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2.
PLoS One ; 16(3): e0247773, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1575465

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The coronavirus infectious disease 19 (COVID-19) pandemic has resulted in significant morbidities, severe acute respiratory failures and subsequently emergency departments' (EDs) overcrowding in a context of insufficient laboratory testing capacities. The development of decision support tools for real-time clinical diagnosis of COVID-19 is of prime importance to assist patients' triage and allocate resources for patients at risk. METHODS AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: From March 2 to June 15, 2020, clinical patterns of COVID-19 suspected patients at admission to the EDs of Liège University Hospital, consisting in the recording of eleven symptoms (i.e. dyspnoea, chest pain, rhinorrhoea, sore throat, dry cough, wet cough, diarrhoea, headache, myalgia, fever and anosmia) plus age and gender, were investigated during the first COVID-19 pandemic wave. Indeed, 573 SARS-CoV-2 cases confirmed by qRT-PCR before mid-June 2020, and 1579 suspected cases that were subsequently determined to be qRT-PCR negative for the detection of SARS-CoV-2 were enrolled in this study. Using multivariate binary logistic regression, two most relevant symptoms of COVID-19 were identified in addition of the age of the patient, i.e. fever (odds ratio [OR] = 3.66; 95% CI: 2.97-4.50), dry cough (OR = 1.71; 95% CI: 1.39-2.12), and patients older than 56.5 y (OR = 2.07; 95% CI: 1.67-2.58). Two additional symptoms (chest pain and sore throat) appeared significantly less associated to the confirmed COVID-19 cases with the same OR = 0.73 (95% CI: 0.56-0.94). An overall pondered (by OR) score (OPS) was calculated using all significant predictors. A receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was generated and the area under the ROC curve was 0.71 (95% CI: 0.68-0.73) rendering the use of the OPS to discriminate COVID-19 confirmed and unconfirmed patients. The main predictors were confirmed using both sensitivity analysis and classification tree analysis. Interestingly, a significant negative correlation was observed between the OPS and the cycle threshold (Ct values) of the qRT-PCR. CONCLUSION AND MAIN SIGNIFICANCE: The proposed approach allows for the use of an interactive and adaptive clinical decision support tool. Using the clinical algorithm developed, a web-based user-interface was created to help nurses and clinicians from EDs with the triage of patients during the second COVID-19 wave.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Testing , COVID-19/diagnosis , Decision Support Systems, Clinical , Adult , Aged , Cough/diagnosis , Dyspnea/diagnosis , Female , Fever/diagnosis , Headache/diagnosis , Hospitals , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pharyngitis/diagnosis , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification
3.
PLoS One ; 16(12): e0249980, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1571978

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To evaluate the diagnostic value of symptoms used by daycares and schools to screen children and adolescents for SARS-CoV-2 infection, we analyzed data from a primary care setting. METHODS: This cohort study included all patients ≤17 years old who were evaluated at Providence Community Health Centers (PCHC; Providence, U.S.), for COVID-19 symptoms and/or exposure, and received SARS-CoV-2 polymerase chain reaction (PCR) testing between March-June 2020. Participants were identified from PCHC electronic medical records. For three age groups- 0-4, 5-11, and 12-17 years-we estimated the sensitivity, specificity, and area under the receiver operating curve (AUC) of individual symptoms and three symptom combinations: a case definition published by the Rhode Island Department of Health (RIDOH), and two novel combinations generated by different statistical approaches to maximize sensitivity, specificity, and AUC. We evaluated symptom combinations both with and without consideration of COVID-19 exposure. Myalgia, headache, sore throat, abdominal pain, nausea, anosmia, and ageusia were not assessed in 0-4 year-olds due to the lower reliability of these symptoms in this group. RESULTS: Of 555 participants, 217 (39.1%) were SARS-CoV-2-infected. Fever was more common among 0-4 years-olds (p = 0.002); older children more frequently reported fatigue (p = 0.02). In children ≥5 years old, anosmia or ageusia had 94-98% specificity. In all ages, exposure history most accurately predicted infection. With respect to individual symptoms, cough most accurately predicted infection in <5 year-olds (AUC 0.69) and 12-17 year-olds (AUC 0.62), while headache was most accurate in 5-11 year-olds (AUC 0.62). In combination with exposure history, the novel symptom combinations generated statistically to maximize test characteristics had sensitivity >95% but specificity <30%. No symptom or symptom combination had AUC ≥0.70. CONCLUSIONS: Anosmia or ageusia in children ≥5 years old should raise providers' index of suspicion for COVID-19. However, our overall findings underscore the limited diagnostic value of symptoms.


