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1.
JAMA Netw Open ; 5(1): e2143955, 2022 01 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1632975

ABSTRACT

Importance: Adverse events (AEs) after placebo treatment are common in randomized clinical drug trials. Systematic evidence regarding these nocebo responses in vaccine trials is important for COVID-19 vaccination worldwide especially because concern about AEs is reported to be a reason for vaccination hesitancy. Objective: To compare the frequencies of AEs reported in the placebo groups of COVID-19 vaccine trials with those reported in the vaccine groups. Data Sources: For this systematic review and meta-analysis, the Medline (PubMed) and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) databases were searched systematically using medical subheading terms and free-text keywords for trials of COVID-19 vaccines published up to July 14, 2021. Study Selection: Randomized clinical trials of COVID-19 vaccines that investigated adults aged 16 years or older were selected if they assessed solicited AEs within 7 days of injection, included an inert placebo arm, and provided AE reports for both the vaccine and placebo groups separately. Full texts were reviewed for eligibility by 2 independent reviewers. Data Extraction and Synthesis: Data extraction and quality assessment were performed independently by 2 reviewers, adhering to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analyses (PRISMA) guideline and using the Cochrane risk-of-bias tool. Meta-analyses were based on random-effects models. Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary outcomes were the proportions of placebo recipients reporting overall, systemic, and local (injection-site) AEs as well as logarithmic odds ratios (ORs) to evaluate group differences. Outcomes were tested for significance using z tests with 95% CIs. Results: Twelve articles with AE reports for 45 380 participants (22 578 placebo recipients and 22 802 vaccine recipients) were analyzed. After the first dose, 35.2% (95% CI, 26.7%-43.7%) of placebo recipients experienced systemic AEs, with headache (19.3%; 95% CI, 13.6%-25.1%) and fatigue (16.7%; 95% CI, 9.8%-23.6%) being most common. After the second dose, 31.8% (95% CI, 28.7%-35.0%) of placebo recipients reported systemic AEs. The ratio between placebo and vaccine arms showed that nocebo responses accounted for 76.0% of systemic AEs after the first COVID-19 vaccine dose and for 51.8% after the second dose. Significantly more vaccine recipients reported AEs, but the group difference for systemic AEs was small after the first dose (OR, -0.47; 95% CI, -0.54 to -0.40; P < .001; standardized mean difference, -0.26; 95% CI, -0.30 to -0.22) and large after the second dose (OR, -1.36; 95% CI, -1.86 to -0.86; P < .001; standardized mean difference, -0.75; 95% CI, -1.03 to -0.47). Conclusions and Relevance: In this systematic review and meta-analysis, significantly more AEs were reported in vaccine groups compared with placebo groups, but the rates of reported AEs in the placebo arms were still substantial. Public vaccination programs should consider these high rates of AEs in placebo arms.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , COVID-19/prevention & control , Placebos/adverse effects , Arm Injuries/etiology , Fatigue/etiology , Headache/etiology , Humans , Injections, Intramuscular/adverse effects , SARS-CoV-2
2.
Int J Mol Med ; 49(3)2022 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1625254

ABSTRACT

Mefenamic acid is a non­steroidal anti­inflammatory drug exhibiting a wide range of anti­inflammatory, antipyretic, analgesic and probable antiviral activities. The present study evaluated the efficacy of treatment with mefenamic acid combined with standard medical care vs. standard medical care plus a placebo in ambulatory patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID­19; nasal/oropharyngeal swabs reverse transcription­PCR test results positive for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2). The present study is a phase II prospective, two­arm, parallel­group, randomized, double­blind placebo­controlled clinical trial which analyzed 36 patients. Two aspects were evaluated during the 14­day follow­up period: i) The time for reaching a patient acceptable symptom state (PASS), and ii) the last day of each COVID­19 symptom presentation. Adverse effects were evaluated. The clinical severity for all the patients in the study was mild (88.9%) and moderate (11.1%). The control (placebo) group achieved PASS on day 8.0±1.3, compared with day 4.4±0.8 in the mefenamic acid group (P=0.020, Kaplan­Meier analyses using log­rank tests). Patients that received mefenamic acid plus standard medical care had a ~16­fold higher probability of achieving PASS on day 8 (adjusted RR, 15.57; 95% CI, 1.22­198.71; P=0.035), compared with the placebo plus standard medical care group. All symptoms lasted for fewer days in the mefenamic acid group, compared with the placebo group; however, only the symptoms of headache (P=0.008), retro­orbital eye pain (P=0.049), and sore throat (P=0.029) exhibited statistically significant differences. The experimental treatment produced no severe adverse effects. On the whole, the present study demonstrates that the administration of mefenamic acid markedly reduced the symptomatology and time to reach PASS in ambulatory patients with COVID­19. Due to its probable antiviral effects and potent anti­inflammatory mechanisms, mefenamic acid may prove to be useful in the treatment of COVID­19, in combination with other drugs, including the new antivirals (remdesivir, molnupiravir, or favipiravir). However, future studies are also required to confirm these findings.


