Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 34
Filter
1.
Trials ; 23(1): 105, 2022 Feb 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2098423

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Noninvasive respiratory support is frequently needed for patients with acute hypoxemic respiratory failure due to coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19). Helmet noninvasive ventilation has multiple advantages over other oxygen support modalities but data about effectiveness are limited. METHODS: In this multicenter randomized trial of helmet noninvasive ventilation for COVID-19 patients, 320 adult ICU patients (aged ≥14 years or as per local standards) with suspected or confirmed COVID-19 and acute hypoxemic respiratory failure (ratio of arterial oxygen partial pressure to fraction of inspired oxygen < 200 despite supplemental oxygen with a partial/non-rebreathing mask at a flow rate of 10 L/min or higher) will be randomized to helmet noninvasive ventilation with usual care or usual care alone, which may include mask noninvasive ventilation, high-flow nasal oxygen, or standard oxygen therapy. The primary outcome is death from any cause within 28 days after randomization. The trial has 80% power to detect a 15% absolute risk reduction in 28-day mortality from 40 to 25%. The primary outcome will be compared between the helmet and usual care group in the intention-to-treat using the chi-square test. Results will be reported as relative risk  and 95% confidence interval. The first patient was enrolled on February 8, 2021. As of August 1, 2021, 252 patients have been enrolled from 7 centers in Saudi Arabia and Kuwait. DISCUSSION: We developed a detailed statistical analysis plan to guide the analysis of the Helmet-COVID trial, which is expected to conclude enrollment in November 2021. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT04477668 . Registered on July 20, 2020.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Noninvasive Ventilation , Respiratory Insufficiency , Adult , Head Protective Devices , Humans , Noninvasive Ventilation/adverse effects , Respiratory Insufficiency/diagnosis , Respiratory Insufficiency/therapy , SARS-CoV-2
2.
Praxis (Bern 1994) ; 111(13): 722-729, 2022.
Article in German | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2062158

ABSTRACT

Dooring Bicycle Accidents with Severe Injury Patterns: 10-Year Study of a Level 1 Trauma Center Abstract. Studies in Switzerland, Germany and Austria have shown that, contrary to popular belief, dooring accidents are among the most common bicycle accidents. The resulting injuries are often serious and often lead to hospital admission. All dooring accidents of the Inselspital Emergency Department in Bern between 2012 and 2021 were identified and evaluated retrospectively. The data were generated from the database of the management system (Ecare) of the University Hospital Bern by means of a search query with the German keywords: "Autotüre", "Autotuere", "Dooring" and were anonymised. Most patients were female and on average 34 years old; most injuries occurred to the head and the extremities. Treatment was mostly done on an outpatient basis. The ISS (Injury Severity Score) was an average of 3.5. One of the patients needed emergency surgery. This is the first Swiss study to systematically record and evaluate dooring accidents. Since cycling is a trend, especially in urban areas, and consequently the number of cyclists is constantly increasing, it can be assumed that the number of dooring injuries will also increase and corresponding prevention measures will have to be taken. The current COVID-19 pandemic tends to aggravate the problem, as in the context of infection control the number of cyclists and, consequently, accidents is increasing, especially in urban areas, in the context of infection control. This said, it is crucial to gain more information about the time slots of the accidents and the casualties through appropriate studies in order to take adequate preventive and protective measures.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Craniocerebral Trauma , Accidents , Accidents, Traffic , Adult , Bicycling/injuries , Craniocerebral Trauma/epidemiology , Female , Head Protective Devices , Humans , Male , Pandemics , Retrospective Studies , Trauma Centers
3.
Lancet ; 400(10347): 237-250, 2022 07 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1946927

ABSTRACT

Global road mortality is a leading cause of death in many low-income and middle-income countries. Data to support priority setting under current resource constraints are urgently needed to achieve Sustainable Development Goal (SDG) 3.6. This Series paper estimates the potential number of lives saved if each country implemented interventions to address risk factors for road injuries. We did a systematic review of all available evidence-based, preventive interventions for mortality reduction that targeted the four main risk factors for road injuries (ie, speeding, drink driving, helmet use, and use of seatbelt or child restraint). We used literature review variables and considered three key country-level variables (gross domestic product per capita, population density, and government effectiveness) to generate country-specific estimates on the potential annual attributable number of lives that would be saved by interventions focusing on these four risk factors in 185 countries. Our results suggest that the implementation of evidence-based road safety interventions that target the four main road safety risk factors could prevent between 25% and 40% of all fatal road injuries worldwide. Interventions addressing speed could save about 347 258 lives globally per year, and at least 16 304 lives would be saved through drink driving interventions. The implementation of seatbelt interventions could save about 121 083 lives, and 51 698 lives could be saved by helmet interventions. We identify country-specific estimates of the potential number of lives saved that would be attributable to these interventions. Our results show the potential effectiveness of the implementation and scaling of these interventions. This paper presents key evidence for priority setting on road safety interventions and shows a path for reaching SDG 3.6.


