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1.
Front Public Health ; 10: 778002, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1775982

ABSTRACT

This study divided the impact of energy consumption revolution on farmers' happiness into direct and indirect effects. We empirically tested these effects using the Chinese General Social Survey (CGSS) household data in 2015 and the mediation-moderation model. The results showed that: (1) The rural energy consumption revolution has increased the probability of farmers' happiness level by 22.7%. The direct effects with obvious marginal decrement accounted for the main part (over 90%) of the total effect, but the multi-dimensional mediating mechanism was not yet robust. (2) The revolution of rural energy consumption has slightly improved farmers' happiness through the mediating role of increased leisure activities, while the negative impact of increased use-cost on the happiness of low-income farmers was nearly significant. (3) Regional economy, household income, and energy type played negative roles when moderating the above process. To low-income households in the less-developed western region, the total effects were more evident in the aspect of electricity use. Hence, several policy recommendations have been further made, including inclusive energy and strategic synergies.


Subject(s)
Energy-Generating Resources , Farmers , Happiness , China , Humans , Rural Population
2.
PLoS One ; 17(3): e0261056, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1770728

ABSTRACT

The relationship between nature contact and mental well-being has received increasing attention in recent years. While a body of evidence has accumulated demonstrating a positive relationship between time in nature and mental well-being, there have been few studies comparing this relationship in different locations over long periods of time. In this study, we analyze over 1.5 million tweets to estimate a happiness benefit, the difference in expressed happiness between in- and out-of-park tweets, for the 25 largest cities in the US by population. People write happier words during park visits when compared with non-park user tweets collected around the same time. While the words people write are happier in parks on average and in most cities, we find considerable variation across cities. Tweets are happier in parks at all times of the day, week, and year, not just during the weekend or summer vacation. Across all cities, we find that the happiness benefit is highest in parks larger than 100 acres. Overall, our study suggests the happiness benefit associated with park visitation is on par with US holidays such as Thanksgiving and New Year's Day.


Subject(s)
Parks, Recreational , Social Media , Cities , Happiness , Humans , Recreation , Urban Population
3.
Environ Health Prev Med ; 27(0): 14, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1759811

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Happiness may help to prevent negative physiological outcomes in response to life events; however, factors contributing to happiness during the COVID-19 pandemic have not been longitudinally investigated. This study explored the predictors of happiness in mothers of young children in Japan using comparable data that were obtained before and during the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: We conducted the baseline survey in February 2020, and 4 months later, we also conducted the follow-up survey. Throughout all 47 prefectures in Japan, 4,700 (100 respondents/prefecture) mothers of infants and/or preschoolers (0-6 years) participated in the baseline online survey; 2,489 of these also participated in the follow-up survey. RESULTS: We performed hierarchical multiple regression analysis and our final model indicated that maternal happiness during COVID-19 pandemic was positively related to employment status (homemaker, ß = 0.052, p = 0.014), levels of available social support (average, ß = 0.052, p = 0.012, high, ß = 0.055, p = 0.010) and happiness score before the pandemic (ß = 0.467, p < 0.001), and satisfaction toward the measures against the COVID-19 at partners' workplace (average, ß = 0.129, p < 0.001; high, ß = 0.279, p < 0.001), preventive behavior against COVID-19 (average, ß = 0.055, p = 0.002; high, ß = 0.045, p = 0.015) and positive attitudes/thinking (ß = 0.087, p < 0.001) during the pandemic. In contrast, poor mental health (K6 ≥5, ß = -0.042, p = 0.011) before the pandemic and negative changes during the pandemic (≥3, ß = -0.085, p < 0.001) were negatively related to maternal happiness during the pandemic. Our final model explained 44.9% of the variance in mothers' happiness during the COVID-19 pandemic. CONCLUSIONS: Satisfaction toward the measures against the COVID-19 at partners' workplace, preventive behavior, and positive attitudes/thinking were especially important for maternal happiness during the COVID-19 pandemic. Future study is needed to consider measures against infectious diseases in the workplace that are desirable for the well-being of parents with young children, taking into account the gender perspective.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , COVID-19/epidemiology , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Happiness , Humans , Japan/epidemiology , Mothers/psychology
4.
Int J Public Health ; 67: 1604418, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1742286