Subject(s)
Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Mefenamic Acid/therapeutic use , Ambulatory Care , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/therapy , Combined Modality Therapy , Double-Blind Method , Eye Pain/etiology , Headache/etiology , Humans , Pharyngitis/etiology , Prospective Studies , Treatment Outcome
3.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 490, 2022 01 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1621267

ABSTRACT

Based on the findings from the Phase III clinical trials of inactivated SARS COV-2 Vaccine, (BBIBP-CORV) emergency use authorization (EUA) was granted for the vaccine to frontline workers in the UAE. A prospective cohort study was conducted among frontline workers to estimate the incidence rate and risk of symptomatic COVID-19 infection 14 days after the second dose of inoculation with BBIBP-CORV inactivated vaccine. Those who received two doses of the BBIBP-CORV vaccine in the period from 14th of September 2020 (first dose) to 21st of December 2020 (second dose) were followed up for COVID-19 infections. 11,322 individuals who received the two-dose BBIBP-CORV vaccine were included and were followed up post the second dose plus fourteen days. The incidence rate of symptomatic infection was 0.08 per 1000-person days (95% CI 0.07, 0.10). The estimated absolute risk of developing symptomatic infection was 0.97% (95% CI 0.77%, 1.17%). The confirmed seroconversion rate was 92.8%. There were no serious adverse events reported and no individuals suffered from severe disease. Our findings show that vaccinated individuals are likely to remain protected against symptomatic infection or becoming PCR positive for SARS COV 2 following the second dose of the vaccination.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , COVID-19/diagnosis , Vaccines, Inactivated/administration & dosage , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Clinical Trials, Phase III as Topic , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Headache/etiology , Health Personnel , Humans , Incidence , Male , Middle Aged , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , United Arab Emirates/epidemiology , Vaccines, Inactivated/adverse effects
5.
Eur J Neurol ; 28(10): 3426-3436, 2021 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1605077

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Headache is an important manifestation during SARS-CoV-2 infection. In this study, the aim was to identify factors associated with headache in COVID-19 and headache characteristics. METHODS: This case-control study includes COVID-19 hospitalized patients with pneumonia during March 2020. Controls comprise COVID-19 patients without headache and the cases are COVID-19 patients with headache. Demographic, clinical and laboratory data were obtained from the medical records. Headache characteristics were evaluated by semi-structured telephonic interview after discharge. RESULTS: Of a total of 379 COVID-19 patients, 48 (13%) developed headache. Amongst these, 30 (62%) were men and the median age was 57.9 (47-73) years. Headache was associated with younger age, fewer comorbidities and reduced mortality, as well as with low levels of C-reactive protein, mild acute respiratory distress syndrome and oropharyngeal symptoms. A logistic multiple regression model revealed that headache was directly associated with D-dimer and creatinine levels, the use of high flow nasal cannula and arthromyalgia, whilst urea levels, beta-lactamic treatment and hypertension were negatively associated with headache. COVID-19-associated headache characteristics were available for 23/48 (48%) patients. Headache was the onset symptom in 8/20 (40%) patients, of mild or moderate intensity in 17/20 (85%) patients, with oppressive characteristics in 17/18 (94%) and of holocranial 8/19 (42%) or temporal 7/19 (37%) localization. CONCLUSIONS: Our results show that headache is associated with a more benign SARS-CoV-2 infection. COVID-19-associated headache appears as an early symptom and as a novel headache with characteristics of headache attributed to systemic viral infection. Further research addressing the underlying mechanisms to confirm these findings is warranted.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Case-Control Studies , Comorbidity , Headache/epidemiology , Headache/etiology , Humans , Male , Middle Aged
6.
J Headache Pain ; 23(1): 2, 2022 Jan 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1607641

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Neurological symptoms are frequent among patients with COVID-19. Little is known regarding the repercussions of neurological symptoms for patients and how these symptoms are related to one another. OBJECTIVES: To determine whether there is an association between the neurological symptoms in patients with COVID-19, and to characterize the headache. METHOD: This was a cross-sectional study. All hospital inpatients and health workers at the Hospital Universitario Oswaldo Cruz with a PCR-confirmed COVID-19 infection between March and June 2020 were considered for the study and were interviewed by telephone at least 2-months after the acute phase of the disease. These patients were identified by the hospital epidemiological surveillance department. A semi-structured questionnaire was used containing sociodemographic and clinical data and the ID-Migraine. RESULTS: A total of 288 patients was interviewed; 53.1% were male; with a median age of 49.9 (41.5-60.5) years; 91.7% presented some neurological symptom; 22.2% reported some neurological symptom as the symptom that troubled them most during COVID-19. Neurological symptoms were: ageusia (69.8%), headache (69.1%), anosmia (67%), myalgia (44.4%), drowsiness (37.2%), agitation (20.8%); mental confusion (14.9%), syncope (4.9%) and epileptic seizures (2.8%). Females, those who presented with fever, sore throat, anosmia/ageusia and myalgia also presented significantly more with headache (logistic regression). The most frequent headache phenotype was a non-migraine phenotype, was of severe intensity and differed from previous headaches. This persisted for more than 30 days in 18% and for more than 90 days in 10% of patients. Thirteen percent of those with anosmia and 11% with ageusia continued with these complaints after more than 90 days of the acute phase of the disease. Aged over 50 years, agitation and epileptic seizures were significantly associated with mental confusion (logistic regression). CONCLUSION: Headache is frequent in COVID-19, is associated with other symptoms such as fever, sore throat, anosmia, ageusia, and myalgia, and may persist beyond the acute phase of the disease.


Subject(s)
Ageusia , COVID-19 , Aged , Anosmia , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Headache/epidemiology , Headache/etiology , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2
7.
J Med Virol ; 93(12): 6588-6594, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1562422

ABSTRACT

This study is aimed to identify the adverse effects associated with three types of coronavirus disease 2019 vaccines. Approximately 1736 individuals agreed to participate in this study. The participants involved in the study were individuals who had received the first dose or full course (two doses) of the vaccine at least 30 days before the survey. A direct and interactive web-based system interview with a paper and electronic version of the questionnaire was used for all participants. A total of 1736 randomized individuals were identified. The reactogenicity of the vaccines including pain, redness, urticaria, and swelling at the site of the injection was reported in 34.56% of the participants. Local site reaction was reported in more individuals who had Pfizer and AstraZeneca vaccines than those who received the Sinopharm vaccine. The systemic events were more common with AstraZeneca and Pfizer vaccines, symptoms reported were fatigue, body pain, headache, muscle pain, fever, and gastrointestinal side effects. There were no correlations between age or gender, and the duration of the adverse effects for the three vaccines. Swelling and severe allergic reaction of the eyelids, severe hypotension, generalized body aches, shortness of breath, weakness and numbness on the injected arm, acute hyperglycemia, severe chest pain, and fever more than 39°C were among the unusual signs and symptoms reported by the participants. Pfizer, AstraZeneca, and Sinopharm vaccines were found to be safe and Sinopharm vaccine showed a lower prevalence of adverse effects compared with the other vaccines. The duration and severity of adverse effects were not affected by age or gender. Unusual side effects should be closely monitored to establish determine they are linked to the immunization.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , COVID-19 Vaccines/therapeutic use , Fatigue/etiology , Female , Headache/etiology , Humans , Injection Site Reaction/etiology , Male , Middle Aged , Myalgia/etiology , Pain/etiology , Surveys and Questionnaires , Young Adult
8.
Drug Discov Ther ; 15(5): 278-280, 2021 Nov 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1542929

ABSTRACT

To help stop the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, vaccines are currently the most critical tool. However, the COVID-19 mRNA vaccines frequently cause systemic side effects shortly after the injection, such as fever, headache and generalized fatigue. In our survey, after receiving the second dose of the COVID-19 vaccine, 80% developed fever, 62% headache and 69% generalized fatigue. Among people who required antipyretics, the average durations of fever and headache were significantly shorter in those who took non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), such as aspirin, loxoprofen and ibuprofen, than those who took acetaminophen. In our patch-clamp studies, NSAIDs effectively suppressed the delayed rectifier K+-channel (Kv1.3) currents in T-lymphocytes and thus exerted immunosuppressive effects. Because of this pharmacological property, the use of NSAIDs should be more effective in reducing the vaccine-induced systemic side effects that are caused primarily by the enhanced cellular immunity.


