03 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35458412

ABSTRACT

Orthohantaviruses are negative-stranded RNA viruses with trisegmented genomes that can cause severe disease in humans and are carried by several host reservoirs throughout the world. Old World orthohantaviruses are primarily located throughout Europe and Asia, causing hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome, and New World orthohantaviruses are found in North, Central, and South America, causing hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome (HCPS). In the United States, Sin Nombre orthohantavirus (SNV) is the primary cause of HCPS with a fatality rate of ~36%. The primary SNV host reservoir is thought to be the North American deer mouse, Peromyscus maniculatus. However, it has been shown that other species of Peromyscus can carry different orthohantaviruses. Few studies have systemically surveyed which orthohantaviruses may exist in wild-caught rodents or monitored spillover events into additional rodent reservoirs. A method for the rapid detection of orthohantaviruses is needed to screen large collections of rodent samples. Here, we report a pan-orthohantavirus, two-step reverse-transcription quantitative real-time PCR (RT-qPCR) tool designed to detect both Old and New World pathogenic orthohantavirus sequences of the S segment of the genome and validated them using plasmids and authentic viruses. We then performed a screening of wild-caught rodents and identified orthohantaviruses in lung tissue, and we confirmed the findings by Sanger sequencing. Furthermore, we identified new rodent reservoirs that have not been previously reported as orthohantavirus carriers. This novel tool can be used for the efficient and rapid detection of various orthohantaviruses, while uncovering potential new orthohantaviruses and host reservoirs that may otherwise go undetected.


Subject(s)
Hantavirus Infections , Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome , Rodent Diseases , Sin Nombre virus , Animals , Disease Reservoirs , Hantavirus Infections/diagnosis , Hantavirus Infections/epidemiology , Hantavirus Infections/veterinary , Peromyscus , Rodent Diseases/epidemiology , Rodentia
14.
J Anim Ecol ; 91(6): 1290-1302, 2022 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35362148

ABSTRACT

Identifying reservoir host species is crucial for understanding the ecology of multi-host pathogens and predicting risks of pathogen spillover from wildlife to people. Predictive models are increasingly used for identifying ecological traits and prioritizing surveillance of likely zoonotic reservoirs, but these often employ different types of evidence for establishing host associations. Comparisons between models with different infection evidence are necessary to guide inferences about the trait profiles of likely hosts and identify which hosts and geographical regions are likely sources of spillover. Here, we use New World rodent-orthohantavirus associations to explore differences in the performance and predictions of models trained on two types of evidence for infection and onward transmission: RT-PCR and live virus isolation data, representing active infections versus host competence, respectively. Orthohantaviruses are primarily carried by muroid rodents and cause the diseases haemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) and hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome (HCPS) in humans. We show that although boosted regression tree (BRT) models trained on RT-PCR and live virus isolation data both performed well and capture generally similar trait profiles, rodent phylogeny influenced previously collected RT-PCR data, and BRTs using virus isolation data displayed a narrower list of predicted reservoirs than those using RT-PCR data. BRT models trained on RT-PCR data identified 138 undiscovered hosts and virus isolation models identified 92 undiscovered hosts, with 27 undiscovered hosts identified by both models. Distributions of predicted hosts were concentrated in several different regions for each model, with large discrepancies between evidence types. As a form of validation, virus isolation models independently predicted several orthohantavirus-rodent host associations that had been previously identified through empirical research using RT-PCR. Our model predictions provide a priority list of species and locations for future orthohantavirus sampling. More broadly, these results demonstrate the value of multiple data types for predicting zoonotic pathogen hosts. These methods can be applied across a range of systems to improve our understanding of pathogen maintenance and increase efficiency of pathogen surveillance.


Subject(s)
Hantavirus Infections , Rodent Diseases , Animals , Disease Reservoirs/veterinary , Hantavirus Infections/epidemiology , Humans , Phylogeny , Rodent Diseases/epidemiology , Rodentia
15.
Zoonoses Public Health ; 69(5): 579-586, 2022 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35312223

ABSTRACT

Puumala orthohantavirus (PUUV) is the most important hantavirus species in Europe, causing the majority of human hantavirus disease cases. In central and western Europe, the occurrence of human infections is mainly driven by bank vole population dynamics influenced by beech mast. In Germany, hantavirus epidemic years are observed in 2- to 5-year intervals. Many of the human infections are recorded in summer and early autumn, coinciding with peaks in bank vole populations. Here, we describe a molecular epidemiological investigation in a small company with eight employees of whom five contracted hantavirus infections in late 2017. Standardized interviews with employees were conducted to assess the circumstances under which the disease cluster occurred, how the employees were exposed and which counteractive measures were taken. Initially, two employees were admitted to hospital and serologically diagnosed with hantavirus infection. Subsequently, further investigations were conducted. By means of a self-administered questionnaire, three additional symptomatic cases could be identified. The hospital patients' sera were investigated and revealed in one patient a partial PUUV L segment sequence, which was identical to PUUV sequences from several bank voles collected in close proximity to company buildings. This investigation highlights the importance of a One Health approach that combines efforts from human and veterinary medicine, ecology and public health to reveal the origin of hantavirus disease clusters.