Subject(s)
Ageusia/diagnosis , COVID-19/diagnosis , Cough/diagnosis , Headache/diagnosis , Myalgia/diagnosis , Pharyngitis/diagnosis , Adolescent , Age Distribution , Area Under Curve , Child , Child, Preschool , Cohort Studies , Community Health Centers , Diagnostic Tests, Routine , Electronic Health Records , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Primary Health Care
4.
Panminerva Med ; 63(3): 324-331, 2021 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1504553

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: New messenger RNA (mRNA) and adenovirus-based vaccines (AdV) against Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) have entered large scale clinical trials. Since healthcare professionals (HCPs) and armed forces personnel (AFP) represent a high-risk category, they act as a suitable target population to investigate vaccine-related side effects, including headache, which has emerged as a common complaint. METHODS: We investigated the side-effects of COVID-19 vaccines among HCPs and AFP through a 38 closed-question international survey. The electronic link was distributed via e-mail or via Whatsapp to more than 500 contacts. Responses to the survey questions were analyzed with bivariate tests. RESULTS: A total of 375 complete surveys have been analyzed. More than 88% received an mRNA vaccine and 11% received AdV first dose. A second dose of mRNA vaccine was administered in 76% of individuals. No severe adverse effects were reported, whereas moderate reactions and those lasting more than 1 day were more common with AdV (P=0.002 and P=0.024 respectively). Headache was commonly reported regardless of the vaccine type, but less frequently, with shorter duration and lower severity that usually experienced by participants, without significant difference irrespective of vaccine type. CONCLUSIONS: Both mRNA and AdV COVID-19 vaccines were safe and well tolerated in a real-life subset of HCPs and AFP subjects.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , COVID-19/prevention & control , Headache/chemically induced , Vaccination/adverse effects , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/transmission , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Headache/diagnosis , Headache/epidemiology , Health Care Surveys , Health Personnel , Humans , Incidence , Male , Middle Aged , Occupational Health , Risk Assessment , Risk Factors , Time Factors , Treatment Outcome , Young Adult
5.
Zh Nevrol Psikhiatr Im S S Korsakova ; 121(8): 67-70, 2021.
Article in Russian | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1464108

ABSTRACT

The neurological symptoms of COVID-19 in children (in Dyurtyuli area, Republic of Bashkortostan) are analyzed and brief review of the literature is undertaken in the paper. 137 children underwent swab test for COVID-19. The disease was diagnosed in 9 of them. Only respiratory symptoms were observed in 3 children, a combination of respiratory with anosmia or/and headache - in 3, asymptomatic form - in another 3. A case of a 7-years old girl suffering from COVID-19 with respiratory symptoms as well as anosmia and headache is presented. According to the review of the literature, COVID - 19 in children is usually milder than in adults, but in some cases may lead to neurological consequences. Multisystem inflammatory syndrome may lead to the development symptoms of encephalopathy (altered mental status, headache) and stroke. Autoimmune complications such as Gillian-Barre syndrome develop simultaneously or after resolving of the infectious process. The development of viral meningoencephalitis in COVID-19 is questionable.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Anosmia/diagnosis , Anosmia/virology , COVID-19/diagnosis , Child , Female , Headache/diagnosis , Headache/virology , Humans
6.
Semin Pediatr Neurol ; 40: 100922, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1386629

ABSTRACT

Primary intracranial hypertension (PIH) is characterized by clinical signs of increased intracranial pressure, papilledema, elevated opening pressure, and absence of mass lesion, hydrocephalus, or meningeal enhancement on neuroimaging. Visual changes are a common presenting feature and if untreated there is risk of irreversible vision loss. There have been recent proposed changes to the criteria for PIH along with studies looking at the differences in imaging characteristics between adult and pediatric PIH. The presence of transverse sinus stenosis alone was highly sensitive and specific for pediatric PIH. The Idiopathic Intracranial Hypertension Treatment Trial was an adult, multicenter study that examined the use of acetazolamide and weight loss on the course of PIH. The study confirmed many previously held beliefs including the most common presenting symptom in PIH is headache. Most patients present with bilateral papilledema with 58.2% of patients having symmetric Frisen scale grading and within one grade in 92.8%. Although diplopia is a common reported symptom, very few have evidence of cranial nerve palsy. Male gender, high-grade papilledema, and decreased visual acuity at presentation are risk factors for treatment failure. Acetazolamide use is associated with mild metabolic acidosis. During acetazolamide treatment, monitoring for hypokalemia or aplastic anemia is not recommended. Monitoring transaminases in the titration phase of treatment should be considered due to a case of transaminitis and pancreatitis with elevated lipase. Newer case reports have also seen associations of secondary intracranial hypertension with concurrent COVID-19 infection and MIS-C.