Subject(s)
Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal/therapeutic use , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Immunosuppressive Agents/therapeutic use , Acetaminophen/therapeutic use , Adolescent , Aspirin/therapeutic use , Fatigue/drug therapy , Fatigue/etiology , Fever/drug therapy , Fever/etiology , Headache/drug therapy , Headache/etiology , Humans , Ibuprofen/therapeutic use , Patch-Clamp Techniques , Phenylpropionates/therapeutic use , Young Adult
9.
Curr Pain Headache Rep ; 25(11): 73, 2021 Nov 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1527506

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Headache is a common symptom of COVID-19 with emerging literature being published on the subject. Although it may seem unspecific, scientific evidence has allowed a better definition of this headache type, revealing relevant associations with other COVID-19 symptoms and prognoses. We therefore sought to highlight the most remarkable findings concerning headache secondary to COVID-19, specifically focusing on epidemiology, characteristics, pathophysiology, and treatments. RECENT FINDINGS: The real prevalence of headache as a symptom of COVID-19 is still unclear ranging from 10 to 70%. Headache mainly has a tension-type-like phenotype, although 25% of individuals present with migraine-like features that also occur in patients without personal migraine history. This finding suggests that a likely pathophysiological mechanism is the activation of the trigeminovascular system. SARS-CoV-2 neurotropism can occur by trans-synaptic invasion through the olfactory route from the nasal cavity, leading to anosmia which has been associated with headache. SARS-CoV-2 protein has been found not only in olfactory mucosa and bulbs but also in trigeminal branches and the trigeminal ganglion, supporting this hypothesis. However, other mechanisms such as brain vessels inflammation due to SARS-CoV-2 damage to the endothelium or systemic inflammation in the context of cytokine storm cannot be ruled out. Interestingly, headache has been associated with lower COVID-19 mortality. No specific treatment for COVID-19 headache is available at present. Studies show that investigating COVID-19 headache represents an opportunity not only to better understand COVID-19 in general but also to advance in the knowledge of both secondary and primary headaches. Future research is therefore warranted.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Headache/epidemiology , Anosmia/physiopathology , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/physiopathology , Endothelium, Vascular , Headache/etiology , Headache/physiopathology , Headache/therapy , Humans , Inflammation , Migraine Disorders/physiopathology , SARS-CoV-2 , Tension-Type Headache/physiopathology , Trigeminal Ganglion/physiopathology , Trigeminal Ganglion/virology , Trigeminal Nerve/physiopathology , Trigeminal Nerve/virology , Viral Tropism
10.
CNS Neurol Disord Drug Targets ; 20(5): 390-391, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1526729

ABSTRACT

A letter to the editor to discuss several uses of brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in the investigation of neurological manifestations of covid-19. Described several situations in which the MRI is needed. Brain MRI is an important diagnostic method in the covid-19 scenario, to investigate possible neurological complications of the disease.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , Magnetic Resonance Imaging/methods , Nervous System Diseases/diagnostic imaging , Nervous System Diseases/etiology , Cerebrovascular Disorders/diagnostic imaging , Cerebrovascular Disorders/etiology , Headache/diagnostic imaging , Headache/etiology , Humans
11.
Cephalalgia ; 41(14): 1437-1446, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1526573