ABSTRACT

Objective: Several studies have investigated the negative toll the pandemic has had on people's mental health. However, there is limited research on the pandemic's effect on positive mental health variables. This article reports on the levels of self-esteem and well-being (flourishing and happiness) in a sample of adults living in Ecuador and their relationships with the characteristics of their personal situation and the effects of the COVID-19 pandemic had on their personal lives. Methods: A total of 766 adults completed an anonymous online survey between March and August 2020. Results: Participants reported average scores in the flourishing scale, the majority considered themselves to be happy or very happy people, and more than half presented high levels of self-esteem. Age, education, socioeconomic status, time spent using mobile phones and on hobbies, among others, explained self-esteem, happiness, and flourishing. Conclusion: The relationships between sociodemographic and situational variables of confinement during the pandemic are discussed, as well as the possible predictors of happiness, flourishing, and self-esteem.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , Communicable Disease Control , Ecuador/epidemiology , Happiness , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
5.
PLoS One ; 17(2): e0263514, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1690727

ABSTRACT

Psychoeducational courses focused on positive psychology interventions have been shown to benefit student well-being. However, since the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic and accompanying social restrictions, many educators have had to deliver their courses online. Given that online teaching presents a very different university experience for students, do psychoeducational courses provide similar well-being benefits in an online format? In this pre-registered study (https://osf.io/3f89m), we demonstrate that despite the challenges of remote learning, first year university students (N = 166) taking an online "Science of Happiness" course during the first term experienced positive benefits to mental well-being in comparison to a wait-list control group (N = 198) registered to take the course in the second term. Specifically, university students currently taking the course maintained their mental well-being over the semester relative to the wait-list control who showed a significant decline in well-being and increase in anxiety during the same period. Our findings suggest that the online-administered "Science of Happiness" course delivered during the COVID-19 pandemic was associated with a protective effect on mental well-being. We also observed that engagement with the course was high, though there was no evidence that this factor mediated the positive effects we observed. However, we did find evidence that prior interest in increasing well-being influenced the effects of the course; participants with lower well-being interest showed less of a benefit. Our results suggest that online psychoeducational courses might provide a relatively cheap, flexible, and efficient means of providing support as part of an integrated approach to student mental well-being.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/psychology , Happiness , Mental Health , Education, Distance , Humans , Pandemics , Students/psychology , Universities , Young Adult
6.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(3)2022 Jan 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1643598

ABSTRACT

It is well acknowledged that the roles of both school administrators and teachers have changed due to the global education crisis caused by COVID-19. During this challenging and critical period, it is essential to investigate how those working in the education sector who undertake strategic tasks for sustainable education are affected by the new conditions brought about by the COVID-19 pandemic. This study investigates the interrelationships between COVID-19 quality of life, loneliness, happiness, and Internet addiction. The research was designed according to the relational survey model, was conducted with 432 school administrators and teachers working in K-12 schools. The research data was collected through online questionnaires, and structural equation modelling (SEM) was used to test and analyze proposed hypotheses. The study's results revealed a positive relationship between the COVID-19 related quality of life and loneliness, and that loneliness significantly positively predicts Internet addiction. In this context, due to the impact of COVID-19 on the life quality, the participants' loneliness levels significantly increased, and this increase in loneliness caused them to become addicted to using the Internet. Interestingly, it was also determined that a positive relationship exists between loneliness and happiness and that as the loneliness of individuals increased, their level of happiness also increased. In many studies conducted prior to the COVID-19 pandemic, a negative relationship was revealed between loneliness and happiness. In the current study conducted during the pandemic, the relationship between the two variables was positive. SEM results revealed that COVID-19 directly affects the quality of life, Internet addiction, loneliness, and happiness of school administrators and teachers. Furthermore, it was determined that Internet addiction indirectly affects the relationship between loneliness and happiness.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Quality of Life , Happiness , Humans , Internet , Internet Addiction Disorder , Latent Class Analysis , Loneliness , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Schools
7.
PLoS One ; 16(12): e0259579, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1637068

ABSTRACT

Happiness levels often fluctuate from one day to the next, and an exogenous shock such as a pandemic can likely disrupt pre-existing happiness dynamics. This paper fits a Marko Switching Dynamic Regression Model (MSDR) to better understand the dynamic patterns of happiness levels before and during a pandemic. The estimated parameters from the MSDR model include each state's mean and duration, volatility and transition probabilities. Once these parameters have been estimated, we use the one-step method to predict the unobserved states' evolution over time. This gives us unique insights into the evolution of happiness. Furthermore, as maximising happiness is a policy priority, we determine the factors that can contribute to the probability of increasing happiness levels. We empirically test these models using New Zealand's daily happiness data for May 2019 -November 2020. The results show that New Zealand seems to have two regimes, an unhappy and happy regime. In 2019 the happy regime dominated; thus, the probability of being unhappy in the next time period (day) occurred less frequently, whereas the opposite is true for 2020. The higher frequency of time periods with a probability of being unhappy in 2020 mostly correspond to pandemic events. Lastly, we find the factors positively and significantly related to the probability of being happy after lockdown to be jobseeker support payments and international travel. On the other hand, lack of mobility is significantly and negatively related to the probability of being happy.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/psychology , Happiness , Markov Chains , COVID-19/epidemiology , Humans , New Zealand/epidemiology , Nonlinear Dynamics , Pandemics , Regression Analysis , Statistics as Topic
8.
BMC Med Educ ; 21(1): 619, 2021 Dec 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1582075

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic necessarily changed pre-medical students' educational environment into an online format-and students' subjective happiness (SH) is highly impacted by their educational environment. This study investigates changes in pre-medical students' perceptions of their educational environment and their SH before and after the pandemic, as well as explores the predictors related to their SH. METHODS: The Korean version of the Dundee Ready Educational Environment Measure (DREEM) questionnaire and single-item measures of SH and professional identity (PI) were used. The t-test was employed to analyze the differences of the SH, PI, and DREEM subscales scores before and after the onset of COVID-19. Cohen's d was used as effect size and correlations between SH and different subscales of DREEM were analyzed using Pearson's correlation. The multiple regression analysis was performed to reveal associations between predictors and SH. RESULTS: A total of 399 pre-medical students completed the survey both before and after the COVID-19 pandemic. The DREEM scores and all subscales scores significantly increased but each presents a different effect size. Students' Perceptions of Learning (SPL: Cohen's d = 0.97), Students' Perceptions of Teaching (SPT: Cohen's d = 1.13), and Students' Perceptions of Atmosphere (SPA: Cohen's d = 0.89) have large effect sizes. Students' Academic Self-Perceptions (SASP: Cohen's d = 0.66) have a medium effect size and Students' Social Self-Perceptions (SSSP: Cohen's d = 0.40) have a small effect size. In contrast, no significant change was noted in the SH and PI. Both PI and SSSP impacted SH before COVID-19, but after the pandemic, SH was impacted by SPL, SPA, and SSSP. CONCLUSIONS: Students' overall perception of their educational environment was more positive after the onset of COVID-19, but their social self-perceptions improved the least. Additionally, SSSP is the only predictor of SH both before and after the pandemic. The findings of this study suggest that educational institutions must pay attention to students' social relationships when trying to improve their educational environment. Furthermore, so as to increase students' SH, development of both educational environment and PI is essential.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Education, Medical, Undergraduate , Students, Medical , Happiness , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Surveys and Questionnaires
9.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(23)2021 11 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1542539

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has impacted the economic market and labor contexts worldwide. Brazil has suffered one of the worst social and governmental managements of the COVID-19 crisis, forcing workers and organizations to develop coping strategies. This environment can affect both well-being and performance at work. Sustainable well-being at work refers to different patterns of relationships between performance and well-being. It may include eudaimonic (e.g., Meaning of Work-MOW) or hedonic (e.g., emotions) forms of well-being. This study tests the moderating role of recovery from work stress in the relationship between flexibility i-deals and patterns of sustainable well-being at work in Brazilian teleworkers. We relied on two studies to achieve this objective. In Study 1, conducted during the pandemic's first outbreak in Brazil (N = 386), recovery experiences moderated the relationship between i-deals and clusters formed by performance and MOW (eudaimonic happiness). In Study 2, conducted during the second outbreak (N = 281), we identified relationships between clusters of emotions (hedonic happiness) and MOW (eudaimonic) with performance. The results supported the idea that recovery experiences moderated the relationship between i-deals and patterns of sustainable well-being at work differently. Our findings have implications for Human Resource Management and teleworkers, especially for employee behaviors to deal with stress.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Brazil , Happiness , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
10.
PLoS One ; 16(11): e0259528, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1502076

ABSTRACT

A key goal for society as a whole is the pursuit of well-being, which leads to the happiness of its individual members; as such, it is of critical socioeconomic relevance. In this regard, it is important to study which factors primarily affect the happiness of the population. In principle, these factors are associated with income level and residential and job stability, or more specifically, citizens' quality of life. This research, which is based on a multidimensional concept of quality of life, uses a regression model to explain the dependence of Spaniards' happiness on the well-being or quality of life provided by their work, their family situation, their income level and aspects of their place of residence, among other factors. The data were collected through an anonymous survey administered to a representative sample of Spanish citizens. The methodology used approaches the intangible concept of happiness as resulting from different individual and social causes selected from dimensions addressed in the literature, and calculates their effects or importance through regression coefficients. One of the findings is that people with the highest level of well-being or quality of life in the most important dimensions mostly claim to be happy. With respect to gender, it has a significant influence on the dimensions included in the model of citizen happiness and on personal issues. It is also shown that the outbreak of the Covid-19 pandemic negatively influenced the quality of life of Spanish citizens and therefore their happiness.


Subject(s)
Happiness , Quality of Life , Social Theory , Adolescent , Adult , COVID-19/psychology , Employment , Environment , Family , Female , Humans , Income , Male , Socioeconomic Factors , Spain , Young Adult
11.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(20)2021 10 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1477945

ABSTRACT

This study aims to investigate the changes in the structural relationship between alienation in physical education (PE) classes, school happiness, and future healthy life expectations in Korean adolescents after the COVID-19 pandemic. The data were collected from Korean adolescents using different scales. The collected data were analyzed using frequency analysis, reliability analysis, validity analysis, independent t test, and path analysis. The key results were: First, there were partial changes in each of the parameters since the outbreak of COVID-19. Second, before the pandemic, alienation in PE classes negatively affected school happiness, and school happiness positively affected expectations of a future healthy life; however, alienation in PE classes did not affect the expectations of a future healthy life, showing a complete mediating effect. Third, during the pandemic, alienation in PE classes negatively affected school happiness, and school happiness positively affected the expectations of a future healthy life; alienation in PE classes negatively affected the expectations of a future healthy life, showing a partial mediating effect. These findings emphasize the importance and potential of school education, especially PE, in promoting happiness and healthy lives in adolescents. We expect these findings to have practical implications for future research by presenting theoretical and empirical data.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Physical Education and Training , Adolescent , Happiness , Humans , Motivation , Pandemics , Reproducibility of Results , Republic of Korea/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Schools
12.
J Med Internet Res ; 23(9): e28700, 2021 09 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1470724

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Given that governmental prevention measures restricted most face-to-face communications, online self-disclosure via smartphones emerged as an alternative coping strategy that aimed at reducing the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on people's psychological health. Prepandemic research demonstrated that online self-disclosure benefits people's psychological health by establishing meaningful relationships, obtaining social support, and achieving self-acceptance, particularly in times of crisis. However, it is unclear whether these dynamics transition well to lockdown conditions where online self-disclosure must stand almost entirely on its own. Longitudinal investigations are needed to gain insights into the psychological functionalities of online self-disclosure during the COVID-19 pandemic. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to determine the temporal associations between smartphone online self-disclosure (as a communicative behavior) and critical indicators of psychological health (including psychopathological, as well as hedonic and eudaimonic states) during the first COVID-19 lockdown in Austria. METHODS: We conducted a representative 2-wave panel survey between late March/April 2020 and May 2020. A total of 416 participants completed both waves (43.1% attrition rate, given n=731 participants who completed the first wave). A partially metric measurement invariant overtime structural equation model was used to determine the temporal associations among online self-disclosure, fear of COVID-19, happiness, and psychological well-being. RESULTS: The analysis revealed that fear of COVID-19 significantly predicted online self-disclosure over time (b=0.24, P=.003) and happiness over time (b=-0.14, P=.04), but not psychological well-being (b=0.03, P=.48), that is, stronger COVID-19 fears at T1 prompted more online self-disclosure and less happiness at T2. Online self-disclosure, on the other hand, significantly predicted happiness (b=0.09, P=.02), but neither fear of COVID-19 (b=-0.01, P=.57) nor psychological well-being (b=-0.01, P=.57) over time. Participants who engaged more strongly in online self-disclosure at T1 felt happier at T2, but they did not differ from less-disclosing participants concerning COVID-19 fears and psychological well-being at T2. Importantly, happiness and psychological well-being were significantly related over time (happiness T1 → psychological well-being T2: b=0.11, P<.001; psychological well-being T1 → happiness T2: b=0.42, P<.001). CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that online self-disclosure might play a pivotal role in coping with pandemic stressors. With restrictions on their options, individuals increasingly turn to their smartphones and social media to disclose their feelings, problems, and concerns during lockdown. While online self-disclosure might not alleviate fears or improve psychological well-being, our results demonstrate that it made people experience more happiness during this crisis. This psychological resource may help them withstand the severe psychological consequences of the COVID-19 crisis over longer timeframes.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Smartphone , Communicable Disease Control , Disclosure , Fear , Happiness , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
13.
Front Public Health ; 9: 647548, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1448818

ABSTRACT

Since the global onset of COVID-19 in early 2020, the disease has significantly impacted mental health. This impact is likely to be further exacerbated for groups who were already marginalized. This paper shares results from a broader study of men who have sex with men (MSM) and transgender people in Bali, Indonesia and includes a focus on psychological distress and happiness during the COVID-19 pandemic; applying sociodemographic and epidemiological characteristics as potential mediators. Psychological distress and the level of happiness were measured by The Kessler Psychological Distress (K10) and the Subjective Happiness Scale (SHS). A cross-sectional survey was conducted from July to September 2020. Of the 416 participants, complete data were available for 363 participants. The majority of participants were aged 26-40 years, currently single, were born outside Bali, were currently living in an urban area, and over one-third were living with HIV. While all were MSM, the majority identified as homosexual/tend to be homosexual (71.3%), however 54 (14.9%) identified themselves as heterosexual. The majority (251, 69.1%) reported moderate to very high psychological distress during the COVID-19 pandemic. The binary logistic regression analysis identified five factors to be significantly associated with higher psychological distress: being a student, reporting higher levels of stigma, had ever experienced discrimination, felt better prior to the COVID-19 pandemic, and less happy than the average person. When homosexual were compared with heterosexual participants, those who identified themselves as being homosexual reported significantly lower psychological distress compared to those identified themselves as heterosexual, which may be associated with these participants not disclosing their status as MSM and the stigma around MSM. Those who considered themselves to be less happy than the average person (316, 87.1%) were more likely to live with a partner and to report moderate to very high psychological distress. Based on the findings, interventions should focus on strategies to reduce stigma, provide non-discriminatory services, and improve access to essential health services.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Psychological Distress , Sexual and Gender Minorities , Transgender Persons , Cross-Sectional Studies , Happiness , Health Policy , Homosexuality, Male , Humans , Male , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
14.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(19)2021 09 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1438604

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has challenged governments worldwide with the design of appropriate policies that maximize health outcomes while minimizing economic and mental health consequences. This paper explores sources of individuals' life satisfaction during the COVID-19 pandemic, paying special attention to the effects of non-pharmaceutical interventions (NPIs). We studied the specific case of Spanish regions and focused on bar and restaurant closures using data from a continuous voluntary web survey that we merged with information about region-specific policies that identified when and where bars and restaurants were closed. We estimated an endogenous binary-treatment-regression model and found that closing bars and restaurants had a significant negative impact on happiness. The results were statistically significant after controlling for the pandemic context, health, income, work, and other personal characteristics and circumstances. We interpreted the results in terms of the positive effect of socialization, individuals' feelings of freedom, and the comparative nature of life satisfaction.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Happiness , Humans , Personal Satisfaction , SARS-CoV-2
15.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(18)2021 Sep 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1405457

