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1.
authorea preprints; 2024.
Preprint in English | PREPRINT-AUTHOREA PREPRINTS | ID: ppzbmed-10.22541.au.170667712.22239694.v1

ABSTRACT

Objective: To assess the impact of the Covid-19 pandemic on the diagnosis and treatment of patients at tertiary hospital in Poland. Design, setting, participants: This was a retrospective review of head and neck cancer patients presented to the multidisciplinary tumour board (MTB) during the 12-month period from March 2020 through February 2021 and compared to patients presented to the MTB during the prior, pre-pandemic 12-month period from February 2019 to March 2020. Main outcomes and measures: Patient demographic and clinical variables were compared: sex; age at diagnosis; distance from hospital; date of first visit, radiological diagnosis, pathology specimen, MTB meeting, and initiation of primary and adjuvant treatment Results: The number of patients presented to the MTB increased by 22% (278 to 340) from the pre-pandemic to the pandemic period. The mean time from MTB presentation to treatment initiation increased significantly from 17.1 to 21.7 days. The mean time from first visit to treatment start increased from 44.7 to 54.4 days. The proportion of patients with early-stage oropharyngeal cancer who underwent primary surgery rose from 47.3% to 86.6%. The percentage of patients who received palliative radiotherapy increased from 20.5% to 32.9%. The proportion of patients who received best supportive care rose from 1.8% to 6.2%. Conclusion: One of the most notable findings of this study was the increased time from first visit to treatment initiation, which could negatively impact patient outcomes. The differences in the treatment received in these two periods should be further evaluated to determine their influence on survival


Subject(s)
Head and Neck Neoplasms , COVID-19 , Neoplasms
2.
researchsquare; 2023.
Preprint in English | PREPRINT-RESEARCHSQUARE | ID: ppzbmed-10.21203.rs.3.rs-3396574.v1

ABSTRACT

Background Depression and anxiety are prevalent after stroke and associated with poor outcomes. We previously co-developed a stroke-specific self-management intervention, HEADS: UP (Helping Ease Anxiety and Depression after Stroke). The two studies reported here aimed to test the feasibility and acceptability of the HEADS: UP course and supporting materials, and research processes ahead of a definitive trial. Methods We recruited community-dwelling stroke survivors (SS) ≥3 months post-stroke, with symptoms of mood disorder (Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale ≥8). Participants could ‘enrol’ a family member/‘other’ to take part with them, if desired. Study 1 tested HEADS: UP delivered in-person, and informed optimisation of research processes and intervention delivery and materials. In response to Covid-related socialising restrictions HEADS: UP was then adapted for online delivery; tested in Study 2. The primary outcome (both studies) was feasibility (acceptability, fidelity) of the intervention and of research processes. Quantitative data (including patient reported outcomes measures (PROMs) assessing mood and quality of life), and qualitative data were collected pre-/post-intervention. Descriptive statistics were used to analyse quantitative data; a thematic framework approach was used to analyse qualitative data. Both studies received ethical approval prior to commencement. Results Study 1: Feasibility: 13 (59.1%) of 22 potentially eligible stroke survivors consented; aged 66 (median, IQR 14); male (n=9; 69%); 28 (IQR 34; 13.5-48) months poststroke. Of these n=10 (76.9%) completed PROMS pre-intervention; n=6 (46.2%) post-intervention. Acceptability: Six (85.7%) stroke survivors attended ≥4 core intervention sessions. Aspects of screening and data collection were found to be burdensome. Study 2: Feasibility: SS n=9 (41%) of 22 potentially eligible stroke survivors consented; aged 58 years (median; IR 12); male (n=4; 44.4%); 23 (IQR 34; 10-38) months poststroke. Of these n=5 (55.6%) completed PROMS pre-intervention; n=5 (55.6%) post-intervention. Acceptability: Five (55.6%) stroke survivors attended ≥ 4 core sessions. They found online screening and data collection processes straightforward. Conclusions Stroke survivors found in-person and online HEADS: UP intervention and research processes feasible and acceptable. A pilot RCT is warranted, after making the adaptations to intervention delivery and research processes identified in this feasibility and acceptability research. Trial registration Study 1 (in-person delivery): ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT03956693, registered 20 May 2019, https://www.clinicaltrials.gov/study/NCT03956693 Study 2 (online delivery): ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT04567472, registered 23, September 2020, https://clinicaltrials.gov/study/NCT04567472?tab=results