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Psychosocial variables are key factors influencing psycho-physical equilibrium in migraine patients. Social isolation and vulnerability to stressors may prevent efficient psychological adjustment negatively affecting adaptation to life changes, as that imposed during Covid-19 lockdown. Here, we explored psychosocial dimensions and changes in clinical condition during Covid-19 lockdown in migraine patients, with regard to migraine type and headache impact. METHODS: Sixty-four migraine patients (32 episodic and 32 chronic) and 64 healthy control subjects were included in a case-control cross-sectional study. A two-step clustering procedure split patients into two clusters, based on the Headache Impact Test. Perceived global distress, loneliness, empathy, and coping levels were compared in groups, as well as changes in clinical condition. RESULTS: Migraine patients reported higher general loneliness and lower social support compared to healthy control subjects. Emotional loneliness was more marked in patients with higher headache impact. This subgroup of patients more frequently reported changes in the therapeutic and care paths as the perceived cause of the occurrence of motor or extra-motor symptomatology. CONCLUSIONS: Migraine patients, especially those more severely affected, proved more vulnerable than healthy control subjects to Covid-19 lockdown. Long-lasting interruption of social interactions may be detrimental in fragile patients that are in need of structured support interventions to maintain psycho-physical wellbeing.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/psychology , Headache/etiology , Migraine Disorders/etiology , Quarantine/psychology , Social Isolation , Social Support , Adult , Anxiety/psychology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Case-Control Studies , Communicable Disease Control , Cross-Sectional Studies , Disease Outbreaks , Female , Headache/epidemiology , Humans , Loneliness , Male , Middle Aged , Migraine Disorders/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2
12.
Eur J Neurol ; 28(11): 3554-3555, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1470423
13.
Am J Nurs ; 121(10): 16, 2021 10 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1434515

ABSTRACT

Patients report a wide range of symptoms as researchers work to pinpoint their cause.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/physiopathology , Chest Pain/etiology , Fatigue/etiology , Fever/etiology , Headache/etiology , Humans , Longitudinal Studies
15.
J Headache Pain ; 22(1): 108, 2021 Sep 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1416805

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Headache is a frequent symptom following COVID-19 immunization with a typical onset within days post-vaccination. Cases of cerebral venous thrombosis (CVT) have been reported in adenovirus vector-based COVID-19 vaccine recipients. FINDINGS: We reviewed all vaccine related CVT published cases by April 30, 2021. We assessed demographic, clinical variables and the interval between the vaccination and onset of headache. We assessed whether the presence of headache was associated with higher probability of death or intracranial hemorrhage. We identified 77 cases of CVT after COVID-19 vaccination. Patients' age was below 60 years in 74/77 (95.8%) cases and 61/68 (89.7%) were women. Headache was described in 38/77 (49.4%) cases, and in 35/38 (92.1%) was associated with other symptoms. Multiple organ thrombosis was reported in 19/77 (24.7%) cases, intracranial hemorrhage in 33/77 (42.9%) cases and 19/77 (24.7%) patients died. The median time between vaccination and CVT-related headache onset was 8 (interquartile range 7.0-9.7) days. The presence of headache was associated with a higher odd of intracranial hemorrhage (OR 7.4; 95% CI: 2.7-20.8, p < 0.001), but not with death (OR: 0.51, 95% CI: 0.18-1.47, p = 0.213). CONCLUSION: Delayed onset of headache following an adenovirus vector-based COVID-19 vaccine is associated with development of CVT. Patients with new-onset headache, 1 week after vaccination with an adenovirus vector-based vaccine, should receive a thorough clinical evaluation and CVT must be ruled out.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Vaccines , Venous Thrombosis , COVID-19 Vaccines , Female , Headache/etiology , Humans , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination/adverse effects
16.
J Med Virol ; 93(12): 6588-6594, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1400909

ABSTRACT

This study is aimed to identify the adverse effects associated with three types of coronavirus disease 2019 vaccines. Approximately 1736 individuals agreed to participate in this study. The participants involved in the study were individuals who had received the first dose or full course (two doses) of the vaccine at least 30 days before the survey. A direct and interactive web-based system interview with a paper and electronic version of the questionnaire was used for all participants. A total of 1736 randomized individuals were identified. The reactogenicity of the vaccines including pain, redness, urticaria, and swelling at the site of the injection was reported in 34.56% of the participants. Local site reaction was reported in more individuals who had Pfizer and AstraZeneca vaccines than those who received the Sinopharm vaccine. The systemic events were more common with AstraZeneca and Pfizer vaccines, symptoms reported were fatigue, body pain, headache, muscle pain, fever, and gastrointestinal side effects. There were no correlations between age or gender, and the duration of the adverse effects for the three vaccines. Swelling and severe allergic reaction of the eyelids, severe hypotension, generalized body aches, shortness of breath, weakness and numbness on the injected arm, acute hyperglycemia, severe chest pain, and fever more than 39°C were among the unusual signs and symptoms reported by the participants. Pfizer, AstraZeneca, and Sinopharm vaccines were found to be safe and Sinopharm vaccine showed a lower prevalence of adverse effects compared with the other vaccines. The duration and severity of adverse effects were not affected by age or gender. Unusual side effects should be closely monitored to establish determine they are linked to the immunization.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , COVID-19 Vaccines/therapeutic use , Fatigue/etiology , Female , Headache/etiology , Humans , Injection Site Reaction/etiology , Male , Middle Aged , Myalgia/etiology , Pain/etiology , Surveys and Questionnaires , Young Adult
17.
Semin Pediatr Neurol ; 40: 100922, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1386629