Subject(s)
Hantavirus Infections , Hemorrhagic Fever with Renal Syndrome , Puumala virus , Rodent Diseases , Animals , Arvicolinae , Disease Outbreaks , Hantavirus Infections/epidemiology , Hantavirus Infections/veterinary , Hemorrhagic Fever with Renal Syndrome/epidemiology , Hemorrhagic Fever with Renal Syndrome/veterinary , Humans , Rodent Diseases/epidemiology
16.
Dtsch Med Wochenschr ; 147(6): 312-318, 2022 Mar.
Article in German | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35291036

ABSTRACT

In addition to the well-known clinical early symptoms of hantavirus disease (fever, flank and abdominal pain as well as arthralgia), unusual neurological changes in the context of infection come into focus. The spectrum of neurological symptoms ranges from transient myopia to severe pareses in the context of Guillain-Barré syndrome. In endemic areas, rapid IgM tests for initial assessment are of certain value for differential diagnosis. For therapeutic approaches, only supportive measures up to transient dialysis are available.Molecular genetic analysis and comparison of hantavirus strains of patients and mice from the same geographical area allowed molecular characterization of different outbreak regions. In the meantime, the Puumala viruses of the main outbreak regions in Germany are molecularly well characterized; therefore, the nucleotide sequence of the virus strain detected in a patient makes it possible to draw conclusions about the geographic region where the patient's infection took place.The human pathogenic hantaviruses being prevalent in Germany are the Puumala virus (reservoir: bank vole) and the Dobrava-Belgrade virus, genotype Kurkino (reservoir: striped field mouse). Recently, the molecular detection of further hantaviruses in patients with hantavirus disease was achieved. It can be concluded that also the Seoul virus (reservoir: rats) and the Tulavirus (reservoir: field mouse and related species) occasionally cause hantavirus disease in Germany.New results revealed that human infections can occur not only by the generally accepted route of inhalation of virus-containing aerosols, but also by ingestion of virus-containing materials.For patients with hantavirus infection or disease, it can be assumed that they are not infectious for their environment. A new systematic review could not confirm a human-to-human transmission previously postulated for South American hantaviruses.While all known human pathogenic hantaviruses are transmitted by rodents, other hantaviruses have been recently detected in shrews, moles, and bats. The clinical significance of these new viruses is quite unclear as yet.


Subject(s)
Communicable Diseases , Hantavirus Infections , Animals , Communicable Diseases/complications , Disease Outbreaks , Germany/epidemiology , Hantavirus Infections/diagnosis , Hantavirus Infections/epidemiology , Humans , Mice , Rats
17.
PLoS One ; 17(3): e0264859, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35239751

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Hantaviruses (HVs) are major zoonotic pathogens in China that cause hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) posing a major threat to people's health. Hainan Province, an island located in Southeast China, is an ideal region for sea ports. The unique tropical monsoon climate in Hainan provides sufficient living conditions for rodents, which help spread HVs and other rodent-borne diseases. In the routine monitoring of hantavirus, there was no evidence that rodents in Hainan carried hantavirus. No patients infected with hantavirus were found in the past. However, the surveillance of HVs-carrying rodents covering the whole territory of Hainan has not stopped. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: For the monitoring of the prevalence of HVs in rodents and the search for theoretical reference for rodent control and HFRS prevention, a total of 60 rodents from 6 monitoring spots were trapped around main ports in Hainan between 2016 and 2019. HV positive samples were identified by a specific kit and sequenced. The data indicated that seven rodents (Rattus norvegicus) were positive for hantavirus with a positivity rate of 11.67%. Phylogenetic analysis suggested that the two complete sequence strains HN1 and HN4 in this research were highly similar to the sequence strains GZRn36 and GZRn148 isolated in Guangdong Province, and they located in the same phylogenetic tree branch which belongs to S2 subtype. Although the two partial sequences HT1 and HT2 isolated in Xisha Islands belong to S2 subtype according to the phylogenetic tree of L segment, they showed a great nucleotide difference with HN1 and HN4. We also found 13 amino acid variations compared with SEOV 80-39 and 6 amino acid mutations related to epitope, and the variations may reduce the effectiveness of the current HFRS vaccines used in humans. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The study indicated HVs carried by rodents found in Hainan Province may be transmitted from Guangdong Province through trading ports and carriage of goods by sea. So it is of great significance to strengthen the surveillance of rodents in port areas especially capture and eliminate rodents on ship. Timely elimination of host animals of hantavirus in port areas is necessary to prevent an outbreak of HVs disease.


Subject(s)
Hantavirus Infections , Hemorrhagic Fever with Renal Syndrome , Rodent Diseases , Amino Acids/genetics , Animals , China/epidemiology , Hantavirus Infections/epidemiology , Hantavirus Infections/veterinary , Humans , Phylogeny , Rats , Rodentia
18.
Infect Disord Drug Targets ; 22(3): e050122199975, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34986775

ABSTRACT

Hantaviruses are rodent viruses that have been identified as etiologic agents of 2 diseases in humans: Hemorrhagic Fever with Renal Syndrome (HFRS) and Nephropathiaepidemica (NE) in the Old World and Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome (HPS) in the New World. Orthohantavirus is a genus of single-stranded, enveloped, negative-sense RNA viruses in the family Hantaviridae of the order Bunyavirales. The important reservoir of Hantaviruses is rodents. Each virus serotype has its unique rodent host species and is transmitted to human beings with the aid of aerosolized virus, which is shed in urine, faeces and saliva and hardly by a bite of the contaminated host. Andes virus is the only Hantavirus identified to be transmitted from human-to-human and its major signs and symptoms include fever, headache, muscle aches, lungs filled with fluid, etc. In early 1993, this viral syndrome appeared in the Four Corner location in the southwestern United States. The only accepted therapeutics for this virus is Ribavirin. Recently, serological examinations to identify Hantavirus antibodies have become most popular for investigation among humans and rodent reservoirs.


Subject(s)
Communicable Diseases , Hantavirus Infections , Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome , Animals , Hantavirus Infections/diagnosis , Hantavirus Infections/epidemiology , Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome/epidemiology , Humans , Rodentia
19.
Semin Respir Crit Care Med ; 42(6): 822-827, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34918323

ABSTRACT

Hantaviruses are tri-segmented lipid-enveloped RNA viruses belonging to the Bunyaviridae family. Human infection corresponds to a zoonosis associated with two different clinical syndromes: hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome that occurs in Asia and Europe and hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome (HCPS) that occurs in the North America, Central America and South America. The major pathogenic mechanisms in HCPS include (1) direct microvascular endothelial injury leading to increased capillary permeability and the development of noncardiogenic pulmonary edema and acute respiratory distress syndrome, and (2) exaggerated host immune response leading to secondary organ damage. The incubation period for this disease is quite long (6-39 days, median: 18 days); however, rapid progression to respiratory failure and shock can occur highlighting the importance of high index of clinical suspicion. Management revolves around high-quality supportive care. Various management and preventative strategies are currently being explored and warrant further examination to improve the overall outlook following infection with hantavirus.


Subject(s)
Hantavirus Infections , Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome , Animals , Hantavirus Infections/diagnosis , Hantavirus Infections/epidemiology , Hantavirus Infections/therapy , Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome/diagnosis , Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome/epidemiology , Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome/therapy , Humans , Lung , Zoonoses
20.
Infect Dis (Lond) ; 54(4): 277-282, 2022 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34846983

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: There are emerging eosinophil-related considerations concerning viral infections. The role of eosinophils has poorly been evaluated during Hantavirus infection. METHODS: The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of eosinophilia (defined as an eosinophil count above 500 cells/mm3) during haemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) in a large cohort of patients, and to identify factors associated with eosinophilia. RESULTS: Among 387 patients hospitalized for HFRS, 98 (25.3%) had eosinophilia. By univariate analysis, eosinophilia was significantly associated with more severe thrombocytopenia, high C-reactive protein level, white blood cell count and neutrophil count and lower nephrotoxic drug intake. As there was a collinearity between white blood cell count and C-reactive protein level, only C-reactive protein level with platelet count and nephrotoxic drug intake were entered in the multivariable analysis. Elevated C-reactive protein concentrations remained independently associated with eosinophilia. CONCLUSION: Eosinophilia during HFRS affects one quarter of patients, and supports the role of eosinophils in antiviral immunity against hantavirus infection.


Subject(s)
Eosinophilia , Hantavirus Infections , Hemorrhagic Fever with Renal Syndrome , Puumala virus , C-Reactive Protein , Cohort Studies , Eosinophilia/complications , Eosinophilia/epidemiology , Hantavirus Infections/complications , Hantavirus Infections/epidemiology , Humans
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