Subject(s)
Automobile Driving , Driving Under the Influence , Accidents, Traffic/prevention & control , Child , Head Protective Devices , Humans , Risk Factors
5.
Sci Prog ; 105(2): 368504221092891, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1784977

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has been declared a pandemic by the World Health Organization; it has affected millions of people and caused hundreds of thousands of deaths. Patients with COVID-19 pneumonia may develop acute hypoxia respiratory failure and require noninvasive respiratory support or invasive respiratory management. Healthcare workers have a high risk of contracting COVID-19 while fitting respiratory devices. Recently, European experts have suggested that the use of helmet continuous positive airway pressure should be the first choice for acute hypoxia respiratory failure caused by COVID-19 because it reduces the spread of the virus in the ambient air. By contrast, in the United States, helmets were restricted for respiratory care before the COVID-19 pandemic until the Food and Drug Administration provided the 'Umbrella Emergency Use Authorization for Ventilators and Ventilator Accessories'. This narrative review provides an evidence-based overview of the use of helmet ventilation for patients with respiratory failure.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Noninvasive Ventilation , Respiratory Distress Syndrome , Respiratory Insufficiency , COVID-19/epidemiology , Head Protective Devices/adverse effects , Humans , Hypoxia/complications , Noninvasive Ventilation/adverse effects , Pandemics , Respiratory Insufficiency/epidemiology , Respiratory Insufficiency/etiology , Respiratory Insufficiency/therapy
6.
Emerg Med Australas ; 34(5): 744-750, 2022 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1784562

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to examine patterns of injury, the impact of these injuries on patients and identification of potentially modifiable contributing factors through industry regulation reforms and education. METHODS: Food delivery rider (FDR)-related presentations to the Royal Brisbane and Women's Hospital Emergency and Trauma Centre for a year from September 2020 were identified. Data collected included patient and incident demographics: time, type and location of injuries, investigations and care required, length of stay, admission requirements and follow up. RESULTS: The cohort included 81.8% male with a mean age of 25.2 years. Most injuries occurred on the road from a collision with a vehicle. The most common injury was fractures. Incidence increased on weekends and during the evening. More than half the cohort were admitted to hospital. Only 22.7% of patients were eligible for workers compensation and less than half were covered by Medicare. The majority (72.7%) of cases involved non-resident riders from other countries. CONCLUSION: The majority of FDRs presenting with injuries are not Australian citizens and less than half were Medicare eligible potentially contributing to inadequate access to care especially fracture follow up. There were spikes in injuries occurring at night, weekends and during periods of pandemic associated lockdowns demonstrating an increased usage of delivery services during these times. Results highlight injury patterns experienced by delivery riders and potentially modifiable risk factors for this rapidly growing area of employment within the gig economy.


Subject(s)
Fractures, Bone , Wounds and Injuries , Accidents, Traffic , Adult , Aged , Emergency Service, Hospital , Female , Fractures, Bone/epidemiology , Fractures, Bone/etiology , Head Protective Devices , Humans , Male , Medicare , Motorcycles , Risk Factors , United States , Wounds and Injuries/epidemiology , Wounds and Injuries/etiology
7.
Int Orthop ; 46(6): 1233-1240, 2022 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1748500

