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1.
PLoS One ; 17(2): e0263705, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1869155

ABSTRACT

The world is experiencing one of the most severe viral outbreaks in the last few years, the pandemic infection by SARS-CoV-2, the causative agent of COVID-19 disease. As of December 10th 2021, the virus has spread worldwide, with a total number of more than 267 million of confirmed cases (four times more in the last year), and more than 5 million deaths. A great effort has been undertaken to molecularly characterize the virus, track the spreading of different variants across the globe with the aim to understand the potential effects in terms of transmission capability and different fatality rates. Here we focus on the genomic diversity and distribution of the virus in the early stages of the pandemic, to better characterize the origin of COVID-19 and to define the geographical and temporal evolution of genetic clades. By performing a comparative analysis of 75401 SARS-CoV-2 reported sequences (as of December 2020), using as reference the first viral sequence reported in Wuhan in December 2019, we described the existence of 26538 genetic variants, the most frequent clustering into four major clades characterized by a specific geographical distribution. Notably, we found the most frequent variant, the previously reported missense p.Asp614Gly in the S protein, as a single mutation in only three patients, whereas in the large majority of cases it occurs in concomitance with three other variants, suggesting a high linkage and that this variant alone might not provide a significant selective advantage to the virus. Moreover, we evaluated the presence and the distribution in our dataset of the mutations characterizing the so called "british variant", identified at the beginning of 2021, and observed that 9 out of 17 are present only in few sequences, but never in linkage with each other, suggesting a synergistic effect in this new viral strain. In summary, this is a large-scale analysis of SARS-CoV-2 deposited sequences, with a particular focus on the geographical and temporal evolution of genetic clades in the early phase of COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
Genetic Variation , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , COVID-19/virology , Evolution, Molecular , Genome, Viral , Genomics , Haplotypes , Humans , Mutation , Pandemics , Phylogeny , Phylogeography , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics
2.
Front Immunol ; 13: 891147, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1822364

ABSTRACT

Sardinia has one of the lowest incidences of hospitalization and related mortality in Europe and yet a very high frequency of the Neanderthal risk locus variant on chromosome 3 (rs35044562), considered to be a major risk factor for a severe SARS-CoV-2 disease course. We evaluated 358 SARS-CoV-2 patients and 314 healthy Sardinian controls. One hundred and twenty patients were asymptomatic, 90 were pauci-symptomatic, 108 presented a moderate disease course and 40 were severely ill. All patients were analyzed for the Neanderthal-derived genetic variants reported as being protective (rs1156361) or causative (rs35044562) for severe illness. The ß°39 C>T Thalassemia variant (rs11549407), HLA haplotypes, KIR genes, KIRs and their HLA class I ligand combinations were also investigated. Our findings revealed an increased risk for severe disease in Sardinian patients carrying the rs35044562 high risk variant [OR 5.32 (95% CI 2.53 - 12.01), p = 0.000]. Conversely, the protective effect of the HLA-A*02:01, B*18:01, DRB*03:01 three-loci extended haplotype in the Sardinian population was shown to efficiently contrast the high risk of a severe and devastating outcome of the infection predicted for carriers of the Neanderthal locus [OR 15.47 (95% CI 5.8 - 41.0), p < 0.0001]. This result suggests that the balance between risk and protective immunogenetic factors plays an important role in the evolution of COVID-19. A better understanding of these mechanisms may well turn out to be the biggest advantage in the race for the development of more efficient drugs and vaccines.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Neanderthals , Animals , COVID-19/genetics , Haplotypes , Humans , Neanderthals/genetics , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2
3.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 7381, 2022 05 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1821598