Subject(s)
Acetazolamide/administration & dosage , COVID-19/diagnosis , Carbonic Anhydrase Inhibitors/administration & dosage , Headache/diagnosis , Intracranial Hypertension , Papilledema/diagnosis , Vision Disorders/diagnosis , Weight Loss , Acetazolamide/adverse effects , Adolescent , Adult , COVID-19/complications , Carbonic Anhydrase Inhibitors/adverse effects , Child , Combined Modality Therapy , Diagnosis, Differential , Female , Headache/etiology , Humans , Intracranial Hypertension/complications , Intracranial Hypertension/diagnosis , Intracranial Hypertension/therapy , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Male , Middle Aged , Multicenter Studies as Topic , Papilledema/etiology , Pseudotumor Cerebri/complications , Pseudotumor Cerebri/diagnosis , Pseudotumor Cerebri/etiology , Pseudotumor Cerebri/therapy , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/complications , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/diagnosis , Tomography, Optical Coherence , Vision Disorders/etiology , Young Adult
7.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 16144, 2021 08 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1349688

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 can involve persistence, sequelae, and other medical complications that last weeks to months after initial recovery. This systematic review and meta-analysis aims to identify studies assessing the long-term effects of COVID-19. LitCOVID and Embase were searched to identify articles with original data published before the 1st of January 2021, with a minimum of 100 patients. For effects reported in two or more studies, meta-analyses using a random-effects model were performed using the MetaXL software to estimate the pooled prevalence with 95% CI. PRISMA guidelines were followed. A total of 18,251 publications were identified, of which 15 met the inclusion criteria. The prevalence of 55 long-term effects was estimated, 21 meta-analyses were performed, and 47,910 patients were included (age 17-87 years). The included studies defined long-COVID as ranging from 14 to 110 days post-viral infection. It was estimated that 80% of the infected patients with SARS-CoV-2 developed one or more long-term symptoms. The five most common symptoms were fatigue (58%), headache (44%), attention disorder (27%), hair loss (25%), and dyspnea (24%). Multi-disciplinary teams are crucial to developing preventive measures, rehabilitation techniques, and clinical management strategies with whole-patient perspectives designed to address long COVID-19 care.


Subject(s)
Alopecia/diagnosis , Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity/diagnosis , COVID-19/complications , Dyspnea/diagnosis , Fatigue/diagnosis , Headache/diagnosis , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Alopecia/complications , Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity/complications , COVID-19/virology , Dyspnea/complications , Fatigue/complications , Headache/complications , Humans , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Young Adult
8.
Neuropediatrics ; 52(4): 242-251, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1287846

ABSTRACT

Neurological emergencies account for about one-third of the highest severity codes attributed in emergency pediatric departments. About 75% of children with acute neurological symptoms presents with seizures, headache, or other paroxysmal events. Life-threatening conditions involve a minor proportion of patients (e.g., less than 15% of children with headache and less than 5% of children with febrile seizures). This review highlights updated insights about clinical features, diagnostic workup, and therapeutic management of pediatric neurological emergencies. Particularly, details will be provided about the most recent insights about headache, febrile seizures, status epilepticus, altered levels of consciousness, acute motor impairment, acute movement disorders, and functional disorders, as well as the role of diagnostic tools (e.g., neuroimaging, lumbar puncture, and electroencephalography), in the emergency setting. Moreover, the impact of the current novel coronavirus disease2019 (COVID-19) pandemic on the evaluation of pediatric neurologic emergencies will also be analyzed.


Subject(s)
Acute Disease , Headache/diagnosis , Seizures/diagnosis , Status Epilepticus/diagnosis , COVID-19 , Child , Emergencies , Headache/therapy , Humans , Pandemics , Pediatrics , Seizures/therapy , Status Epilepticus/therapy
9.
Cephalalgia ; 41(13): 1332-1341, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1273200

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the association of headache during the acute phase of SARS-CoV-2 infection with long-term post-COVID headache and other post-COVID symptoms in hospitalised survivors. METHODS: A case-control study including patients hospitalised during the first wave of the pandemic in Spain was conducted. Patients reporting headache as a symptom during the acute phase and age- and sex-matched patients without headache during the acute phase participated. Hospitalisation and clinical data were collected from medical records. Patients were scheduled for a telephone interview 7 months after hospital discharge. Participants were asked about a list of post-COVID symptoms and were also invited to report any additional symptom they might have. Anxiety/depressive symptoms and sleep quality were assessed with the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale and the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index. RESULTS: Overall, 205 patients reporting headache and 410 patients without headache at hospitalisation were assessed 7.3 months (Standard Deviation 0.6) after hospital discharge. Patients with headache at onset presented a higher number of post-COVID symptoms (Incident Rate Ratio: 1.16, 95% CI: 1.03-1.30). Headache at onset was associated with a previous history of migraine (Odd Ratio: 2.90, 95% Confidence Interval: 1.41-5.98) and with the development of persistent tension-type like headache as a new post-COVID symptom (Odd Ratio: 2.65, 95% CI: 1.66-4.24). Fatigue as a long-term symptom was also more prevalent in patients with headache at onset (Odd Ratio: 1.55, 95% CI: 1.07-2.24). No between-group differences in the prevalence of anxiety/depressive symptoms or sleep quality were seen. CONCLUSION: Headache in the acute phase of SARS-CoV-2 infection was associated with higher prevalence of headache and fatigue as long-term post-COVID symptoms. Monitoring headache during the acute phase could help to identify patients at risk of developing long-term post-COVID symptoms, including post-COVID headache.