Subject(s)
Stroke , Mood Disorders , Depressive Disorder , Anxiety Disorders , Head and Neck Neoplasms
3.
J Laryngol Otol ; 137(6): 691-696, 2023 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20239757

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: UK head and neck cancer incidence and prevalence in working-age people are increasing. Work is important for individuals and society. Head and neck cancer survivors return to work less than other cancer survivors. Treatment affects physical and psychological functioning long-term. Evidence is limited, with no UK qualitative studies. METHODS: A qualitative study was conducted, underpinned by a critical realism approach, involving semi-structured interviews with working head and neck cancer survivors. Interviews were conducted using the Microsoft Teams communication platform and interpreted using reflexive thematic analysis. RESULTS: Thirteen head and neck cancer survivors participated. Three themes were drawn from the data: changed meaning of work and identity, return-to-work experiences, and the impact of healthcare professionals on returning to work. Physical, speech and psychosocial changes affected workplace interactions, including stigmatising responses by work colleagues. CONCLUSION: Participants were challenged by returning to work. Work interactions and context influenced return-to-work success. Head and neck cancer survivors want return-to-work conversations within healthcare consultations, but perceived these as absent.


Subject(s)
Cancer Survivors , Head and Neck Neoplasms , Humans , Survivors/psychology , Head and Neck Neoplasms/therapy , Return to Work/psychology , Cancer Survivors/psychology , Workplace
4.
Front Immunol ; 14: 1156038, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20235794

ABSTRACT

The vulnerability of the oral cavity to SARS-CoV-2 infection is well-known, and cancer patients are at a higher risk of COVID-19, emphasizing the need to prioritize this patient population. Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) is one of the most common malignant cancers associated with early metastasis and poor prognosis. It has been established that cancerous tissues express Cathepsin L (CTSL), a proteinase that regulates cancer progression and SARS-CoV-2 entry. Therefore, it is essential to evaluate the correlation between disease outcomes and CTSL expression in cancer tissues and predict the susceptibility of cancer patients to SARS-CoV-2. In this study, we used transcriptomic and genomic data to profile CTSL expression in HNSCC and developed a CTSL signature that could reflect the response of HNSCC patients to chemotherapy and immunotherapy. Additionally, we investigated the relationship between CTSL expression and immune cell infiltration and established CTSL as a potential carcinogenic factor for HNSCC patients. These findings could aid in understanding the mechanisms underlying the increased susceptibility of HNSCC patients to SARS-CoV-2 and contribute to the development of therapy for both HNSCC and COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Head and Neck Neoplasms , Humans , Squamous Cell Carcinoma of Head and Neck , SARS-CoV-2 , Cathepsin L/genetics , Head and Neck Neoplasms/genetics
5.
Oral Oncol ; 140: 106361, 2023 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2298423

ABSTRACT

Human Papilloma Virus (HPV) testing is mandatory for all newly diagnosed oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (OPSCC) due to its importance for prognostication and aiding in treatment decision making. Fine needle aspiration (FNA) is a widely used and accepted diagnostic tool for OPSCC. Although FNA can accurately determine histological diagnosis, results are often indeterminate or lack insufficient samples for HPV testing. For samples with an indeterminant FNA, we propose an alternate method for determining HPV status using circulating tumor tissue modified HPV DNA (ctHPVDNA). We report three cases that confirmed HPV status using ctHPVDNA following an indeterminate FNA. If validated, this non-invasive assay could prevent the need for repeat FNAs or operative biopsies for the sole purpose of determining HPV status.