ABSTRACT

Primary intracranial hypertension (PIH) is characterized by clinical signs of increased intracranial pressure, papilledema, elevated opening pressure, and absence of mass lesion, hydrocephalus, or meningeal enhancement on neuroimaging. Visual changes are a common presenting feature and if untreated there is risk of irreversible vision loss. There have been recent proposed changes to the criteria for PIH along with studies looking at the differences in imaging characteristics between adult and pediatric PIH. The presence of transverse sinus stenosis alone was highly sensitive and specific for pediatric PIH. The Idiopathic Intracranial Hypertension Treatment Trial was an adult, multicenter study that examined the use of acetazolamide and weight loss on the course of PIH. The study confirmed many previously held beliefs including the most common presenting symptom in PIH is headache. Most patients present with bilateral papilledema with 58.2% of patients having symmetric Frisen scale grading and within one grade in 92.8%. Although diplopia is a common reported symptom, very few have evidence of cranial nerve palsy. Male gender, high-grade papilledema, and decreased visual acuity at presentation are risk factors for treatment failure. Acetazolamide use is associated with mild metabolic acidosis. During acetazolamide treatment, monitoring for hypokalemia or aplastic anemia is not recommended. Monitoring transaminases in the titration phase of treatment should be considered due to a case of transaminitis and pancreatitis with elevated lipase. Newer case reports have also seen associations of secondary intracranial hypertension with concurrent COVID-19 infection and MIS-C.


Subject(s)
Acetazolamide/administration & dosage , COVID-19/diagnosis , Carbonic Anhydrase Inhibitors/administration & dosage , Headache/diagnosis , Intracranial Hypertension , Papilledema/diagnosis , Vision Disorders/diagnosis , Weight Loss , Acetazolamide/adverse effects , Adolescent , Adult , COVID-19/complications , Carbonic Anhydrase Inhibitors/adverse effects , Child , Combined Modality Therapy , Diagnosis, Differential , Female , Headache/etiology , Humans , Intracranial Hypertension/complications , Intracranial Hypertension/diagnosis , Intracranial Hypertension/therapy , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Male , Middle Aged , Multicenter Studies as Topic , Papilledema/etiology , Pseudotumor Cerebri/complications , Pseudotumor Cerebri/diagnosis , Pseudotumor Cerebri/etiology , Pseudotumor Cerebri/therapy , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/complications , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/diagnosis , Tomography, Optical Coherence , Vision Disorders/etiology , Young Adult
19.
J Trop Pediatr ; 67(3)2021 07 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1345743

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) usually leads to a mild infectious disease course in children, while serious complications may occur in conjunction with both acute infection and neurological symptoms, which have been predominantly reported in adults. The neurological complications in these patients vary based on patient age and underlying comorbidities. Data on clinical features, particularly neurological features, and prognostic factors in children and adolescents are limited. This study provides a concise overview of neurological complications in pediatric COVID-19 cases. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The retrospective study reviewed medical records of all patients who were admitted to our hospital and were diagnosed with COVID-19 by real-time reverse-transcription polymerase-chain-reaction (RT-PCR) assay between 11 March 2020 and 30 January 2021. Patients with a positive PCR result were categorized into two groups: outpatient departments patients and inpatient departments (IPD). RESULTS: Of the 2530 children who underwent RT-PCR during the study period, 382 (8.6%) were confirmed as COVID-19 positive, comprising 188 (49.2%) girls and 194 (50.8%) boys with a mean age of 7.14±5.84 (range, 0-17) years. Neurological complications that required hospitalization were present in 34 (8.9%) patients, including seizure (52.9%), headache (38.2%), dizziness (11.1%) and meningoencephalitis (5.8%). CONCLUSION: The results indicated that neurological manifestations are not rare in children suffering from COVID-19. Seizures, headaches, dizziness, anosmia, ageusia and meningoencephalitis are major neurological manifestations during acute COVID-19 disease. Although seizures were the most common cause of hospitalization in IPD patients, the frequency of meningoencephalitis was quite high. Seizures were observed as febrile seizures for children under 6 years of age and afebrile seizures for those over 6 years of age. Febrile seizure accounted for half of all seizure children.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adolescent , Adult , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Headache/epidemiology , Headache/etiology , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Male , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Seizures/epidemiology , Seizures/etiology
20.
Rev Neurol ; 73(5): 151-164, 2021 09 01.
Article in Spanish | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1335601

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The COVID-19 pandemic and the use of personal protective equipment (PPE) in the healthcare setting provide a unique opportunity to study PPE-associated headaches (PPEAH). SUBJECTS AND METHODS: We conducted an online survey to assess the prevalence and clinical characteristics of PPEAH. The survey was voluntary, anonymous and addressed to medical and non-medical personnel. We used descriptive statistics and univariate and multivariate comparative analyses to identify factors associated with the development of PPEAH and its impact on work capacity. RESULTS: Out of 886 respondents, 88% (780) reported wearing PPE. Most of them were physicians (81%), 52.4% of whom were women. The prevalence of PPEAH was 65.5% (511/780) and 73.8% (377/511) were de novo headaches. PPEAH was acute, oppressive, bifrontal and of moderate intensity, and subsided with the removal of the PPE. Accompanying symptoms were common, and migraine and/or dysautonomic features were highly prevalent. Female sex, age > 40 years, use of PPE > 6 hours/day and the combination of an N95 mask and goggles were associated with the occurrence of PPEAH. There were factors associated with a negative impact on the ability to work because of the PPEAH. DISCUSSION: PPEAH may be a form of external compression headache (ECH); however, it has distinctive features that overlap with other primary and/or secondary headache disorders. CONCLUSIONS: PPEAH is prevalent and impacts on work-related activities. One subgroup presents characteristics not previously described in ECH.


Cefalea asociada con el uso de equipo de protección personal durante la pandemia de COVID-19: una encuesta internacional.Introducción. La pandemia de COVID-19 y el uso de equipo de protección personal (EPP) en el entorno de la atención médica brindan una oportunidad única para estudiar la cefalea relacionada con el EPP (CREPP). Sujetos y métodos. Realizamos una encuesta en línea para evaluar la prevalencia y las características clínicas de la CREPP. La encuesta fue voluntaria, anónima y dirigida a personal médico y no médico. Utilizamos estadística descriptiva y análisis comparativos univariados y multivariados para identificar factores asociados con el desarrollo de CREPP y su impacto en la capacidad de trabajo. Resultados. De 886 encuestados, el 88% (780) notificó que usaba EPP. La mayoría eran médicos (81%), un 52,4% mujeres. La prevalencia de CREPP fue del 65,5% (511/780) y el 73,8% (377/511) fueron cefaleas de novo. La CREPP fue aguda, opresiva, bifrontal y de intensidad moderada, y remitía con el retiro del EPP. Los síntomas acompañantes fueron comunes, y las características migrañosas y/o disautonómicas fueron altamente prevalentes. El sexo femenino, la edad > 40 años, el uso de EPP > 6 horas/día y la combinación de mascarilla N95 y gafas se asociaron con la aparición de CREPP. Hubo factores asociados con un impacto negativo en la capacidad para trabajar debido a la CREPP. Discusión. La CREPP podría ser una forma de cefalea por compresión externa (CCE); no obstante, tiene características distintivas que se superponen con otros trastornos de cefaleas primarias y/o secundarias. Conclusiones. La CREPP es frecuente e impacta en las actividades relacionadas con el trabajo. Un subgrupo presenta características no descritas previamente en la CCE.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Headache/etiology , Health Personnel , Occupational Diseases/etiology , Personal Protective Equipment/adverse effects , Female , Humans , Male , Surveys and Questionnaires
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