ABSTRACT

Bitter taste receptor TAS2R38 is expressed in the respiratory tract and can respond to quorum-sensing molecules produced by pathogens, stimulating the release of nitric oxide, with biocidal activity. TAS2R38 presents two main high-frequency haplotypes: the "taster" PAV and the "non-taster" AVI. Individuals carrying the AVI allele could be at greater risk of infections, including SARS-CoV-2. The aim of this study was to assess the frequency of PAV and AVI alleles in COVID-19 patients with severe or non-severe symptoms compared to healthy subjects to further corroborate, or not, the hypothesis that the PAV allele may act as a protecting factor towards SARS-CoV-2 infection while the AVI one may represent a risk factor. After careful selection, 54 individuals were included in the study and underwent genetic analysis and PROP phenotype assessment. Our investigation could not point out at a significant relationship between single nucleotide polymorphisms responsible for PROP bitterness and presence/severity of SARS-CoV-2 infection, as previous studies suggested. Our results uncouple the direct genetic contribution of rs10246939, rs1726866 and rs713598 on COVID-19, calling for caution when proposing a treatment based on TAS2R38 phenotypes.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Taste , COVID-19/genetics , Genotype , Haplotypes , Humans , Phenotype , Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide , Receptors, G-Protein-Coupled/genetics , SARS-CoV-2 , Taste/genetics , Taste Perception/genetics
4.
Hum Immunol ; 83(7): 547-550, 2022 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1814486

ABSTRACT

In this population-based case-control study conducted in the Chelyabinsk region of Russia, we examined the distribution of HLA-A, -B, -C, -DRB1, -DQB1 and -DPB1, in a group of 100 patients with confirmed COVID-19 bilateral pneumonia. Typing was performed by NGS and statistical calculations were carried out with the Arlequin program. HLA-A, -B, -C, -DRB1, -DQB1 and -DPB1 alleles were compared between patients with COVID-19 and 99 healthy controls. We identified that COVID-19 susceptibility is associated with alleles and genotypes rs9277534A (disequilibrium with HLA-DPB1*02:01, -02:02, -04:01, -04:02, -17:01 alleles) with low expression of protein products HLA-DPB1 (pc < 0.028) and homozygosity at HLA-C*04 (p = 0.024, pc = 0.312). Allele HLA-A*01:01 was decreased in a group of patients with severe forms of bilateral pneumonia, and therefore it may be considered as a protective factor for the development of severe symptoms of COVID-19 (p = 0.009, pc = 0.225). Our studies provide further evidence for the functional association between HLA genes and COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Histocompatibility Antigens Class I , Alleles , COVID-19/genetics , COVID-19/immunology , Case-Control Studies , Gene Frequency , HLA-A Antigens/genetics , HLA-A Antigens/immunology , HLA-B Antigens/genetics , HLA-B Antigens/immunology , HLA-C Antigens/genetics , HLA-C Antigens/immunology , HLA-D Antigens/genetics , HLA-D Antigens/metabolism , Haplotypes , Histocompatibility Antigens Class I/genetics , Histocompatibility Antigens Class I/immunology , Humans
5.
J Infect Chemother ; 28(7): 1001-1004, 2022 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1778297

ABSTRACT

A concern has been raised that the persistent COVID-19 infection in an immunocompromised host can be the source of the SARS-CoV-2 variants. This is the case of a 61-year-old man in complete remission of a follicular lymphoma after six cycles of rituximab and bendamustine with additional two cycles of rituximab completed eight months prior to the episode of COVID-19 pneumonia. The patient's respiratory failure was long-lasting, and required mechanical ventilation until day 75. Acquired immunity tested negative throughout the observational period. The viral RNA was detectable until day 100 while the infectious virus was isolated until day 79. Seven haplotypes were identified and the non-synonymous mutations accumulated in the spike gene which included E484Q and S494P. In the management of COVID-19 cases with suppressed immune statuses, initial evaluation of existing immunity and monitoring for infectiousness throughout the clinical course including the convalescent stage may be necessary.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Haplotypes , Humans , Immunocompromised Host , Male , Middle Aged , Rituximab/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2/genetics
6.
J Virol ; 94(13)2020 06 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1723544