Subject(s)
Head and Neck Neoplasms , Oropharyngeal Neoplasms , Papillomavirus Infections , Humans , Squamous Cell Carcinoma of Head and Neck , Papillomavirus Infections/complications , Papillomavirus Infections/diagnosis , Biopsy, Fine-Needle/methods , Papillomaviridae/genetics
6.
Cancer ; 127(14): 2476-2488, 2021 07 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2286830

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The aims of this study were to provide data on the safety of head and neck cancer surgery currently being undertaken during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. METHODS: This international, observational cohort study comprised 1137 consecutive patients with head and neck cancer undergoing primary surgery with curative intent in 26 countries. Factors associated with severe pulmonary complications in COVID-19-positive patients and infections in the surgical team were determined by univariate analysis. RESULTS: Among the 1137 patients, the commonest sites were the oral cavity (38%) and the thyroid (21%). For oropharynx and larynx tumors, nonsurgical therapy was favored in most cases. There was evidence of surgical de-escalation of neck management and reconstruction. Overall 30-day mortality was 1.2%. Twenty-nine patients (3%) tested positive for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) within 30 days of surgery; 13 of these patients (44.8%) developed severe respiratory complications, and 3.51 (10.3%) died. There were significant correlations with an advanced tumor stage and admission to critical care. Members of the surgical team tested positive within 30 days of surgery in 40 cases (3%). There were significant associations with operations in which the patients also tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 within 30 days, with a high community incidence of SARS-CoV-2, with screened patients, with oral tumor sites, and with tracheostomy. CONCLUSIONS: Head and neck cancer surgery in the COVID-19 era appears safe even when surgery is prolonged and complex. The overlap in COVID-19 between patients and members of the surgical team raises the suspicion of failures in cross-infection measures or the use of personal protective equipment. LAY SUMMARY: Head and neck surgery is safe for patients during the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic even when it is lengthy and complex. This is significant because concerns over patient safety raised in many guidelines appear not to be reflected by outcomes, even for those who have other serious illnesses or require complex reconstructions. Patients subjected to suboptimal or nonstandard treatments should be carefully followed up to optimize their cancer outcomes. The overlap between patients and surgeons testing positive for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 is notable and emphasizes the need for fastidious cross-infection controls and effective personal protective equipment.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/transmission , Head and Neck Neoplasms/surgery , Infectious Disease Transmission, Patient-to-Professional/statistics & numerical data , Surgeons , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Critical Care , Head and Neck Neoplasms/pathology , Head and Neck Neoplasms/virology , Humans , International Cooperation , Middle Aged , Neoplasm Staging , Pandemics , Personal Protective Equipment , Plastic Surgery Procedures , Young Adult
7.
Head Face Med ; 19(1): 7, 2023 Mar 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2256674

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Due to the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) pandemic, recently, Radiotherapy (RT) protocols requiring fewer sessions (hypofractionated) have been used to shorten RT treatment and minimize patient exposure to medical centers, and decrease the risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection. METHODS: This longitudinal, prospective, observational study aimed to compare the quality of life (QoL) and the incidence of oral mucositis and candidiasis in 66 patients with head and neck cancer (HNC) who undergo a hypofractionated RT protocol (GHipo), total of 55 Gy for 4 weeks, or a conventional RT protocol (GConv), total of 66 - 70 Gy for 6 - 7 weeks. PURPOSE: To assess the incidence and severity of oral mucositis, the incidence of candidiasis, and QoL were evaluated using the World Health Organization scale, clinical evaluation, and the QLC-30 and H&N-35 questionnaires, respectively, at the beginning and the end of RT. RESULTS: The incidence of candidiasis did not show differences between the two groups. However, at the end of RT, mucositis had a higher incidence (p < 0.01) and severity (p < 0.05) in GHipo. QoL was not markedly different between the two groups. Although mucositis worsened in patients treated with hypofractionated RT, QoL did not worsen for patients on this regimen. CONCLUSIONS: Our results open perspectives for the potential use of RT protocols for HNC with fewer sessions in conditions that require faster, cheaper, and more practical treatments.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Candidiasis , Head and Neck Neoplasms , Mucositis , Stomatitis , Humans , Mucositis/complications , Quality of Life , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Stomatitis/epidemiology , Stomatitis/etiology , Stomatitis/drug therapy , Head and Neck Neoplasms/radiotherapy , Candidiasis/complications , Observational Studies as Topic
8.
Quintessence Int ; 54(4): 320-327, 2023 Apr 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2256471