Subject(s)
Anxiety/etiology , COVID-19/complications , Depression/etiology , Fatigue/etiology , Headache/etiology , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/complications , Anxiety/epidemiology , Anxiety/psychology , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , Case-Control Studies , Depression/epidemiology , Depression/psychology , Fatigue/diagnosis , Fatigue/epidemiology , Female , Headache/diagnosis , Headache/epidemiology , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Sleep/physiology , Spain/epidemiology
10.
Curr Pain Headache Rep ; 25(8): 53, 2021 Jun 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1269179

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Personal protection equipment (PPE)-associated headache is an unusual secondary headache disorder that predominantly occurs in healthcare workers as a consequence of the donning of protective respirators, face masks and/or eyewear. The appreciation of this entity is important given the significant ramifications upon the occupational health of healthcare workers and could additionally have an impact on persons living with pre-existing headache disorder(s). RECENT FINDINGS: There has been a renewed interest and recognition of PPE-associated headaches amongst healthcare professionals, largely brought about by the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic which has besieged healthcare systems worldwide. De novo PPE-associated headaches may present with migrainous or tension-type features and can be viewed as a subtype of external compression headache. The prognosis of the disorder is generally favourable, given that most headaches are short-lived without long-term sequalae. Several aetiologies have been postulated to account for the development of these headaches. Notably, these headaches can affect the occupational health and work performance of healthcare workers. In this review, we discuss the epidemiology, clinical characteristics, probable etiopathogenesis, management and prognosis of PPE-associated headaches in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic. Future directions for research and PPE development are proposed.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Headache/epidemiology , Headache/therapy , Personal Protective Equipment/adverse effects , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/transmission , Headache/diagnosis , Health Personnel , Humans
11.
Am J Phys Med Rehabil ; 100(4): 307-312, 2021 04 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1266237

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The clinical manifestations of COVID-19 range from mild symptoms to severe pneumonia and severe organ damage. When evaluated specifically for pain, the data so far have shown that myalgia, headache, and chest pain can be seen in patients at varying rates; myalgia and headache, especially, are among the initial symptoms. DESIGN: This retrospective chart review, followed by a descriptive survey design study, was carried out by examining patients afflicted with COVID-19. After discharge, patients were asked about the severity and the body region of their pain, their use of analgesics, their mood and mental health, and their overall quality of life. RESULTS: A total of 206 patients with a mean age of 56.24 ± 16.99 yrs were included in the study. Pain during COVID-19 was found to be higher compared with the preinfectious and postinfectious states. The most frequent painful areas were reported to be the neck and back before the infection, whereas the head and limbs during the infection. The most frequently used analgesic during infection was paracetamol. There was no relationship between the patients' pain and anxiety and depression; the quality of life was found to be worse in patients with persistent pain. CONCLUSIONS: This study showed that the head and limbs were the most common painful body regions during COVID-19. It was also found that pain can continue in the postinfection period.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Myalgia/diagnosis , Pain Measurement/statistics & numerical data , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/complications , Female , Headache/diagnosis , Humans , Low Back Pain/diagnosis , Male , Middle Aged , Myalgia/etiology , Neck Pain/diagnosis , Physical Examination , Primary Health Care/methods , Retrospective Studies
12.
Eur J Neurol ; 28(11): 3798-3804, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1228751

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Literature regarding headache teleconsultation and patient satisfaction is scarce. The SARS-CoV-2 pandemic led to the restructuring of traditional clinical activity by adopting telemedicine. Our objectives were to evaluate patients' satisfaction with headache teleconsultation by telephone during the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic and assess patients' preferred model of appointment (face-to-face, teleconsultation by telephone, or both). METHODS: Patients with a previous diagnosis of primary headache or neuropathies and facial pain disorders, and at least one telephone headache visit during the first wave of COVID-19, filled out an online questionnaire regarding sociodemographic parameters, satisfaction with teleconsultation, and preferred model of appointment. RESULTS: We included 83 patients (valid response rate of 64.3%); most had migraine (83.1%). Regarding teleconsultation, 81.9% considered this model adequate for follow-up, 88.0% were satisfied with the information provided about the disease/treatment, and 73.5% were satisfied with the medication modification. Ninety percent would agree with a new tele-evaluation if stable after the pandemic. The mixed model was the preferred medical consultation type for the postpandemic period (43.4%), followed by face-to-face visits (33.7%). CONCLUSIONS: Patients were satisfied with the headache teleconsultation during the COVID-19 era. However, an exclusive model of telemedicine does not seem suitable for monitoring all patients. A mixed approach could be integrated into clinical practice after the pandemic to optimize health care.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Remote Consultation , Headache/diagnosis , Headache/epidemiology , Headache/therapy , Humans , Patient Satisfaction , SARS-CoV-2
13.
Praxis (Bern 1994) ; 110(4): 201-206, 2021.
Article in German | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1152806