ABSTRACT

Genetic variability across the three major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I genes (human leukocyte antigen A [HLA-A], -B, and -C genes) may affect susceptibility to and severity of the disease caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), the virus responsible for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). We performed a comprehensive in silico analysis of viral peptide-MHC class I binding affinity across 145 HLA-A, -B, and -C genotypes for all SARS-CoV-2 peptides. We further explored the potential for cross-protective immunity conferred by prior exposure to four common human coronaviruses. The SARS-CoV-2 proteome was successfully sampled and was represented by a diversity of HLA alleles. However, we found that HLA-B*46:01 had the fewest predicted binding peptides for SARS-CoV-2, suggesting that individuals with this allele may be particularly vulnerable to COVID-19, as they were previously shown to be for SARS (M. Lin, H.-T. Tseng, J. A. Trejaut, H.-L. Lee, et al., BMC Med Genet 4:9, 2003, https://bmcmedgenet.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/1471-2350-4-9). Conversely, we found that HLA-B*15:03 showed the greatest capacity to present highly conserved SARS-CoV-2 peptides that are shared among common human coronaviruses, suggesting that it could enable cross-protective T-cell-based immunity. Finally, we reported global distributions of HLA types with potential epidemiological ramifications in the setting of the current pandemic.IMPORTANCE Individual genetic variation may help to explain different immune responses to a virus across a population. In particular, understanding how variation in HLA may affect the course of COVID-19 could help identify individuals at higher risk from the disease. HLA typing can be fast and inexpensive. Pairing HLA typing with COVID-19 testing where feasible could improve assessment of severity of viral disease in the population. Following the development of a vaccine against SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes COVID-19, individuals with high-risk HLA types could be prioritized for vaccination.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Histocompatibility Testing/methods , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Amino Acid Sequence , COVID-19 , COVID-19 Testing , Clinical Laboratory Techniques , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Epitopes, T-Lymphocyte/immunology , Genetic Variation , Genotype , Haplotypes , Histocompatibility Antigens Class I/genetics , Histocompatibility Antigens Class I/immunology , Humans , Immunity, Innate/immunology , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , SARS-CoV-2 , T-Lymphocytes/immunology
7.
Hum Immunol ; 83(1): 10-16, 2022 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1719803

ABSTRACT

Genetic differences among individuals could affect the clinical presentations and outcomes of COVID-19. Human Leukocyte Antigens are associated with COVID-19 susceptibility, severity, and prognosis. This study aimed to identify HLA-B and -C genotypes among 69 Egyptian patients with COVID-19 and correlate them with disease outcomes and other clinical and laboratory data. HLA-B and -C typing was performed using Luminex-based HLA typing kits. Forty patients (58%) had severe COVID-19; 55% of these patients died, without reported mortality in the moderate group. The alleles associated with severe COVID-19 were HLA-B*41, -B*42, -C*16, and -C*17, whereas HLA-B*15, -C*7, and -C*12 were significantly associated with protection against mortality. Regression analysis showed that HLA-B*15 was the only allele associated with predicted protection against mortality, where the likelihood of survival increased with HLA-B*15 (P < 0.001). Patient survival was less likely to occur with higher total leukocytic count, ferritin, and creatinine levels. This study provides interesting insights into the association between HLA class I alleles and protection from or severity of COVID-19 through immune response modulation. This is the first study to investigate this relationship in Egyptian patients. More studies are needed to understand how HLA class I alleles interact and affect Cytotoxic T lymphocytes and natural killer cell function.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/genetics , HLA-B15 Antigen/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Aged , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/virology , Egypt , Female , Genetic Predisposition to Disease , HLA-B15 Antigen/immunology , Haplotypes , Host-Pathogen Interactions , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Predictive Value of Tests , Prognosis , Protective Factors , Risk Assessment , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Severity of Illness Index , Time Factors
8.
Hum Immunol ; 83(1): 1-9, 2022 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1719801