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: This manuscript presents a systematic review of the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on head and neck cancer (HNC) patients. A meta-analysis was made to compare the number of treated/operated HNC patients in the pre-COVID-19 era versus the COVID-19 era. This investigation was based on previous reports showing a delay in the diagnosis and treatment of new cases of cancer during the pandemic. Worsening in cancer prognosis would be expected as a result of the delayed treatments. METHOD AND MATERIALS: An electronic search was conducted using the PubMed/MEDLINE, Embase, Web of Science, Scopus, and The Cochrane Library databases. Relevant articles were selected based on specific inclusion criteria. RESULTS: A total of 8,942 HNC patients were included. A higher prevalence in male (1,873) in comparison to female (1,695) was observed considering 3,568 patients. Regarding staging, the majority of cases were stage III to IV. The treatment type more frequently described was surgery. Positive diagnosis for COVID-19 in the pre-oncologic treatment was reported for 242 patients, and for post-oncologic treatment in 119 patients. Mortality by COVID-19 was reported for 27 HNC patients. The meta-analysis revealed a significantly smaller number of surgeries/oncologic treatments of HNC patients performed (2,666) in the COVID-19 era when compared to the pre-COVID-19 era (3,163) (Mantel-Haenszel odds ratio = 0.81, 95% CI = 0.65 to 1.00, P = .05). CONCLUSION: The impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on HNC patients occurred mainly in the number of surgeries/oncologic treatments, showing a significantly smaller number of surgeries/oncologic treatments performed in the COVID-19 era rather than the pre-COVID-19 era.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Head and Neck Neoplasms , Humans , Male , Female , COVID-19/epidemiology , Pandemics , Head and Neck Neoplasms/epidemiology , Head and Neck Neoplasms/therapy
9.
Clin Otolaryngol ; 48(4): 587-594, 2023 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2255323

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the impact of the COVID-19 lockdown measures on HNC, by comparing the stage at presentation and treatment of HNC before and after the most severe COVID-19 restrictions. DESIGN: A retrospective cohort study. SETTING: A regional cancer network serving a patient population of 2.4 million. PARTICIPANTS: Newly diagnosed patients with HNC between June and October 2019 (pre-pandemic) and June and October 2021 (post-pandemic). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Symptom duration before diagnosis, stage at diagnosis, patient performance status (PS) and intent of treatment delivered (palliative vs. curative). RESULTS: Five hundred forty-five patients were evaluated-250 in the 2019 and 295 in the 2021 cohort. There were no significant differences in symptom duration between the cohorts (p = .359) or patient PS (p = .821). There were no increased odds of presenting with a late (Stage III or IV) AJCC cancer stage in 2021 compared with 2019 (odds ratio [OR] = 0.90; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.76-1.08); nor increased odds of receiving palliative rather than curative treatment in 2021 compared with 2019 (OR = 0.68; 95% CI: 0.45-1.03). CONCLUSION: The predicted stage shift to more advanced disease at the time of diagnosis of HNC due to the COVID-19 pandemic has not been realised in the longer term. In keeping with this, there was no difference in symptom duration, patient PS, or treatment patterns between the 2019 and 2021 cohorts.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Head and Neck Neoplasms , Humans , Pandemics , Retrospective Studies , Communicable Disease Control
10.
Clin Transl Oncol ; 25(5): 1268-1276, 2023 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2253572

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: A rapid deploy of unexpected early impact of the COVID pandemic in Spain was described in 2020. Oncology practice was revised to facilitate decision-making regarding multimodal therapy for prevalent cancer types amenable to multidisciplinary treatment in which the radiotherapy component searched more efficient options in the setting of the COVID-19 pandemic, minimizing the risks to patients whilst aiming to guarantee cancer outcomes. METHODS: A novel Proton Beam Therapy (PBT), Unit activity was analyzed in the period of March 2020 to March 2021. Institutional urgent, strict and mandatory clinical care standards for early diagnosis and treatment of COVID-19 infection were stablished in the hospital following national health-authorities' recommendations. The temporary trends of patients care and research projects proposals were registered. RESULTS: 3 out of 14 members of the professional staff involved in the PBR intra-hospital process had a positive test for COVID infection. Also, 4 out of 100 patients had positive tests before initiating PBT, and 7 out of 100 developed positive tests along the weekly mandatory special checkup performed during PBT to all patients. An update of clinical performance at the PBT Unit at CUN Madrid in the initial 500 patients treated with PBT in the period from March 2020 to November 2022 registers a distribution of 131 (26%) pediatric patients, 63 (12%) head and neck cancer and central nervous system neoplasms and 123 (24%) re-irradiation indications. In November 2022, the activity reached a plateau in terms of patients under treatment and the impact of COVID pandemic became sporadic and controlled by minor medical actions. At present, the clinical data are consistent with an academic practice prospectively (NCT05151952). Research projects and scientific production was adapted to the pandemic evolution and its influence upon professional time availability. Seven research projects based in public funding were activated in this period and preliminary data on molecular imaging guided proton therapy in brain tumors and post-irradiation patterns of blood biomarkers are reported. CONCLUSIONS: Hospital-based PBT in European academic institutions was impacted by COVID-19 pandemic, although clinical and research activities were developed and sustained. In the post-pandemic era, the benefits of online learning will shape the future of proton therapy education.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Head and Neck Neoplasms , Proton Therapy , Humans , Child , Pandemics/prevention & control , COVID-19/epidemiology , Hospitals
11.
J Laryngol Otol ; 137(6): 704-708, 2023 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2262241