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The rapid spread of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has increased the use of personal protective equipment. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether a commercially available sterile surgical helmet system (SSHS) can be considered protective against COVID-19 and therefore safe for use. METHODS: A double-blinded randomized controlled study was performed to investigate the efficacy of the ViVi® SSHS with a high-efficiency particulate air filter called HFD Hood (THI, Total Healthcare Innovation GmbH, Feistritz im Rosental, Austria) to protect against respiratory droplets. Forty recruited participants were divided into two different groups. The SSHS was tested using a validated qualitative test for respirator masks through saccharin or placebo solutions based on random allocation into two cohorts. Saccharin droplets are a validated surrogated marker for any elements of viral size, such as coronaviruses. A positive report of sweet taste after saccharin exposure was suggestive of ViVi® SSHS inefficacy in protection against droplets. RESULTS: One participant out of 21 (4.8%) reported positive for taste within the placebo cohort, while five out of 19 (26.3%) reported positive for taste within the saccharin cohort upon testing. Two out of 21 (9.5%) participants reported positive for taste within the placebo cohort, and two out of 19 (10.5%) reported positive for taste within the saccharin cohort upon retesting. There were no statistically significant differences between the saccharin and placebo groups in either the test or retest measurements (p = 0.085 and p = 1.000, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrates that the ViVi® SSHS equipped with HFD Hood protects against respiratory droplets, increasing protection against several microorganisms, including the virus that causes COVID-19, allowing surgeons to carry out procedures on COVID-positive patients in a more comfortable and safer way.


Subject(s)
Air Filters , COVID-19 , COVID-19/prevention & control , Head Protective Devices , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2 , Saccharin
9.
Prehosp Disaster Med ; 37(1): 33-38, 2022 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1692723

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVE: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has created challenges in maintaining the safety of prehospital providers caring for patients. Reports have shown increased rates of Emergency Medical Services (EMS) provider infection with COVID-19 after patient care exposure, especially while utilizing aerosol-generating procedures (AGPs). Given the increased risk and rising call volumes for AGP-necessitating complaints, development of novel devices for the protection of EMS clinicians is of great importance.Drawn from the concept of the powered air purifying respirator (PAPR), the AerosolVE helmet creates a personal negative pressure space to contain aerosolized infectious particles produced by patients, making the cabin of an EMS vehicle safer for providers. The helmet was developed initially for use in hospitals and could be of significant use in the prehospital setting. The objective of this study was to determine the efficacy and safety of the helmet in mitigating simulated infectious particle spread in varied EMS transport platforms during AGP utilization. METHODS: Fifteen healthy volunteers were enrolled and distributed amongst three EMS vehicles: a ground ambulance, a medical helicopter, and a medical jet. Sodium chloride particles were used to simulate infectious particles, and particle counts were obtained in numerous locations close to the helmet and around the patient compartment. Counts near the helmet were compared to ambient air with and without use of AGPs (non-rebreather mask [NRB], continuous positive airway pressure mask [CPAP], and high-flow nasal cannula [HFNC]). RESULTS: Without the helmet fan on, the particle generator alone and with all AGPs produced particle counts inside the helmet significantly higher than ambient particle counts. With the fan on, there was no significant difference in particle counts around the helmet compared to baseline ambient particle counts. Particle counts at the filter exit averaged less than one despite markedly higher particle counts inside the helmet. CONCLUSION: Given the risk to EMS providers by communicable respiratory diseases, development of devices to improve safety while still enabling use of respiratory therapies is of paramount importance. The AerosolVE helmet demonstrated efficacy in creating a negative pressure environment and provided significant filtration of simulated respiratory droplets, thus making the confined space of transport vehicles potentially safer for EMS personnel.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Emergency Medical Services , Head Protective Devices , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
10.
Am J Infect Control ; 50(6): 624-630, 2022 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1588520

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Filtering facepiece respirators often fail to provide sufficient protection due to a poor fit. Powered air-purifying respirators (PAPRs) are not designed for healthcare personnel, and are challenging to disinfect. Surgical helmets (SH) are available in many United States hospitals but do not provide respiratory protection. Several modifications to SH have been suggested, but none are sufficiently compliant with safety and efficiency standards. The purpose of this investigation was the development of a filter adaptor, which converts SHs into efficient, safe, and disinfectable PAPRs. METHODS: Four critical features were investigated close to regulatory requirements: total inward leakage of particles, CO2 concentrations, intra-helmet differential pressure, and automated disinfection. RESULTS: The average total inward leakage in the 2 independent tests were 0.005% and 0.01%. CO2 concentrations were lower than in the original SH. The modification generates a positive differential pressure. The filter's performance was not compromised after 50 cycles in a sterilization machine. DISCUSSION: The modified SH provides several hundred times better protection than FFP-3 masks. CONCLUSIONS: Surgical helmets can be modified into safe, efficient, and disinfectable PAPRs, suitable for HCP and the operating room in particular. They can play a role in the preparedness for upcoming events requiring efficient respiratory protection.