ABSTRACT

The class I and class II Human Leucocyte Antigens (HLA) are an integral part of the host adaptive immune system against viral infections. The characterization of HLA allele frequency in the population can play an important role in determining whether HLA antigens contribute to viral susceptibility. In this regard, global efforts are currently underway to study possible correlations between HLA alleles with the occurrence and severity of SARS-CoV-2 infection. Specifically, this study examined the possible association between specific HLA alleles and susceptibility to SARS-CoV-2 in a population from the United Arab Emirates (UAE). The frequencies of HLA class I (HLA-A, -B, and -C) and HLA class II alleles (HLA-DRB1 and -DQB1); defined using Next Generation Sequencing (NGS); from 115 UAE nationals with mild, moderate, and severe SARS-CoV-2 infection are presented here. HLA alleles and supertypes were compared between hospitalized and non-hospitalized subjects. Statistical significance was observed between certain HLA alleles and supertypes and the severity of the infection. Specifically, alleles HLA-B*51:01 and HLA-A*26:01 showed a negative association (suggestive of protection), whilst genotypes HLA-A*03:01, HLA-DRB1*15:01, and supertype B44 showed a positive association (suggestive of predisposition) to COVID-19 severity. The results support the potential use of HLA testing to differentiate between patients who require specific clinical management strategies.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/genetics , HLA Antigens/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/virology , Female , Gene Frequency , Genetic Predisposition to Disease , HLA Antigens/immunology , Haplotypes , Host-Pathogen Interactions , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Protective Factors , Risk Assessment , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Severity of Illness Index , United Arab Emirates , Young Adult
9.
Viruses ; 14(3)2022 02 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1699562

ABSTRACT

The scale of SARS-CoV-2 infection and death is so enormous that further study of the molecular and evolutionary characteristics of SARS-CoV-2 will help us better understand and respond to SARS-CoV-2 outbreaks. The present study analyzed the epidemic and evolutionary characteristics of haplotype subtypes or regions based on 1.8 million high-quality SARS-CoV-2 genomic data. The estimated ratio of the rates of non-synonymous to synonymous changes (Ka/Ks) in North America and the United States were always more than 1.0, while the Ka/Ks in other continents and countries showed a sharp decline, then a slow increase to 1.0, and a dramatic increase over time. H1 (B.1) with the highest substitution rate has become the most dominant haplotype subtype since March 2020 and has evolved into multiple haplotype subtypes with smaller substitution rates. Many evolutionary characteristics of early SARS-CoV-2, such as H3 being the only early haplotype subtype that existed for the shortest time, the global prevalence of H1 and H1-5 (B.1.1) within a month after being detected, and many high divergent genome sequences early in February 2020, indicate the missing of early SARS-CoV-2 genomic data. SARS-CoV-2 experienced dynamic selection from December 2019 to August 2021 and has been under strong positive selection since May 2021. Its transmissibility and the ability of immune escape may be greatly enhanced over time. This will bring greater challenges to the control of the pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/epidemiology , Haplotypes , Humans , Mutation, Missense , Phylogeny , SARS-CoV-2/genetics
10.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 119(9)2022 03 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1699265

ABSTRACT

There are genetic risk factors that influence the outcome of COVID-19 [COVID-19 Host Genetics Initiative, Nature 600, 472-477 (2021)]. The major genetic risk factor for severe COIVD-19 resides on chromosome 3 and is inherited from Neandertals [H. Zeberg, S. Pääbo, Nature 587, 610-612 (2020)]. The risk-associated DNA segment modulates the expression of several chemokine receptors, among them CCR5, a coreceptor for HIV which is down-regulated in carriers of the COVID-19 risk haplotype. Here I show that carriers of the risk variant have an ∼27% lower risk of HIV infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/genetics , Chromosomes, Human, Pair 3/genetics , HIV Infections/genetics , HIV-1 , Haplotypes , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/prevention & control , HIV Infections/prevention & control , Humans , Patient Acuity , Risk Factors
11.
Ann Med ; 54(1): 617-621, 2022 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1692413