ABSTRACT

Australia adopted hard lockdown measures to eliminate community transmission of COVID-19. Lockdown imposes periods of social isolation that contributes to increased levels of stress, anxiety, depression, loneliness, and worry. We examined whether lockdowns have similar psychosocial associations across rural and urban areas and whether associations existed between happiness and worry of loneliness in the initial wave of the COVID-19 pandemic in Australia. Data were collected using the "COVID-19 Living Survey" between 13 and 20 May 2020 by BehaviourWorks Australia at the Monash Sustainable Development Institute. The mean self-reported feeling of happiness and anxiousness (N = 1593), on a 10-point Likert scale with 0 being least happy or highly anxious, was 6.5 (SD = 2.4) and 3.9 (2.9), respectively. Factors associated with happiness were older age and having a postgraduate education. Participants worried about becoming lonely also exhibited reduced happiness (estimate = -1.58, 95%CI = -1.84--1.32) and higher anxiousness (2.22, 1.93-2.51) scores, and these conditions remained associated after adjusting for demographics. Interestingly, worry about loneliness was greater in rural areas than in urban communities. The negative impact of the COVID-19 lockdown on rural youth and those less-educated was evident. Participants in rural Australia who were worried about becoming lonely were reportedly less happy than participants in major cities. This dataset provides a better understanding of factors that influence psychological well-being and quality of life in the Australian population and helps to determine whether happiness may be an associative factor that could mitigate self-feelings of anxiety and worry about loneliness.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Loneliness , Adolescent , Aged , Anxiety/epidemiology , Australia , Communicable Disease Control , Cross-Sectional Studies , Happiness , Humans , Pandemics , Quality of Life , SARS-CoV-2 , Self Report
16.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(17)2021 08 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1390603

ABSTRACT

Instant messaging (IM) is increasingly used for family communication amidst the COVID-19 pandemic. However, evidence remains scarce on how family e-chat groups were used and their associations with family and individual wellbeing amidst the pandemic. The numbers of family e-chat groups, functions used, and messages sent and received daily in groups were reported by 4890 adults in May 2020, and their associations with family wellbeing and personal happiness and the mediation effect of family communication quality were examined. Results showed that sending/receiving text messages was most commonly used, followed by receiving/sending photos/pictures, making voice calls, receiving/sending short videos and voice messages, and making video calls. Women and older people used more non-text functions. Higher levels of family wellbeing and personal happiness were associated with having more groups, receiving/sending photos/pictures, video calls, more IM functions used, and more IM messages received/sent daily. Forty-six point two to seventy-five point five percent of their associations with more groups and more functions used were mediated by family communication quality. People having more family e-chat groups and using more IM functions may be more resilient amidst the pandemic, while those without or with low use of family e-chat groups amidst the pandemic would need more attention and assistance in the presence of social distancing.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Text Messaging , Adult , Aged , Female , Happiness , Hong Kong/epidemiology , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
18.
Perspect Psychol Sci ; 16(6): 1435-1446, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1325255

ABSTRACT

We write in response to an article published in this journal, "The U Shape of Happiness Across the Life Course: Expanding the Discussion," by Galambos, Krahn, Johnson and Lachman. The authors claim that "support for the purported U shape is not as robust and generalizable as is often assumed" and "we believe the conclusion that happiness declines from late adolescence to midlife (the first half of the U shape) is premature, and possibly wrong." We respectfully disagree. The authors' main evidence is based on summaries of 33 articles; they find 12 to have U shapes, seven to have none, and 14 to be mixed. We found that most of these articles are misclassified: Four of them are ineligible for inclusion, 25 find a U, and four are mixed. We then identified a further 353 articles, including 329 in peer-reviewed journals, that all found U shapes that were not identified in the literature review. This is a major omission. We also present our own evidence of midlife nadirs in well-being using around eight and a half million individual observations from nationally representative surveys for the United States and Europe. The midlife low occurs in the mid-40s and its drop is equivalent to roughly three quarters of the unprecedented drop observed in well-being during the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Happiness , Adolescent , Humans , Pandemics , Personal Satisfaction , SARS-CoV-2 , United States
19.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(13)2021 07 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1302317

ABSTRACT

We aimed to determine the relationship between gaming disorder, narcissism, and happiness levels of children between the ages of 9 and 15. This study was based on the compensation theory. The sample consists of 461 boys who continue their education in public schools in Istanbul. In the study, a mixed research design, which nests qualitative data into quantitative, was used. In addition to the scales and sociodemographic form, the Draw-a-Person test was also used to better understand children's inner world. According to the findings, there is a significant relationship between gaming disorder and narcissism and happiness levels in children. Accordingly, as narcissism increases in children, the gaming disorder level increases, and happiness decreases. We also found a mediation effect in the impact of narcissism on happiness through gaming disorder. According to the results, we think that the problem is not caused by the individual but by society. For a solution, we recommend making more macro-level social work interventions within the framework of system theory instead of the current medical model in combating gaming disorder.


Subject(s)
Behavior, Addictive , Disruptive, Impulse Control, and Conduct Disorders , Adolescent , Child , Happiness , Humans , Male , Narcissism , Schools
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