Subject(s)
Occupational Exposure , Respiratory Protective Devices , Carbon Dioxide , Head Protective Devices , Humans , Masks , Occupational Exposure/prevention & control , United States
11.
Aust Crit Care ; 35(1): 46-51, 2022 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1536440

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: During COVID-19 outbreak, with the increasing number of patients presenting with acute respiratory failure, a large use of non invasive positive pressure ventilation was done in the emergency departments and medical wards despite the lack of recommendations. OBJECTIVES: This study describes the clinical characteristics of patients presenting to the hospital with acute respiratory failure due to COVID-19 related pneumonia undergoing treatment with helmet continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) with a strict nursing evaluation and monitoring. METHODS: A case series study enrolling adult patients admitted to an emergency department of an Italian hospital with acute respiratory failure due to COVID-19 pneumonia from March 18th to April 18th, 2020, was conducted. Only patients who strictly followed a local CPAP protocol were enrolled. RESULTS: A total of 52 patients were included in this study. Thirty-eight patients (73%) were judged eligible for endotracheal intubation (ETI). Eighteen (34.6%) were intubated. Sixteen (30.8%) patients died: seven (38.9%) and nine (26.5%) in the eligible-for-ETI and non eligible-for-ETI group, respectively. The median hospital length of stay was different in the ETI and non-ETI group: 26 days (interquartile range [IQR]: 16-37) vs 15 days [IQR 9-17] (p = 0.005). The median invasive mechanical ventilation time was 11 days [IQR 7-21] with an ICU length of stay of 14.5 days [IQR 10-28]. During the CPAP trial, among patients eligible for ETI variations over time for positive end-expiratory pressure (p = 0.003) and respiratory rate (p = 0.059) were found between intubated and non-intubated patients. CONCLUSIONS: A short closed monitored CPAP trial could be considered for acute respiratory failure due to COVID-19 pneumonia before considering ETI. A progressive positive end-expiratory pressure titration should target reduction in a patient's respiratory rate. More studies are needed to evaluate the efficacy and predictors of failure of CPAP and non-invasive positive pressure ventilation in patients with acute respiratory failure due to COVID-19 pneumonia.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Respiratory Insufficiency , Adult , Continuous Positive Airway Pressure , Head Protective Devices , Humans , Respiratory Insufficiency/etiology , Respiratory Insufficiency/therapy , SARS-CoV-2
12.
BMJ Open ; 11(8): e052169, 2021 08 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1376510

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Non-invasive ventilation (NIV) delivered by helmet has been used for respiratory support of patients with acute hypoxaemic respiratory failure due to COVID-19 pneumonia. The aim of this study was to compare helmet NIV with usual care versus usual care alone to reduce mortality. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: This is a multicentre, pragmatic, parallel randomised controlled trial that compares helmet NIV with usual care to usual care alone in a 1:1 ratio. A total of 320 patients will be enrolled in this study. The primary outcome is 28-day all-cause mortality. The primary outcome will be compared between the two study groups in the intention-to-treat and per-protocol cohorts. An interim analysis will be conducted for both safety and effectiveness. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: Approvals are obtained from the institutional review boards of each participating institution. Our findings will be published in peer-reviewed journals and presented at relevant conferences and meetings. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: NCT04477668.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Noninvasive Ventilation , Respiratory Insufficiency , Head Protective Devices , Humans , Multicenter Studies as Topic , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , Respiratory Insufficiency/therapy , SARS-CoV-2
13.
Orthopedics ; 44(4): 208-214, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1320605