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: UK guidelines advocate 'one-stop' neck lump assessment for cancer referrals. This paper reports the pilot of a novel pre-clinic ultrasound pathway, presents outcomes, and discusses strengths and limitations in the context of the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic. METHODS: Two-week-wait cancer referral patients with a neck lump were allocated a pre-clinic ultrasound scan followed by a clinic appointment. Demographic, patient journey and outcome data were collected and analysed. RESULTS: Ninety-nine patients underwent ultrasound assessment with or without biopsy on average 8 days following referral. Patients were followed up on average 14.1 days (range, 2-26 days) after initial referral. At the first clinic appointment, 45 patients were discharged, 10 were scheduled for surgery, 12 were diagnosed with cancer, 6 were referred to another specialty and cancer was excluded in 19 patients. Retrospectively, four ultrasounds were performed unnecessarily. CONCLUSION: Pre-clinic ultrasound scanning is an alternative to the one-stop neck lump pathway. This study demonstrates fewer clinic visits, faster diagnosis and a low proportion of unnecessary scans, whilst minimising face-to-face consultations and aerosol-generating procedures.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Head and Neck Neoplasms , Humans , Retrospective Studies , Respiratory Aerosols and Droplets , Ambulatory Care Facilities , Head and Neck Neoplasms/diagnostic imaging , Referral and Consultation
12.
Acta Clin Croat ; 61(Suppl 4): 19-25, 2022 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2261378

ABSTRACT

The aim of this study was to demonstrate the impact of COVID-19 pandemic on the number and characteristics of head and neck cancer patients in two consecutive periods, pre-pandemic and pandemic. For this purpose, we performed a retrospective analysis of patients with primary carcinomas of head and neck mucosal sites, salivary gland tumors, as well as neck metastases. Two pre-COVID-19 years (2018-2019) and two pandemic years (2020-2021) were compared. Demographic data, overall number of patients, TNM classification of the two most affected sites (oral cavity and larynx), time from symptom onset to first outpatient admission to our department, and time from first admission to treatment initiation were noted. Study results revealed a higher number of patients during the pandemic period and difference in the distribution of tumor sites (χ2=33.68, df=9, p<0.001). Oral cavity cancer prevailed over laryngeal cancer during the pandemic period. A statistically significant difference was observed in delay of initial presentation to head and neck surgeon for oral cavity cancer during the pandemic period (p=0.019). Furthermore, significant delay was found for both sites concerning time from initial presentation to the beginning of treatment (larynx: p=0.001 and oral cavity: p=0.006). Despite these facts, there were no differences in TNM stages comparing two observed periods. Study results indicated that there was a statistically significant delay of surgical treatment for both cancer sites observed (oral cavity and larynx) during the COVID-19 pandemic. A survival study is necessary in the future to definitely reveal the true consequences of COVID-19 pandemic on treatment outcomes.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Head and Neck Neoplasms , Mouth Neoplasms , Humans , Retrospective Studies , COVID-19/epidemiology , Time-to-Treatment , Pandemics , Head and Neck Neoplasms/therapy
13.
Braz J Otorhinolaryngol ; 89(3): 456-461, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2249347

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The outbreak of the COVID-19 pandemic had a considerable impact on the healthcare access, treatment, and follow-up of oncologic patients. The aim of this study was to evaluate how the COVID-19 pandemic has affected consultation and follow-up demand as well as treatment volume at Brazilian Head and Neck Surgery centers. METHODS: An anonymous online questionnaire was used for collection of data across all Brazilian Head and Neck Surgery Centers across a 3-month period (April‒June 2021). This information included the characteristics of each center, and the perceived self-reported impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on academic activities, residency training, and the diagnosis, treatment, and follow-up of patients with Head and Neck diseases between 2019 and 2020. RESULTS: The response rate across the 40 registered Brazilian Head and Neck Surgery Centers was 47.5% (n=19). The data showed a significant reduction in the total number of consultations (24.8%) and number of attending patients (20.2%) between 2019 and 2020. The total number of diagnostic exams (31.6%) and surgical procedures (13.0%) conducted over this period also decreased significantly. CONCLUSIONS: The COVID-19 pandemic had a significant national impact on Brazilian Head and Neck Surgery Centers. Future studies should examine the long-term effects of the pandemic on cancer treatment. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Evidence from a single descriptive study.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Head and Neck Neoplasms , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , Pandemics , Brazil/epidemiology , Head and Neck Neoplasms/epidemiology , Head and Neck Neoplasms/surgery
14.
J Laryngol Otol ; 137(5): 537-540, 2023 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2283706

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic led to increased pressure on health services, which, combined with variable social restrictions, led to decreased referrals for head and neck cancer. This study assessed whether there were lasting changes to head and neck cancer referrals during different stages of the pandemic response in 2020 and 2021. METHODS: A retrospective review was conducted of all cases referred for suspected head and neck cancer to our institution in January 2020, April 2020, April 2021 and June 2021. RESULTS: There was a rebound 91 per cent increase in referrals between April 2020 and April 2021 following the 59 per cent decrease in referrals between January 2020 and April 2020. Males made up 47.1 per cent of referrals in January 2020, 40 per cent in April 2020 and 37.82 per cent in April 2021. CONCLUSION: Further research is recommended to investigate the reasons why there is a continued decline in male referrals and the effect this has on their outcomes.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Head and Neck Neoplasms , Humans , Male , Female , COVID-19/epidemiology , Head and Neck Neoplasms/therapy , Retrospective Studies , Referral and Consultation , United Kingdom/epidemiology
15.
J Pak Med Assoc ; 73(4): 912-914, 2023 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2280811

ABSTRACT

We present a case that describes the airway management of a patient with recurrent head and neck cancer and confirmed COVID-19 infection. Securing airway of these patients with anticipated difficulty and at the same time limiting virus exposure to providers can be challenging. The risk of aerosolization during awake tracheal intubation is extreme as it carries a high risk of transmitting respiratory infections. A multidisciplinary team discussion before the procedure highlighted aspects of both airway management and the urgency of surgical procedure where particular care and modifications are required. Successful flexible bronchoscopy and intubation was done under inhalational anaesthetics with spontaneous breathing. Although fiberoptic intubation during sleep,in anticipated difficult airways, have led to enhanced intubation time, this technique was opted to minimize the risk of aerosol generation associated with topicalisation, coughing and hence reduced incidence of cross infection to health care workers.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Head and Neck Neoplasms , Humans , Radiation Fibrosis Syndrome , Neoplasm Recurrence, Local , Airway Management/methods , Intubation, Intratracheal/methods , Head and Neck Neoplasms/radiotherapy , Mouth
16.
Cancer Rep (Hoboken) ; 6(5): e1801, 2023 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2264305

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Global COVID-19 pandemic has affected cancer care systems. Recent studies show that the number of cases diagnosed with cancer has drastically decreased compared to the same period before the pandemic. Therefore, we are confronted with delayed diagnosis of critical cancers. AIM: The aim of this study is to investigate whether the stage of known cancers has been affected by delayed diagnosis and to compare the stages of head and neck cancers diagnosed during and before the pandemic. METHODS: The present study was conducted on 132 patients with malignant head and neck tumors referred to the otolaryngology, head and neck cancer department of Taleghani Hospital from 2019 to 2021. The stage of cancers was compared between two groups of patients with head and neck malignancy referred to the Otolaryngology, Head and Neck Department of the Taleghani Hospital before and during the COVID-19 outbreak. RESULTS: The results from tumor (T), nodes (N), and metastases (M) (TNM) staging (p-value = .015) and T score (value = 0.045) showed that the stage of tumor diagnosed in patients during the COVID-19 pandemic significantly increased compared to patients diagnosed with a tumor before pandemic. CONCLUSION: In the present study, it was observed that the early symptoms of malignant head and neck tumors have been neglected by patients during COVID-19 pandemic and resulted in delayed diagnosis. This result may be explained by the fear of COVID-19 infection in patients, which discouraged them from visiting a doctor at healthcare centers.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Head and Neck Neoplasms , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , Pandemics , Head and Neck Neoplasms/diagnosis , Head and Neck Neoplasms/epidemiology , Neoplasm Staging
17.
Anticancer Res ; 42(11): 5415-5430, 2022 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2267710

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIM: The oral bacteria involved in the development of periodontitis alter the tissue conditions and modify immune responses in a way that may also influence tumor development. We investigated the prevalence of R gingipain (Rgp), a key virulence factor of the oral pathobiont Porphyromonas gingivalis, and the tissue-destructive enzymes matrix metalloproteinase 8 (MMP-8) and 9 (MMP-9) in 202 unselected consecutive oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (OPSCC) samples. We further investigated the relationships between these factors and human papillomavirus (HPV) status, Treponema denticola chymotrypsin-like proteinase (Td-CTLP) immunoexpression, clinical parameters, and patient outcome. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Clinicopathological data were derived from university hospital records. Rgp, MMP-8, and MMP-9 immunoexpression was evaluated by immunohistochemistry; the immunohistochemistry of Td-CTLP and HPV has been described earlier for this patient series. Cox regression analysis including death by causes other than OPSCC as a competing risk served to assess sub distribution hazard ratios. RESULTS: In multivariable survival analysis, positive tumoral MMP-9 immunoexpression predicted poor prognosis among all patients [sub distribution hazard ratio (SHR)=2.4; confidence interval (CI)=1.2-4.4, p=0.008], and especially among those with HPV-negative OPSCC (SHR=3.5; CI=1.7-7.3, p=0.001). Positive immunoexpression of Rgp in inflammatory cells was associated with favorable outcome among all patients (SHR=0.5, CI=0.2-0.9, p=0.021) and among those with HPV-negative disease (SHR=0.4, CI=0.2-0.9, p=0.022). CONCLUSION: Our results suggest that tumoral MMP-9 may be related to poor outcome in OPSCC, especially in HPV-negative disease, while Rgp immunoexpression in inflammatory cells is associated here with better disease-specific survival (DSS).


Subject(s)
Head and Neck Neoplasms , Oropharyngeal Neoplasms , Papillomavirus Infections , Humans , Squamous Cell Carcinoma of Head and Neck/complications , Matrix Metalloproteinase 8 , Oropharyngeal Neoplasms/pathology , Prognosis , Matrix Metalloproteinase 9 , Gingipain Cysteine Endopeptidases , Porphyromonas gingivalis , Chymotrypsin , Papillomaviridae , Head and Neck Neoplasms/complications , Virulence Factors
18.
Anticancer Drugs ; 34(2): 325-331, 2023 02 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2279488

ABSTRACT

The incidence of radiation-induced secondary primary tumors (SPTs) is estimated to be between 1 and 20%. The oropharynx is not a common site for postradiotherapy head and neck SPTs. We describe the cases of eight patients, each with an SPT of the oropharynx. These developed after a long median latency of 17.7 years with each receiving two-dimensional radiation therapy and delivery of at least 5000 cGy per pharynx, except for one who was treated with IMRT. Tumor histological commonalities revealed squamous cell carcinoma p16 negative staining, local invasion, and limited lymphatic spread, with posterior wall of the oropharynx and the base of the tongue being the most common locations. Limited and challenging treatment options have been reported such as surgery, reirradiation, or clinical trials. Radiation-induced SP oropharyngeal carcinoma has unique clinical and pathological features. Patients with this disease have limited treatment options, which should be discussed in a multidisciplinary tumor board meeting. For this population, lifelong follow-up may help in early diagnosis and improve outcomes.


Subject(s)
Carcinoma, Squamous Cell , Head and Neck Neoplasms , Humans , Carcinoma, Squamous Cell/pathology , Oropharynx/pathology , Retrospective Studies
19.
researchsquare; 2023.
Preprint in English | PREPRINT-RESEARCHSQUARE | ID: ppzbmed-10.21203.rs.3.rs-2772302.v1

ABSTRACT

Background There is no updated national data regarding the real impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on delaying diagnosis and treatment among patients with lung, and head, and neck cancers in Brazil. This study aimed to analyze the COVID-19 pandemic impact on cancer diagnosis and clinical outcomes among lung, head, and neck cancer patients assisted in a tertiary cancer center in Southeastern Brazil, as well as to analyze these patients’ pretreatment clinical features.Methods Retrospective cohort of patients with lung or head and neck cancer assisted in a tertiary cancer center in southeastern Brazil between January/2019 and December/2021. To assess statistical differences among groups [i.e., cohort 2019 versus (vs.) 2020 and 2019 vs. 2021] chi-square test was used with a 5% significance level and 90% power for sample size calculation. Differences among baseline clinical features and sociodemographic characteristics were evaluated either by T-test for two samples or Fisher’s or Pearson’s chi-square test (for quantitative or qualitative variables). All utilized tests had a 5% significance level.Results 652 patients were included, 332 with lung and 320 with head and neck cancer; it was observed a significant decrease in oncologic treatment recommendations and increase in palliative care recommendation for patients with lung cancer, despite similar stages at diagnosis. During the COVID-19 pandemic, more pain symptoms were reported at the first Oncology assessment (p < 0.05 in all of them). Compared to 2019, head and neck cancer patients diagnosed in 2021 presented a worse initial performance status (p = 0.017). There was a statistically significant reduction in mortality for patients diagnosed with head and neck cancer in 2021 when compared to 2019 (p = 0.003).Conclusions This research highlights high mortality rates for patients with lung and head and neck cancer in Brazil, even before the pandemic started, as consequence of advanced diseases at diagnosis and limited access to best treatment options at the publica health system. This is a reflection of how fragile the public healthcare system even before facing an acute public health crisis such as the COVID-19 pandemic. Yet, the total impact on public health may follow for many years.


Subject(s)
Neoplasms , Lung Neoplasms , Pain , COVID-19 , Head and Neck Neoplasms
20.
J Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg ; 52(1): 15, 2023 Feb 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2244380

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic placed considerable strain on the healthcare system, leading to the re-allocation of resources and implementation of new practice guidelines. The objective of this study is to assess the impact of COVID-19 guideline modifications on head and neck cancer (HNC) care at two tertiary care centers in Canada. METHODS: A retrospective cohort study was conducted. HNC patients seen at two tertiary care centers before and after the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic (pre-pandemic: July 1st, 2019, to February 29th, 2020; pandemic: March 1st, 2020, to October 31st, 2020) were included. The pre-pandemic and pandemic cohorts were compared according to patient and tumor characteristics, duration of HNC workup, and treatment type and duration. Mean differences in cancer care wait times, including time to diagnosis, tumor board, and treatment as well as total treatment package time and postoperative hospital stay were compared between cohorts. Univariate and multivariate analyses were used to compare characteristics and outcomes between cohorts. RESULTS: Pre-pandemic (n = 132) and pandemic (n = 133) patients did not differ significantly in sex, age, habits, or tumor characteristics. The percentage of patients who received surgery only, chemo/radiotherapy (CXRT) only, and surgery plus adjuvant CXRT did not differ significantly between cohorts. Pandemic patients experienced a significant time reduction compared to pre-pandemic patients with regards to the date first seen by a HNC service until start of treatment ([Formula: see text] = 48.7 and 76.6 days respectively; p = .0001), the date first seen by a HNC service until first presentation at tumor board ([Formula: see text] = 25.1 and 38 days respectively; p = .001), mean total package time for patients who received surgery only ([Formula: see text] = 3.7 and 9.0 days respectively; p = .017), and mean total package time for patients who received surgery plus adjuvant CXRT ([Formula: see text] = 80.2 and 112.7 days respectively; p = .035). CONCLUSION: The time to treatment was significantly reduced during the COVID-19 pandemic as compared to pre-pandemic. This transparent model of patient-centered operative-room prioritization can serve as a model for improving resource allocation and efficiency of HNC care during emergency and non-emergency scenarios.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Head and Neck Neoplasms , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Retrospective Studies , Head and Neck Neoplasms/therapy , Patient Care
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