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 and Headaches Abstract. Headaches are a common symptom of COVID-19 infections. Patients generally describe them as bilateral, predominantly frontal, squeezing and of moderate or severe intensity. Searching for "Red Flags" often allows distinction from primary headaches - usually fever, cough, and elevated inflammatory markers accompany COVID-19-associated headaches. Prospective studies did not confirm caveats against the use of ibuprofen as symptomatic treatment. While carrying facial masks often caused headaches, probably by compressing sensory nerves, many patients' migraine frequencies dropped during lockdown. Treatment of patients with primary headaches was complicated by quarantine and many centres offered online consultations.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Communicable Disease Control , Headache/diagnosis , Headache/etiology , Humans , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
14.
Ann Clin Transl Neurol ; 8(5): 1073-1085, 2021 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1147016

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Most SARS-CoV-2-infected individuals never require hospitalization. However, some develop prolonged symptoms. We sought to characterize the spectrum of neurologic manifestations in non-hospitalized Covid-19 "long haulers". METHODS: This is a prospective study of the first 100 consecutive patients (50 SARS-CoV-2 laboratory-positive (SARS-CoV-2+ ) and 50 laboratory-negative (SARS-CoV-2- ) individuals) presenting to our Neuro-Covid-19 clinic between May and November 2020. Due to early pandemic testing limitations, patients were included if they met Infectious Diseases Society of America symptoms of Covid-19, were never hospitalized for pneumonia or hypoxemia, and had neurologic symptoms lasting over 6 weeks. We recorded the frequency of neurologic symptoms and analyzed patient-reported quality of life measures and standardized cognitive assessments. RESULTS: Mean age was 43.2 ± 11.3 years, 70% were female, and 48% were evaluated in televisits. The most frequent comorbidities were depression/anxiety (42%) and autoimmune disease (16%). The main neurologic manifestations were: "brain fog" (81%), headache (68%), numbness/tingling (60%), dysgeusia (59%), anosmia (55%), and myalgias (55%), with only anosmia being more frequent in SARS-CoV-2+ than SARS-CoV-2- patients (37/50 [74%] vs. 18/50 [36%]; p < 0.001). Moreover, 85% also experienced fatigue. There was no correlation between time from disease onset and subjective impression of recovery. Both groups exhibited impaired quality of life in cognitive and fatigue domains. SARS-CoV-2+ patients performed worse in attention and working memory cognitive tasks compared to a demographic-matched US population (T-score 41.5 [37, 48.25] and 43 [37.5, 48.75], respectively; both p < 0.01). INTERPRETATION: Non-hospitalized Covid-19 "long haulers" experience prominent and persistent "brain fog" and fatigue that affect their cognition and quality of life.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Cognitive Dysfunction/diagnosis , Fatigue/diagnosis , Nervous System Diseases/diagnosis , Telemedicine/trends , Adult , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/etiology , COVID-19/psychology , Cognitive Dysfunction/etiology , Fatigue/etiology , Fatigue/psychology , Female , Headache/diagnosis , Headache/etiology , Headache/psychology , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Nervous System Diseases/etiology , Nervous System Diseases/psychology , Prospective Studies , Telemedicine/methods
15.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 2: CD013665, 2021 02 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1095222

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The clinical implications of SARS-CoV-2 infection are highly variable. Some people with SARS-CoV-2 infection remain asymptomatic, whilst the infection can cause mild to moderate COVID-19 and COVID-19 pneumonia in others. This can lead to some people requiring intensive care support and, in some cases, to death, especially in older adults. Symptoms such as fever, cough, or loss of smell or taste, and signs such as oxygen saturation are the first and most readily available diagnostic information. Such information could be used to either rule out COVID-19, or select patients for further testing. This is an update of this review, the first version of which published in July 2020. OBJECTIVES: To assess the diagnostic accuracy of signs and symptoms to determine if a person presenting in primary care or to hospital outpatient settings, such as the emergency department or dedicated COVID-19 clinics, has COVID-19. SEARCH METHODS: For this review iteration we undertook electronic searches up to 15 July 2020 in the Cochrane COVID-19 Study Register and the University of Bern living search database. In addition, we checked repositories of COVID-19 publications. We did not apply any language restrictions. SELECTION CRITERIA: Studies were eligible if they included patients with clinically suspected COVID-19, or if they recruited known cases with COVID-19 and controls without COVID-19. Studies were eligible when they recruited patients presenting to primary care or hospital outpatient settings. Studies in hospitalised patients were only included if symptoms and signs were recorded on admission or at presentation. Studies including patients who contracted SARS-CoV-2 infection while admitted to hospital were not eligible. The minimum eligible sample size of studies was 10 participants. All signs and symptoms were eligible for this review, including individual signs and symptoms or combinations. We accepted a range of reference standards. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Pairs of review authors independently selected all studies, at both title and abstract stage and full-text stage. They resolved any disagreements by discussion with a third review author. Two review authors independently extracted data and resolved disagreements by discussion with a third review author. Two review authors independently assessed risk of bias using the Quality Assessment tool for Diagnostic Accuracy Studies (QUADAS-2) checklist. We presented sensitivity and specificity in paired forest plots, in receiver operating characteristic space and in dumbbell plots. We estimated summary parameters using a bivariate random-effects meta-analysis whenever five or more primary studies were available, and whenever heterogeneity across studies was deemed acceptable. MAIN RESULTS: We identified 44 studies including 26,884 participants in total. Prevalence of COVID-19 varied from 3% to 71% with a median of 21%. There were three studies from primary care settings (1824 participants), nine studies from outpatient testing centres (10,717 participants), 12 studies performed in hospital outpatient wards (5061 participants), seven studies in hospitalised patients (1048 participants), 10 studies in the emergency department (3173 participants), and three studies in which the setting was not specified (5061 participants). The studies did not clearly distinguish mild from severe COVID-19, so we present the results for all disease severities together. Fifteen studies had a high risk of bias for selection of participants because inclusion in the studies depended on the applicable testing and referral protocols, which included many of the signs and symptoms under study in this review. This may have especially influenced the sensitivity of those features used in referral protocols, such as fever and cough. Five studies only included participants with pneumonia on imaging, suggesting that this is a highly selected population. In an additional 12 studies, we were unable to assess the risk for selection bias. This makes it very difficult to judge the validity of the diagnostic accuracy of the signs and symptoms from these included studies. The applicability of the results of this review update improved in comparison with the original review. A greater proportion of studies included participants who presented to outpatient settings, which is where the majority of clinical assessments for COVID-19 take place. However, still none of the studies presented any data on children separately, and only one focused specifically on older adults. We found data on 84 signs and symptoms. Results were highly variable across studies. Most had very low sensitivity and high specificity. Only cough (25 studies) and fever (7 studies) had a pooled sensitivity of at least 50% but specificities were moderate to low. Cough had a sensitivity of 67.4% (95% confidence interval (CI) 59.8% to 74.1%) and specificity of 35.0% (95% CI 28.7% to 41.9%). Fever had a sensitivity of 53.8% (95% CI 35.0% to 71.7%) and a specificity of 67.4% (95% CI 53.3% to 78.9%). The pooled positive likelihood ratio of cough was only 1.04 (95% CI 0.97 to 1.11) and that of fever 1.65 (95% CI 1.41 to 1.93). Anosmia alone (11 studies), ageusia alone (6 studies), and anosmia or ageusia (6 studies) had sensitivities below 50% but specificities over 90%. Anosmia had a pooled sensitivity of 28.0% (95% CI 17.7% to 41.3%) and a specificity of 93.4% (95% CI 88.3% to 96.4%). Ageusia had a pooled sensitivity of 24.8% (95% CI 12.4% to 43.5%) and a specificity of 91.4% (95% CI 81.3% to 96.3%). Anosmia or ageusia had a pooled sensitivity of 41.0% (95% CI 27.0% to 56.6%) and a specificity of 90.5% (95% CI 81.2% to 95.4%). The pooled positive likelihood ratios of anosmia alone and anosmia or ageusia were 4.25 (95% CI 3.17 to 5.71) and 4.31 (95% CI 3.00 to 6.18) respectively, which is just below our arbitrary definition of a 'red flag', that is, a positive likelihood ratio of at least 5. The pooled positive likelihood ratio of ageusia alone was only 2.88 (95% CI 2.02 to 4.09). Only two studies assessed combinations of different signs and symptoms, mostly combining fever and cough with other symptoms. These combinations had a specificity above 80%, but at the cost of very low sensitivity (< 30%). AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: The majority of individual signs and symptoms included in this review appear to have very poor diagnostic accuracy, although this should be interpreted in the context of selection bias and heterogeneity between studies. Based on currently available data, neither absence nor presence of signs or symptoms are accurate enough to rule in or rule out COVID-19. The presence of anosmia or ageusia may be useful as a red flag for COVID-19. The presence of fever or cough, given their high sensitivities, may also be useful to identify people for further testing. Prospective studies in an unselected population presenting to primary care or hospital outpatient settings, examining combinations of signs and symptoms to evaluate the syndromic presentation of COVID-19, are still urgently needed. Results from such studies could inform subsequent management decisions.


Subject(s)
Ambulatory Care , COVID-19/diagnosis , Primary Health Care , SARS-CoV-2 , Symptom Assessment , Ageusia/diagnosis , Ageusia/etiology , Anosmia/diagnosis , Anosmia/etiology , Arthralgia/diagnosis , Arthralgia/etiology , Bias , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cough/diagnosis , Cough/etiology , Diarrhea/diagnosis , Diarrhea/etiology , Dyspnea/diagnosis , Dyspnea/etiology , Fatigue/diagnosis , Fatigue/etiology , Fever/diagnosis , Fever/etiology , Headache/diagnosis , Headache/etiology , Humans , Myalgia/diagnosis , Myalgia/etiology , Outpatient Clinics, Hospital/statistics & numerical data , Pandemics , Physical Examination , Selection Bias , Symptom Assessment/classification , Symptom Assessment/statistics & numerical data
16.
Cephalalgia ; 40(13): 1432-1442, 2020 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1088415

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Headache is a common symptom of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection. In this study, we aimed to characterize the phenotype of headache attributed to SARS-CoV-2 infection and to test the International Classification of Headache Disorders (ICHD-3) phenotypic criteria for migraine and tension-type headache. METHODS: The study design was a cross-sectional study nested in a cohort. We screened all consecutive patients that were hospitalized and had a positive SARS-CoV-2 test. We included patients that described headache if the headache was not better explained by another ICHD-3 diagnosis. Patients were interviewed by two neurologists. RESULTS: We screened 580 patients and included 130 (mean age 56 years, 64% female). Headache was the first symptom of the infection in 26% of patients and appeared within 24 hours in 62% of patients. The headache was bilateral in 85%, frontal in 83%, and with pressing quality in 75% of patients. Mean intensity was 7.1, being severe in 64%. Hypersensitivity to stimuli occurred in 57% of patients. ICHD-3 criteria for headache attributed to systemic viral infection were fulfilled by 94% of patients; phenotypic criteria for migraine were fulfilled by 25% of patients, and tension-type headache criteria by 54% of patients. CONCLUSION: Headache attributed to SARS-CoV-2 infection in hospitalized patients has severe intensity, frontal predominance and oppressive quality. It occurs early in the course of the disease. Most patients fulfilled ICHD-3 criteria for headache attributed to systemic viral infection; however, the phenotype might resemble migraine in a quarter of cases and tension-type headache in half of the patients.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/complications , Headache/classification , Headache/diagnosis , Headache/virology , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Adult , Aged , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , International Classification of Diseases , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Phenotype , SARS-CoV-2
17.
Occup Med (Lond) ; 71(2): 95-98, 2021 04 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1083185

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: It is recognized that healthcare workers (HCWs) are at high risk of contracting Covid-19. It is incumbent on occupational health staff to recognize potential symptoms of Covid-19 among HCWs. AIMS: The aims of the study were to describe the presenting symptoms of HCWs who developed Covid-19 in Ireland, and to estimate the odds of specific symptoms being associated with a positive Covid-19 polymerase chain reaction (PCR) result. METHODS: A retrospective chart review of all symptomatic HCWs who self-presented for Covid-19 testing in Cork from March to May 2020 was conducted. A sex-matched case-control study was carried out to compare presenting features among those who tested positive compared to those who tested negative. Univariate and multivariable-adjusted conditional logistic regression models were run using Stata 15.0 to identify the symptoms associated with positive Covid-19 swab results. RESULTS: Three hundred and six HCWs were included in the study; 102 cases and 204 controls. Common presenting features among cases were fever/chills (55%), cough (44%) and headache (35%). The symptoms which were significantly associated with a positive Covid-19 swab result were loss of taste/smell (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 12.15, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.36-108.79), myalgia (aOR 2.36, 95% 1.27-4.38), fatigue (aOR 2.31, 95% CI 1.12-4.74), headache (aOR 2.11, 95% CI 1.19-3.74) and fever/chills (aOR 1.88, 95% CI 1.12-3.15). CONCLUSIONS: Fever, fatigue, myalgia, loss of taste/smell and headache were associated with increased odds of a Covid-19 diagnosis among symptomatic self-referred HCWs compared with those had negative swab results. Testing criteria for HCWs should reflect the broad range of possible symptoms of Covid-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Health Personnel , Occupational Health , Pandemics , Adult , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/virology , COVID-19 Testing , Cough/diagnosis , Cough/etiology , Fatigue/diagnosis , Fatigue/etiology , Female , Fever/diagnosis , Fever/etiology , Headache/diagnosis , Headache/etiology , Humans , Ireland , Logistic Models , Male , Middle Aged , Myalgia/diagnosis , Myalgia/etiology , Odds Ratio , Olfaction Disorders/diagnosis , Olfaction Disorders/etiology , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Taste Disorders/diagnosis , Taste Disorders/etiology , Young Adult
18.
Acta Neurol Scand ; 143(5): 569-574, 2021 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1072543

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To characterize patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) who presented primarily with neurologic symptoms without typical COVID-19 symptoms of fever, cough, and dyspnea. METHODS: We retrospectively identified COVID-19-positive patients 18 years and older that had neurology symptoms on presentation requiring neurology consultation between March 14, 2020 and May 18, 2020. The patients were then classified into those with typical COVID-19 symptoms and those without. Demographic, clinical symptoms, laboratory result, and clinical outcomes were collected. RESULTS: Out of 282 patients who had neurology consult during this period, we identified 56 (mean age 69.2 years, 57% women) who tested COVID-19-positive and had neurologic symptoms on initial presentation. Of these, 23 patients (mean age 65.2 years, 52% women) had no typical COVID-19 symptoms while 33 did (mean age 72.2 years, 60% woman). In both groups, impaired consciousness was the most common initial neurologic symptom, followed by stroke, unsteady gait, headache, seizure, syncopal event, acute vision changes, and intracranial hemorrhage. Out of the 23 patients without typical COVID-19 symptoms on presentation, 10 went on to develop typical symptoms with 8 needing supplemental oxygen and one requiring mechanical ventilation. CONCLUSION: Patients who have COVID-19 can present with serious neurologic symptoms such as impaired consciousness and stroke even without typical COVID-19 symptoms. Those without typical COVID-19 symptoms can later develop typical symptoms severe enough to need respiratory support.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , Hospitalization/trends , Nervous System Diseases/diagnosis , Nervous System Diseases/epidemiology , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Female , Headache/diagnosis , Headache/epidemiology , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , Stroke/diagnosis , Stroke/epidemiology , Tertiary Care Centers/trends
19.
Am J Phys Med Rehabil ; 100(4): 307-312, 2021 04 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1066489

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The clinical manifestations of COVID-19 range from mild symptoms to severe pneumonia and severe organ damage. When evaluated specifically for pain, the data so far have shown that myalgia, headache, and chest pain can be seen in patients at varying rates; myalgia and headache, especially, are among the initial symptoms. DESIGN: This retrospective chart review, followed by a descriptive survey design study, was carried out by examining patients afflicted with COVID-19. After discharge, patients were asked about the severity and the body region of their pain, their use of analgesics, their mood and mental health, and their overall quality of life. RESULTS: A total of 206 patients with a mean age of 56.24 ± 16.99 yrs were included in the study. Pain during COVID-19 was found to be higher compared with the preinfectious and postinfectious states. The most frequent painful areas were reported to be the neck and back before the infection, whereas the head and limbs during the infection. The most frequently used analgesic during infection was paracetamol. There was no relationship between the patients' pain and anxiety and depression; the quality of life was found to be worse in patients with persistent pain. CONCLUSIONS: This study showed that the head and limbs were the most common painful body regions during COVID-19. It was also found that pain can continue in the postinfection period.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Myalgia/diagnosis , Pain Measurement/statistics & numerical data , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/complications , Female , Headache/diagnosis , Humans , Low Back Pain/diagnosis , Male , Middle Aged , Myalgia/etiology , Neck Pain/diagnosis , Physical Examination , Primary Health Care/methods , Retrospective Studies
20.
Pain Med ; 22(9): 2092-2099, 2021 09 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1066388

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Headache is considered one of the most frequent neurological manifestations of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). This work aimed to identify the relative frequency of COVID-19-related headache and to clarify the impact of clinical, laboratory findings of COVID-19 infection on headache occurrence and its response to analgesics. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. SETTING: Recovered COVID-19 patients. SUBJECTS: In total, 782 patients with a confirmed diagnosis of COVID-19 infection. METHODS: Clinical, laboratory, and imaging data were obtained from the hospital medical records. Regarding patients who developed COVID-19 related headache, a trained neurologist performed an analysis of headache and its response to analgesics. RESULTS: The relative frequency of COVID-19 related headache among our sample was 55.1% with 95% confidence interval (CI) (.516-.586) for the estimated population prevalence. Female gender, malignancy, primary headache, fever, dehydration, lower levels of hemoglobin and platelets and higher levels of neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio (NLR) and CRP were significantly associated with COVID-19 related headache. Multivariate analysis revealed that female gender, fever, dehydration, primary headache, high NLR, and decreased platelet count were independent predictors of headache occurrence. By evaluating headache response to analgesics, old age, diabetes, hypertension, primary headache, severe COVID-19, steroid intake, higher CRP and ferritin and lower hemoglobin levels were associated with poor response to analgesics. Multivariate analysis revealed that primary headache, steroids intake, moderate and severe COVID-19 were independent predictors of non-response to analgesics. DISCUSSION: Headache occurs in 55.1% of patients with COVID-19. Female gender, fever, dehydration, primary headache, high NLR, and decreased platelet count are considered independent predictors of COVID-19 related headache.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cross-Sectional Studies , Egypt/epidemiology , Female , Headache/diagnosis , Headache/epidemiology , Hospitals , Humans , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2
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