ABSTRACT

Surgical suits provide protection to orthopedic surgeons, but the suits and fan noise may interfere with communication between operative team members. The goal of this study was to quantify the fan sound and effect of the suit, fan, and N95 mask. Sound levels were measured using a specialized manikin and evaluated using preferred speech interference levels (PSILs), noise criterion (NC) ratings, and comparison with speech sound levels from the literature. Additionally, sound blocking due to the surgical suit was measured and combined effects of the fan and suit were described using a signal to noise ratio (SNR). The noise with the fan at medium and high speed was louder than average speech and the PSILs at these speeds were significantly higher than with the fan off. The fan NC rating of 50 to 60 exceeded the recommended range of 25 to 30 for operating rooms. The N95 mask, space suit, and distance between speaker and receiver all reduced the sound signal at the receiver's ear, with the worst case being full personal protective equipment on both and speaker distanced from receiver. The estimated SNR for the suit and fan system was negative for many frequency bands used in speech, indicating more noise than signal. Multiple measures indicated that the fan noises were at levels associated with speech interference. This noise combined with sound blocking provided by the suit produced SNRs commonly associated with noisy to very noisy environments. This study suggests the combined effects of the suit, fan, and distance may negatively impact operating room communication. [Orthopedics. 2021;44(4):208-214.].


Subject(s)
Orthopedics , Speech Intelligibility , Head Protective Devices , Humans , Noise/adverse effects , Personal Protective Equipment
14.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(4): e24443, 2021 Jan 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1298407

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT: The main aim of this study is to compare the use of non-invasive ventilation (NIV) via helmet versus face mask where different interfaces and masks can apply NIV. However, some of the limitations of the NIV face mask were air leak, face mask intolerance, and requirement of high positive end expiratory pressure, which could be resolved with the use of the helmet NIV. NIV facemask will be applied as per the facial contour of the patient. NIV helmet is a transparent hood and size will be measured as per the head size. Both groups will have a standard protocol for titration of NIV.Patients aged more than 18 years old and diagnosed with acute respiratory distress syndrome as per Berlin definition will be enrolled in the study after signing the informed consent. Subjects who met the inclusion criteria will receive 1 of the 2 interventions; blood gases, oxygenation status [Po2/Fio2] will be monitored in both groups. The time of intubation will be the main comparison factor among the 2 groups. The primary and secondary outcomes will be measured by the number of patients requiring endotracheal intubation after application of helmet device, Improvement of oxygenation defined as PaO2/FiO2 ≥ 200 or increase from baseline by 100, duration of mechanical ventilation via an endotracheal tube, intensive care unit length of stay, death from any cause during hospitalization at the time of enrolment, need for proning during the hospital stay, intensive care unit mortality, and the degree to which overt adverse effects of a drug can be tolerated by a patient including feeding tolerance. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: NCT04507802. PROTOCOL VERSION: May 2020.


Subject(s)
Head Protective Devices , Masks , Noninvasive Ventilation/instrumentation , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/therapy , Adolescent , Adult , Clinical Trials, Phase III as Topic , Critical Care Outcomes , Female , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Length of Stay , Male , Middle Aged , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , Treatment Outcome , Young Adult
17.
ANZ J Surg ; 91(6): 1154-1158, 2021 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1203830

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: In Western Australia, the media has reported on an increase in the purchasing, repairs and use of bicycles during the COVID-19 period. The study aimed to investigate for a relationship in bicycle related injuries in the paediatric population during the time of COVID-19 restrictions. METHODS: A retrospective study of the incident of motorized and non-motorized bicycle related injuries and trauma presentations during the COVID-19 'shutdown' period from March to June 2020. Data were collected from the Emergency Department Information System, discharge summaries, operation and radiology reports. The data presented is from Perth Children's Hospital, the only tertiary paediatric hospital and the only referral centre for childhood trauma in the state of Western Australia. Participants were children aged 15 years and younger attending the emergency department (ED) at Perth Children's Hospital during the designated time period. The primary outcomes included total ED presentations, bicycle related presentations and bicycle related admissions during the COVID-19 period. RESULTS: Bicycle related presentations to the ED increased by 42.7% over the COVID-19 period from 1.4% to 3.0% of all children attending the ED. Children admitted to the hospital with bicycle related injuries or trauma increased by 48.7% from 76 to 113 children in comparison to the same period in 2019. CONCLUSION: During the period of COVID-19 restrictions, paediatric ED presentations decreased dramatically, but bicycle related injuries and trauma increased substantially. Safety equipment including helmets and protective gear should be worn for all children riding bicycles, and social distancing should be maintained.


