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1.
J Laryngol Otol ; 135(11): 1025-1030, 2021 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1569188

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Patients with coronavirus disease vaccine associated lymphadenopathy are increasingly being referred to healthcare services. This work is the first to report on the incidence, clinical course and imaging features of coronavirus disease vaccine associated cervical lymphadenopathy, with special emphasis on the implications for head and neck cancer services. METHODS: This was a retrospective cohort study of all patients referred to our head and neck cancer clinics between 16 December 2020 and 12 March 2021. The main outcomes measured were the proportion of patients with vaccine-associated cervical lymphadenopathy, and the clinical and imaging characteristics. RESULTS: The incidence of vaccine-associated cervical lymphadenopathy referrals was 14.8 per cent (n = 13). Five patients (38.5 per cent) had abnormal-looking enlarged and rounded nodes with increased vascularity. Only seven patients (53.9 per cent) reported full resolution within an average of 3.1 ± 2.3 weeks. CONCLUSION: Coronavirus disease vaccine associated cervical lymphadenopathy can mimic malignant lymphadenopathy and therefore might prove challenging to diagnose and manage correctly. Healthcare services may encounter a significant increase in referrals.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , COVID-19/prevention & control , Head and Neck Neoplasms/immunology , Lymphadenopathy/chemically induced , Lymphadenopathy/epidemiology , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Female , Head and Neck Neoplasms/virology , Humans , Incidence , Male , Middle Aged , Neck/pathology , Neck/virology , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
2.
Front Biosci (Landmark Ed) ; 26(10): 740-751, 2021 10 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1498507

ABSTRACT

Objectives: To quantify the integrated levels of ACE2 and TMPRSS2, the two well-recognized severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) entry-related genes, and to further identify key factors contributing to SARS-CoV-2 susceptibility in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSC). Methods: We developed a metric of the potential for tissue infected with SARS-CoV-2 ("TPSI") based on ACE2 and TMPRSS2 transcript levels and compared TPSI levels between tumor and matched normal tissues across 11 tumor types. For further analysis of HNSC, weighted gene co-expression network analysis (WGCNA), functional analysis, and single sample gene set enrichment analysis (ssGSEA) were conducted to investigate TPSI-relevant biological processes and their relationship with the immune landscape. TPSI-related factors were identified from clinical and mutational domains, followed by lasso regression to determine their relative effects on TPSI levels. Results: TPSI levels in tumors were generally lower than in the normal tissues. In HNSC, the genes highly associated with TPSI were enriched in viral entry-related processes, and TPSI levels were positively correlated with both eosinophils and T helper 17 (Th17) cell infiltration. Furthermore, the site of onset, human papillomaviruses (HPV) status, and nuclear receptor binding SET domain protein 1 (NSD1) mutations were identified as the most important factors shaping TPSI levels. Conclusions: This study identified the infection risk of SARS-CoV-2 between tumor and normal tissues, and provided evidence for the risk stratification of HNSC.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/genetics , COVID-19/genetics , Carcinoma, Squamous Cell/genetics , Head and Neck Neoplasms/genetics , Serine Endopeptidases/genetics , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , COVID-19/metabolism , COVID-19/virology , Carcinoma, Squamous Cell/metabolism , Carcinoma, Squamous Cell/virology , Gene Expression Profiling/methods , Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic , Gene Regulatory Networks , Head and Neck Neoplasms/metabolism , Head and Neck Neoplasms/virology , Humans , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction/methods , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Serine Endopeptidases/metabolism , Virus Internalization
4.
Cancer ; 127(14): 2476-2488, 2021 07 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-985988

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The aims of this study were to provide data on the safety of head and neck cancer surgery currently being undertaken during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. METHODS: This international, observational cohort study comprised 1137 consecutive patients with head and neck cancer undergoing primary surgery with curative intent in 26 countries. Factors associated with severe pulmonary complications in COVID-19-positive patients and infections in the surgical team were determined by univariate analysis. RESULTS: Among the 1137 patients, the commonest sites were the oral cavity (38%) and the thyroid (21%). For oropharynx and larynx tumors, nonsurgical therapy was favored in most cases. There was evidence of surgical de-escalation of neck management and reconstruction. Overall 30-day mortality was 1.2%. Twenty-nine patients (3%) tested positive for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) within 30 days of surgery; 13 of these patients (44.8%) developed severe respiratory complications, and 3.51 (10.3%) died. There were significant correlations with an advanced tumor stage and admission to critical care. Members of the surgical team tested positive within 30 days of surgery in 40 cases (3%). There were significant associations with operations in which the patients also tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 within 30 days, with a high community incidence of SARS-CoV-2, with screened patients, with oral tumor sites, and with tracheostomy. CONCLUSIONS: Head and neck cancer surgery in the COVID-19 era appears safe even when surgery is prolonged and complex. The overlap in COVID-19 between patients and members of the surgical team raises the suspicion of failures in cross-infection measures or the use of personal protective equipment. LAY SUMMARY: Head and neck surgery is safe for patients during the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic even when it is lengthy and complex. This is significant because concerns over patient safety raised in many guidelines appear not to be reflected by outcomes, even for those who have other serious illnesses or require complex reconstructions. Patients subjected to suboptimal or nonstandard treatments should be carefully followed up to optimize their cancer outcomes. The overlap between patients and surgeons testing positive for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 is notable and emphasizes the need for fastidious cross-infection controls and effective personal protective equipment.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/transmission , Head and Neck Neoplasms/surgery , Infectious Disease Transmission, Patient-to-Professional/statistics & numerical data , Surgeons , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Critical Care , Head and Neck Neoplasms/pathology , Head and Neck Neoplasms/virology , Humans , International Cooperation , Middle Aged , Neoplasm Staging , Pandemics , Personal Protective Equipment , Reconstructive Surgical Procedures , Young Adult
5.
J Exp Clin Cancer Res ; 39(1): 200, 2020 Sep 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-788709

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: SARS-coronavirus-2 enters host cells through binding of the Spike protein to ACE2 receptor and subsequent S priming by the TMPRSS2 protease. We aim to assess differences in both ACE2 and TMPRSS2 expression in normal tissues from oral cavity, pharynx, larynx and lung tissues as well as neoplastic tissues from the same areas. METHODS: The study has been conducted using the TCGA and the Regina Elena Institute databases and validated by experimental model in HNSCC cells. We also included data from one COVID19 patient who went under surgery for HNSCC. RESULTS: TMPRSS2 expression in HNSCC was significantly reduced compared to the normal tissues. It was more evident in women than in men, in TP53 mutated versus wild TP53 tumors, in HPV negative patients compared to HPV positive counterparts. Functionally, we modeled the multivariate effect of TP53, HPV, and other inherent variables on TMPRSS2. All variables had a statistically significant independent effect on TMPRSS2. In particular, in tumor tissues, HPV negative, TP53 mutated status and elevated TP53-dependent Myc-target genes were associated with low TMPRSS2 expression. The further analysis of both TCGA and our institutional HNSCC datasets identified a signature anti-correlated to TMPRSS2. As proof-of-principle we also validated the anti-correlation between microRNAs and TMPRSS2 expression in a SARS-CoV-2 positive HNSCC patient tissues Finally, we did not find TMPRSS2 promoter methylation. CONCLUSIONS: Collectively, these findings suggest that tumoral tissues, herein exemplified by HNSCC and lung cancers might be more resistant to SARS-CoV-2 infection due to reduced expression of TMPRSS2. These observations may help to better assess the frailty of SARS-CoV-2 positive cancer patients.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Head and Neck Neoplasms/pathology , Papillomaviridae/isolation & purification , Papillomavirus Infections/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Serine Endopeptidases/metabolism , Squamous Cell Carcinoma of Head and Neck/pathology , COVID-19 , Case-Control Studies , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Head and Neck Neoplasms/metabolism , Head and Neck Neoplasms/virology , Humans , Male , Pandemics , Papillomavirus Infections/virology , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Prognosis , SARS-CoV-2 , Squamous Cell Carcinoma of Head and Neck/metabolism , Squamous Cell Carcinoma of Head and Neck/virology , Survival Rate
6.
Cancer ; 126(15): 3426-3437, 2020 08 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-457377

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The objective of this study was to identify a subgroup of patients with head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) who might be suitable for hypofractionated radiotherapy (RT-hypo) during the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: HNSCC cases (oropharynx/larynx/hypopharynx) treated with definitive RT-hypo (60 Gy in 25 fractions over 5 weeks), moderately accelerated radiotherapy (RT-acc) alone (70 Gy in 35 fractions over 6 weeks), or concurrent chemoradiotherapy (CCRT) during 2005-2017 were included. Locoregional control (LRC) and distant control (DC) after RT-hypo, RT-acc, and CCRT were compared for various subgroups. RESULTS: The study identified 994 human papillomavirus-positive (HPV+) oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma cases (with 61, 254, and 679 receiving RT-hypo, RT-acc, and CCRT, respectively) and 1045 HPV- HNSCC cases (with 263, 451, and 331 receiving RT-hypo, RT-acc, and CCRT, respectively). The CCRT cohort had higher T/N categories, whereas the radiotherapy-alone patients were older. The median follow-up was 4.6 years. RT-hypo, RT-acc, and CCRT produced comparable 3-year LRC and DC for HPV+ T1-2N0-N2a disease (seventh edition of the TNM system [TNM-7]; LRC, 94%, 100%, and 94%; P = .769; DC, 94%, 100%, and 94%; P = .272), T1-T2N2b disease (LRC, 90%, 94%, and 97%; P = .445; DC, 100%, 96%, and 95%; P = .697), and T1-2N2c/T3N0-N2c disease (LRC, 89%, 93%, and 95%; P = .494; DC, 89%, 90%, and 87%; P = .838). Although LRC was also similar for T4/N3 disease (78%, 84%, and 88%; P = .677), DC was significantly lower with RT-hypo or RT-acc versus CCRT (67%, 65%, and 87%; P = .005). For HPV- HNSCC, 3-year LRC and DC were similar with RT-hypo, RT-acc, and CCRT in stages I and II (LRC, 85%, 89%, and 100%; P = .320; DC, 99%, 98%, and 100%; P = .446); however, RT-hypo and RT-acc had significantly lower LRC in stage III (76%, 69%, and 91%; P = .006), whereas DC rates were similar (92%, 85%, and 90%; P = .410). Lower LRC in stage III predominated in patients with laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma receiving RT-acc (62%) but not RT-hypo (80%) or CCRT (92%; RT-hypo vs CCRT: P = .270; RT-acc vs CCRT: P = .004). CCRT had numerically higher LRC in comparison with RT-hypo or RT-acc in stage IV (73%, 65%, and 66%; P = .336). CONCLUSIONS: It is proposed that RT-hypo be considered in place of CCRT for HPV+ T1-T3N0-N2c (TNM-7) HNSCCs, HPV- T1-T2N0 HNSCCs, and select stage III HNSCCs during the COVID-19 outbreak.


Subject(s)
Head and Neck Neoplasms/radiotherapy , Radiation Dose Hypofractionation , Squamous Cell Carcinoma of Head and Neck/radiotherapy , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Head and Neck Neoplasms/drug therapy , Head and Neck Neoplasms/mortality , Head and Neck Neoplasms/virology , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Neoplasm Recurrence, Local , Oropharyngeal Neoplasms/drug therapy , Oropharyngeal Neoplasms/radiotherapy , Oropharyngeal Neoplasms/virology , Pandemics , Papillomavirus Infections/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Radiotherapy, Intensity-Modulated , Risk Factors , Squamous Cell Carcinoma of Head and Neck/drug therapy , Squamous Cell Carcinoma of Head and Neck/mortality , Squamous Cell Carcinoma of Head and Neck/virology , Treatment Outcome
7.
Eur Ann Otorhinolaryngol Head Neck Dis ; 137(3): 161-166, 2020 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-108790

ABSTRACT

In Otorhinolaryngology - Head and Neck Surgery, clinical examination and invasive procedures on the respiratory tract and on airway-connected cavities, such as paranasal sinuses and the middle ear, expose people to direct transmission of SARS-CoV-2 by inhalation or ocular projection of contaminated droplets, and to indirect transmission by contact with contaminated hands, objects or surfaces. Estimating an R0 of COVID-19 at around 3 justified postponing non-urgent face-to-face consultations and expanding the use of teleconsultation in order to limit the risks of SARS-CoV-2 infection of patients or health workers and comply with the lockdown. The health authority recommends cancellation of all medical or surgical activities, which are not urgent as long as this does not involve a loss of chance for the patient. The purpose of this cancellation is to significantly increase critical care capacity, prioritise the reception of patients with COVID-19, prioritise the allocation of staff and provision of the equipment necessary for their medical or surgical management, and contribute to the smooth running of downstream critical care within their establishment. Another goal is to reduce the risks of patient contamination within healthcare facilities. This document provides guidance on how to proceed with and adapt ENT surgery in the current pandemic context, as well as on the management of postponed operations. This best practice advice must of course be adapted in each region according to the development of the epidemic and pre-existing arrangements. Their local application can only be decided within the framework of collaboration between the ENT teams, the operational hygiene units and all the other specialties concerned.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Otorhinolaryngologic Surgical Procedures/methods , Otorhinolaryngologic Surgical Procedures/standards , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , France/epidemiology , Head and Neck Neoplasms/pathology , Head and Neck Neoplasms/surgery , Head and Neck Neoplasms/virology , Humans , Infection Control/methods , Infection Control/standards , Otolaryngology/methods , Otolaryngology/standards , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , SARS-CoV-2
8.
Eur Ann Otorhinolaryngol Head Neck Dis ; 137(3): 159-160, 2020 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-47756

ABSTRACT

In the context of the current pandemic, there is a need for specific advice concerning treatment of patients with Head and Neck cancers. The rule is to limit as much as possible the number of patients in order to reduce the risks of contamination by the SARS-Cov-2 virus for both patients and the caregivers, who are particularly exposed in ENT. The aim is to minimize the risk of loss of opportunity for patients and to anticipate the increased number of cancer patients to be treated at the end of the pandemic, taking into account the degree of urgency, the difficulty of the surgery, the risk of contaminating the caregivers (tracheotomy) and the local situation (whether or not the hospital and intensive care departments are overstretched).


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Head and Neck Neoplasms/surgery , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Surgical Oncology/methods , Surgical Oncology/standards , Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , COVID-19 , Consensus , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , France/epidemiology , Head and Neck Neoplasms/virology , Humans , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , SARS-CoV-2 , Squamous Cell Carcinoma of Head and Neck/surgery , Squamous Cell Carcinoma of Head and Neck/virology , Tracheostomy/methods , Tracheostomy/standards
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