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), an acute respiratory disease caused by a novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2), is emerging as a worldwide public health emergency. Several scientific contributions reported the potential relevance of human leukocyte antigen (HLA) polymorphism and susceptibility to viruses, such as SARS-CoV. In our study, we examined a population of coeliac subjects presenting the HLA haplotype DQ2 and/or DQ8. Our aim was to evaluate whether HLA DQ2 and/or DQ8 haplotype play a role in SARS-CoV-2-infection. The aim was also to evaluate the difficulty in following the gluten-free diet due to all the adversities produced by the pandemic, such as the food supply disruption, and the difficulties in managing the clinical follow-up. METHODS: 191 consecutive coeliac patients completed a questionnaire on their current clinical status, psychological effects, and management of the gluten-free diet experienced during the COVID-19 pandemic and questions regarding possible SARS-CoV-2 infection. RESULTS: Out of the 191 patients who participated in the study, 42 were full-blown coeliac and 149 were in remission. From the answers provided, 84.8% of patients declared that they no longer consider themselves vulnerable to COVID-19 as they suffer from coeliac disease; 94.2% of patients did not encounter any difficulties in managing the gluten-free diet or in acquiring specific foods and 64.9% of patients in our study underwent diagnostic testing for SARS-CoV-2. Out of this number, 31.5% did so due to contacts with subjects affected by COVID-19, 26.6% for work related reasons, 11.3% due to flu-like symptoms and 30.6% for other reasons. Only 5.8% of the enrolled patients received a diagnosis of COVID-19. Out of all the patients in our population who were diagnosed with COVID-19, 94.8% developed no symptoms and none of them needed hospitalization or intensive care. CONCLUSION: The hypothesis that the HLADQ2 and/or DQ8 haplotype plays a protective role against SARS-CoV-2 infection, as against other viral infections, is intriguingly suggestive.KEY MESSAGESCOVID-19 as a public health emergency;SARS-CoV-2 and possible complications in coeliac disease;Role of HLA DQ2 and/or DQ8 in SARS-CoV-2 infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Celiac Disease , HLA-DQ Antigens/genetics , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/genetics , Celiac Disease/diagnosis , Celiac Disease/epidemiology , Celiac Disease/genetics , Critical Care , Haplotypes , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
12.
Viruses ; 14(2)2022 02 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1687058

ABSTRACT

In February 2020, the municipality of Vo', a small town near Padua (Italy) was quarantined due to the first coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19)-related death detected in Italy. To investigate the viral prevalence and clinical features, the entire population was swab tested in two sequential surveys. Here we report the analysis of 87 viral genomes, which revealed that the unique ancestor haplotype introduced in Vo' belongs to lineage B, carrying the mutations G11083T and G26144T. The viral sequences allowed us to investigate the viral evolution while being transmitted within and across households and the effectiveness of the non-pharmaceutical interventions implemented in Vo'. We report, for the first time, evidence that novel viral haplotypes can naturally arise intra-host within an interval as short as two weeks, in approximately 30% of the infected individuals, regardless of symptom severity or immune system deficiencies. Moreover, both phylogenetic and minimum spanning network analyses converge on the hypothesis that the viral sequences evolved from a unique common ancestor haplotype that was carried by an index case. The lockdown extinguished both the viral spread and the emergence of new variants.


Subject(s)
Family Characteristics , Genome, Viral , Haplotypes , Host Microbial Interactions/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/transmission , COVID-19/virology , Communicable Disease Control/methods , Evolution, Molecular , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , Mutation , Phylogeny , SARS-CoV-2/classification
13.
J Diabetes Investig ; 13(6): 1105-1108, 2022 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1685351

ABSTRACT

The vaccine for the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has been reported to potentially cause or worsen diabetes. A 73-year-old Japanese woman received two doses of Moderna COVID-19 vaccine. Four weeks after the second vaccination, her glycemic control began to deteriorate, and 8 weeks after the second vaccination, the patient was diagnosed with new-onset type 1 diabetes that was strongly positive for autoantibodies and showed a disease-susceptible human leukocyte antigen haplotype, DRB1*04:05:01-DQB1*04:01:01. The glucagon stimulation test suggested an insulin-dependent state, and induction of intensive insulin therapy brought about fair glycemic control. The time period from the COVID-19 vaccination to the development of type 1 diabetes was relatively longer than to the onset or exacerbation of type 2 diabetes, as previously reported, suggesting the complicated immunological mechanisms for the destruction of ß-cells associated with the vaccination. In recipients with the disease-susceptible haplotypes, one should be cautious about autoimmune responses for several months after the vaccination.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1 , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Aged , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/etiology , Female , Genetic Predisposition to Disease , Haplotypes , Humans , Insulin/genetics , Vaccination/adverse effects
14.
HLA ; 99(3): 183-191, 2022 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1621962

ABSTRACT

The polymorphism of the HLA system has been extensively studied in COVID-19 infection, however there are no data about the role of HLA on vaccine response. We report here the HLA-A, -B, -C, and DRB1 allelic frequencies of n = 111 individuals after BNT162b2 mRNA vaccine, selected on the basis of lower antibody levels (<5% percentile) after the second dose among a total of n = 2569 vaccinees, and compare them with the frequencies of a reference population. We found that differences in the frequencies of the alleles HLA-A*03:01, A*33:03, B*58:01 and at least one haplotype (HLA-A*24:02~C*07:01~B*18:01~DRB1*11:04) are associated with a weaker antibody response after vaccination, together with the age of vaccinees. Our results might suggest a role played by some HLA alleles or haplotypes in antibody production after the BNT162b2 mRNA vaccine, giving insights into the tracking of potentially susceptible individuals across populations. Further studies are needed to better define our exploratory findings and dissect the role of HLA polymorphism on response to anti-COVID-19 vaccines.


Subject(s)
Antibody Formation , COVID-19 , HLA-DRB1 Chains , Alleles , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Gene Frequency , HLA-DRB1 Chains/genetics , Haplotypes , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccines, Synthetic/immunology
15.
Nucleic Acids Res ; 49(17): e102, 2021 09 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1594917

ABSTRACT

Rapidly evolving RNA viruses continuously produce minority haplotypes that can become dominant if they are drug-resistant or can better evade the immune system. Therefore, early detection and identification of minority viral haplotypes may help to promptly adjust the patient's treatment plan preventing potential disease complications. Minority haplotypes can be identified using next-generation sequencing, but sequencing noise hinders accurate identification. The elimination of sequencing noise is a non-trivial task that still remains open. Here we propose CliqueSNV based on extracting pairs of statistically linked mutations from noisy reads. This effectively reduces sequencing noise and enables identifying minority haplotypes with the frequency below the sequencing error rate. We comparatively assess the performance of CliqueSNV using an in vitro mixture of nine haplotypes that were derived from the mutation profile of an existing HIV patient. We show that CliqueSNV can accurately assemble viral haplotypes with frequencies as low as 0.1% and maintains consistent performance across short and long bases sequencing platforms.


Subject(s)
Algorithms , Computational Biology/methods , Haplotypes , High-Throughput Nucleotide Sequencing/methods , RNA Virus Infections/diagnosis , RNA Viruses/genetics , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/virology , Gene Frequency , HIV Infections/diagnosis , HIV Infections/virology , HIV-1/genetics , Humans , Mutation , Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide , RNA Virus Infections/virology , Reproducibility of Results , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Sensitivity and Specificity
16.
Viruses ; 14(1)2021 12 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1580415

ABSTRACT

The emergence and establishment of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) variants of interest (VOIs) and variants of concern (VOCs) highlight the importance of genomic surveillance. We propose a statistical learning strategy (SLS) for identifying and spatiotemporally tracking potentially relevant Spike protein mutations. We analyzed 167,893 Spike protein sequences from coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) cases in the United States (excluding 21,391 sequences from VOI/VOC strains) deposited at GISAID from 19 January 2020 to 15 March 2021. Alignment against the reference Spike protein sequence led to the identification of viral residue variants (VRVs), i.e., residues harboring a substitution compared to the reference strain. Next, generalized additive models were applied to model VRV temporal dynamics and to identify VRVs with significant and substantial dynamics (false discovery rate q-value < 0.01; maximum VRV proportion >10% on at least one day). Unsupervised learning was then applied to hierarchically organize VRVs by spatiotemporal patterns and identify VRV-haplotypes. Finally, homology modeling was performed to gain insight into the potential impact of VRVs on Spike protein structure. We identified 90 VRVs, 71 of which had not previously been observed in a VOI/VOC, and 35 of which have emerged recently and are durably present. Our analysis identified 17 VRVs ~91 days earlier than their first corresponding VOI/VOC publication. Unsupervised learning revealed eight VRV-haplotypes of four VRVs or more, suggesting two emerging strains (B1.1.222 and B.1.234). Structural modeling supported a potential functional impact of the D1118H and L452R mutations. The SLS approach equally monitors all Spike residues over time, independently of existing phylogenic classifications, and is complementary to existing genomic surveillance methods.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/virology , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Amino Acid Sequence , COVID-19/epidemiology , Haplotypes , Humans , Models, Molecular , Models, Statistical , Mutation , SARS-CoV-2/classification , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Spatio-Temporal Analysis , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry , United States/epidemiology , Unsupervised Machine Learning
17.
Front Cell Infect Microbiol ; 11: 715143, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1551489

ABSTRACT

Background: Recently, more patients who recovered from the novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) may later test positive for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) again using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) testing. Even though it is still controversial about the possible explanation for clinical cases of long-term viral shedding, it remains unclear whether the persistent viral shedding means re-infection or recurrence. Methods: Specimens were collected from three COVID-19-confirmed patients, and whole-genome sequencing was performed on these clinical specimens during their first hospital admission with a high viral load of SARS-CoV-2. Laboratory tests were examined and analyzed throughout the whole course of the disease. Phylogenetic analysis was carried out for SARS-CoV-2 haplotypes. Results: We found haplotypes of SARS-CoV-2 co-infection in two COVID-19 patients (YW01 and YW03) with a long period of hospitalization. However, only one haplotype was observed in the other patient with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (YW02), which was verified as one kind of viral haplotype. Patients YW01 and YW02 were admitted to the hospital after being infected with COVID-19 as members of a family cluster, but they had different haplotype characteristics in the early stage of infection; YW01 and YW03 were from different infection sources; however, similar haplotypes were found together. Conclusion: These findings show that haplotype diversity of SARS-CoV-2 may result in viral adaptation for persistent shedding in multiple recurrences of COVID-19 patients, who met the discharge requirement. However, the correlation between haplotype diversity of SARS-CoV-2 virus and immune status is not absolute. It showed important implications for the clinical management strategies for COVID-19 patients with long-term hospitalization or cases of recurrence.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Haplotypes , Humans , Phylogeny , RNA, Viral/genetics , SARS-CoV-2 , Virus Shedding
18.
PLoS One ; 16(12): e0260714, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1546965

ABSTRACT

The first confirmed case of COVID-19 in Quebec, Canada, occurred at Verdun Hospital on February 25, 2020. A month later, a localized outbreak was observed at this hospital. We performed tiled amplicon whole genome nanopore sequencing on nasopharyngeal swabs from all SARS-CoV-2 positive samples from 31 March to 17 April 2020 in 2 local hospitals to assess viral diversity (unknown at the time in Quebec) and potential associations with clinical outcomes. We report 264 viral genomes from 242 individuals-both staff and patients-with associated clinical features and outcomes, as well as longitudinal samples and technical replicates. Viral lineage assessment identified multiple subclades in both hospitals, with a predominant subclade in the Verdun outbreak, indicative of hospital-acquired transmission. Dimensionality reduction identified two subclades with mutations of clinical interest, namely in the Spike protein, that evaded supervised lineage assignment methods-including Pangolin and NextClade supervised lineage assignment tools. We also report that certain symptoms (headache, myalgia and sore throat) are significantly associated with favorable patient outcomes. Our findings demonstrate the strength of unsupervised, data-driven analyses whilst suggesting that caution should be used when employing supervised genomic workflows, particularly during the early stages of a pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/virology , Cross Infection/virology , Disease Outbreaks , Genome, Viral/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/mortality , Child , Child, Preschool , Cross Infection/epidemiology , Disease Outbreaks/statistics & numerical data , Female , Haplotypes/genetics , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Phylogeny , Quebec/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Sequence Analysis, RNA , Treatment Outcome , Young Adult
19.
J Med Virol ; 94(1): 161-172, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1544335

ABSTRACT

Detailed information on intrahost viral evolution in SARS-CoV-2 with and without treatment is limited. Sequential viral loads and deep sequencing of SARS-CoV-2 from the upper respiratory tract of nine hospitalized children, three of whom were treated with remdesivir, revealed that remdesivir treatment suppressed viral load in one patient but not in a second infected with an identical strain without any evidence of drug resistance found. Reduced levels of subgenomic RNA during treatment of the second patient, suggest an additional effect of remdesivir on viral replication. Haplotype reconstruction uncovered persistent SARS-CoV-2 variant genotypes in four patients. These likely arose from within-host evolution, although superinfection cannot be excluded in one case. Although our dataset is small, observed sample-to-sample heterogeneity in variant frequencies across four of nine patients suggests the presence of discrete viral populations in the lung with incomplete population sampling in diagnostic swabs. Such compartmentalization could compromise the penetration of remdesivir into the lung, limiting the drugs in vivo efficacy, as has been observed in other lung infections.


Subject(s)
Adenosine Monophosphate/analogs & derivatives , Alanine/analogs & derivatives , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/virology , Evolution, Molecular , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Adenosine Monophosphate/therapeutic use , Adolescent , Alanine/therapeutic use , Child , Child, Preschool , Drug Resistance, Viral , Female , Haplotypes , Humans , Infant , Lung/virology , Male , Phylogeny , RNA, Viral/analysis , RNA, Viral/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Viral Load , Virus Replication/drug effects
20.
Infect Genet Evol ; 97: 105164, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1536954

ABSTRACT

The widespread severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) continuously impacts our economic and public health. The potential of emerging variants to increase transmissibility and evade vaccine-induced immunity lets us put more effort to research on viral mutations and explore the pathogenic haplotypes. In this study, we characterized the haplotype and sub-haplotype diversity of SARS-CoV-2 global variants in January-March and the areas with low and high COVID19 vaccination rates in May 2021 by analyzing viral proteome of complete genome sequences published. Phylogenetic tree analysis of the proteomes of SARS-CoV-2 variants with Neighbor-Joining and Maximum Parsimony methods indicated that haplotype 2 variant with nsp12 P323L and Spike D614G was dominant (98.81%), including new sub-haplotypes 2A_1 to 2A_3, 2B_1 to 2B_3, and 2C_1 to 2C_2 emerged post-one-year COVID-19 outbreak. In addition, the profiling of sub-haplotypes indicated that sub-haplotype 2A_1 with the mutations at N501Y, A570D, D614G, P681H, T716I, S982A, and D118H in Spike was over 58% in May 2021 in the high partly vaccinated rate group (US, Canada, and Germany). Meanwhile, the new haplotype 2C_3 bearing the mutations at EFR156-158del, T19R, A222V, L452R, T478K, and D614G in Spike occupied over 54.8% in May 2021 in the low partly vaccinated rate group (India, Malaysia, Taiwan, and Vietnam). Sub-haplotypes 2A_1 and 2C_3 had a meaningful alternation of ACE2-specific recognition site, neutralization epitopes, and furin cleavage site in SARS-CoV-2 Spike protein. The results discovered the haplotype diversity and new sub-haplotypes of SARS-CoV-2 variants post one-year pandemic in January-March 2021, showing the profiles of sub-haplotypes in the groups with low and high partly vaccinated rates in May 2021. The study reports the emergence of new SARS-CoV-2 sub-haplotypes during ongoing pandemic and vaccination in early 2021, which might help inform the response to vaccination strategies.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Mutation , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Americas/epidemiology , Amino Acid Substitution , Asia/epidemiology , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/transmission , Epidemiological Monitoring , Europe/epidemiology , Gene Expression , Genome, Viral , Haplotypes , Humans , Immune Evasion , Models, Molecular , Phylogeny , Protein Interaction Domains and Motifs , SARS-CoV-2/classification , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Vaccination Coverage/statistics & numerical data
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