Subject(s)
Bicycling , COVID-19 , Child , Emergency Service, Hospital , Head Protective Devices , Humans , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Western Australia/epidemiology
18.
Pulmonology ; 27(5): 413-422, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1057245

ABSTRACT

Helmet CPAP (H-CPAP) has been recommended in many guidelines as a noninvasive respiratory support during COVID-19 pandemic in many countries around the world. It has the least amount of particle dispersion and air contamination among all noninvasive devices and may mitigate the ICU bed shortage during a COVID surge as well as a decreased need for intubation/mechanical ventilation. It can be attached to many oxygen delivery sources. The MaxVenturi setup is preferred as it allows for natural humidification, low noise burden, and easy transition to HFNC during breaks and it is the recommended transport set-up. The patients can safely be proned with the helmet. It can also be used to wean the patients from invasive mechanical ventilation. Our article reviews in depth the pathophysiology of COVID-19 ARDS, provides rationale of using H-CPAP, suggests a respiratory failure algorithm, guides through its setup and discusses the issues and concerns around using it.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/therapy , Continuous Positive Airway Pressure/instrumentation , Noninvasive Ventilation/instrumentation , Respiratory Insufficiency/therapy , Ventilator Weaning/methods , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/physiopathology , COVID-19/transmission , Head Protective Devices , Humans , Noninvasive Ventilation/methods , Oxygen Inhalation Therapy/instrumentation , Oxygen Inhalation Therapy/methods , Respiratory Insufficiency/diagnosis , Respiratory Insufficiency/nursing , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification
19.
J Hosp Infect ; 108: 55-63, 2021 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-988362

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic has meant that there is growing pressure on hospital resources, not least the availability of appropriate personal protective equipment (PPE), particularly face masks and respirator masks. Within the field of orthopaedic surgery, it is a common sight to see surgeons wearing 'space suits' (SSs) which comprise a helmet, hood and surgical gown. In this study, the authors made modifications to two different SS systems to incorporate a high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filter into the fan inlet to assess their potential as re-usable PPE systems for surgeons with regard to protection from a virus spread via respiratory droplets. The testing was carried out using particle counters upstream and downstream on a mannequin wearing two different SS systems with and without modifications to the fan inlet. The results show that using a layer of HEPA filter, cut to size and sealed to the fan inlet in the helmet, will reduce downstream particulates at the user's mouth by >99.5%; this is equivalent to a respirator mask. HEPA filter material is relatively cheap and can be used repeatedly, making this a viable alternative to disposable, and even resterilized, respirator masks in the setting of a respiratory-droplet-spread viral pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/transmission , Infectious Disease Transmission, Patient-to-Professional/prevention & control , Orthopedic Procedures/standards , Personal Protective Equipment/supply & distribution , Air Filters/statistics & numerical data , Air Filters/trends , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , Head Protective Devices , Humans , Manikins , Masks , Orthopedic Procedures/statistics & numerical data , Particulate Matter/analysis , Pilot Projects , Respiratory Protective Devices/statistics & numerical data , Respiratory Protective Devices/trends , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Space Suits/trends , Space Suits/virology
20.
Trials ; 21(1): 994, 2020 Dec 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-958043

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Patients with COVID-19 and hypoxaemia despite conventional low-flow oxygen therapy are often treated with high-flow nasal cannula (HFNC) in line with international guidelines. Oxygen delivery by helmet continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) is a feasible option that enables a higher positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) and may theoretically reduce the need for intubation compared to HFNC but direct comparative evidence is lacking. METHODS: We plan to perform an investigator-initiated, pragmatic, randomised trial at an intermediate-level COVID-19 cohort ward in Helsingborg Hospital, southern Sweden. We have estimated a required sample size of 120 patients randomised 1:1 to HFNC or Helmet CPAP to achieve 90% power to detect superiority at a 0.05 significance level regarding the primary outcome of ventilator free days (VFD) within 28 days using a Mann-Whitney U test. Patient recruitment is planned to being June 2020 and be completed in the first half of 2021. DISCUSSION: We hypothesise that the use of Helmet CPAP will reduce the need for invasive mechanical ventilation compared to the use of HFNC without having a negative effect on survival. This could have important implications during the current COVID-19 epidemic. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT04395807 . Registered on 20 May 2020.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/therapy , Cannula/adverse effects , Continuous Positive Airway Pressure/adverse effects , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , Continuous Positive Airway Pressure/methods , Female , Head Protective Devices , Humans , Hypoxia/therapy , Male , Oxygen Inhalation Therapy/methods , Positive-Pressure Respiration/methods , Respiration, Artificial/statistics & numerical data , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Sweden/epidemiology
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL