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1.
BMJ ; 376: e064225, 2022 01 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1607558
2.
PLoS One ; 16(12): e0261832, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1595434

ABSTRACT

The objective of this study was to evaluate the relationships of food safety knowledge, attitude and eating behavior of consumers during national lockdowns in the advent of the COVID-19 pandemic. A total of 157 respondents completed the online survey using a structured questionnaire worldwide. Overall, the respondents exhibited good attitude and good knowledge towards public health including food safety especially on the importance of social distancing, mask wearing, well-balanced diet, physical exercise and personal hygiene, such as hand washing during the pandemic lockdowns. A Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) was used to test the relationships among food safety knowledge, attitude and behavior under the pandemic conditions. Results showed that attitude towards food safety under the coronavirus pandemic and lockdowns positively affected the eating behavior of the respondents, which exhibited a high ß (0.686) among the variables tested (p<0.05). Food safety knowledge was apparently not affected by the food safety behavior of the respondents.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Feeding Behavior/psychology , Food Safety , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Pandemics , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Female , Global Health , Hand Disinfection , Health Behavior , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pilot Projects , Public Health , Surveys and Questionnaires , Young Adult
3.
Am J Health Behav ; 45(6): 1059-1078, 2021 11 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1591148

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: COVID-19 has spread globally and infected millions of people, thereby restricting their movement. Quarantine hotels play an important role in protecting people from COVID-19 and contribute to a better quality of life. The objective of this study was to examine the role of quarantine hotels in providing improved quality of life through both medical and hospitality services under one roof to address the COVID-19 situation in Saudi Arabia. METHODS: This study used a quantitative, cross-sectional research design. Data were collected from quarantine hotels in Saudi Arabia using a survey, and analyzed through Partial Least Square (PLS)-Structural Equation Modeling (SEM). RESULTS: Medical service quality, financial savings and convenience had a positive effect on people's attitudes and intention to use quarantine hotels. Similarly, attitude, intention, and hospitality products had a positive effect on health behavior, which favorably affected quality of life. CONCLUSIONS: Medical service quality, financial savings, and convenience, as well as hospitality provided by quarantine hotels, have a positive role in promoting health behavior and quality of life.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Quality of Life , Cross-Sectional Studies , Delivery of Health Care , Health Behavior , Health Promotion , Humans , Quarantine , SARS-CoV-2
4.
Inquiry ; 58: 469580211060279, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1582739

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Perceived control is an individual's subjective beliefs about the amount of control he or she has over the environment or outcome. Objective: To examine the relationship between perceived control, preventive health behaviors, and mental health effects of undergraduate nursing students during the COVID-19 pandemic. Methods: This cross-sectional correlational study used online self-administered questionnaires. Participants were nursing students attending 3 universities in Tokyo, Japan. Relationships among variables were quantitatively analyzed using linear regressions and a structural equation modeling after adjusting for demographic factors. Results: A total of 557 students participated in the survey. The analysis indicated that higher levels of perceived control were significantly related to higher levels of preventive health behaviors. Although higher preventive health behaviors were related to negative mental health effects, higher levels of perceived health competence translated to improved mental health effects. Perceived control was not directly related to mental health effects but positively related to perceived health competence. Long work hours per week and short hours of sleep per day were associated with lower preventive health behaviors. There were significant differences in the levels of perceived control and preventive health behaviors among students at the 3 universities. Discussion: To improve health behaviors and health competence and subsequently alleviate the mental health effects caused by strictly adhering to recommended health behaviors, students may be supported by the strategies that increase their perceived control. In addition to institutional support, students also require adequate sleep and financial stability to help prevent infections while protecting their mental health.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Education, Nursing, Baccalaureate , Students, Nursing , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Health Behavior , Humans , Mental Health , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Surveys and Questionnaires
5.
Sci Diabetes Self Manag Care ; 47(6): 447-456, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1582453

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The purpose of this study is to survey parents of youth with type 1 diabetes during the COVID-19 pandemic with school closures to better understand the implications of the school day on health care behaviors. METHODS: A cross-sectional, online survey was distributed to parents of youth with type 1 diabetes ≤19 years of age in a large, academic diabetes center. Questions encompassed perceived changes in management behaviors and plans for return to school. Subgroup analysis compared parent responses by child's age, reported stressors, and socioeconomic markers. RESULTS: Parents reported a worsening in their child's diabetes health behaviors during school closures compared to what they perceived during a regular school day before the pandemic. More than half of parents reported feeling that their child was unable to maintain a normal routine, with particular implications for snacking between meals, daily physical activity, and sleep habits. Families with adolescents or those experiencing multiple pandemic-related stressors reported greater challenges. In open-ended responses, families highlighted difficulty in balancing school, work, and diabetes care and expressed concerns about the mental health repercussions of school closures for their children. Nearly half of parents reported being at least moderately worried about return to school, whereas only a minority reported seeking guidance from their diabetes provider. CONCLUSIONS: Parent-reported disruptions of school-day routines frequently had adverse consequences for diabetes management in this population. These findings highlight the importance of a school-day routine for children with type 1 diabetes; during closures, families may benefit from mitigating strategies to maintain effective habits.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1 , Adolescent , Child , Cross-Sectional Studies , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/epidemiology , Health Behavior , Humans , Pandemics , Parents , SARS-CoV-2 , Schools
6.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 24452, 2021 12 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1585771

ABSTRACT

Non-Pharmaceutical Interventions (NPIs), aimed at reducing the diffusion of the COVID-19 pandemic, have dramatically influenced our everyday behaviour. In this work, we study how individuals adapted their daily movements and person-to-person contact patterns over time in response to the NPIs. We leverage longitudinal GPS mobility data of hundreds of thousands of anonymous individuals to empirically show and quantify the dramatic disruption in people's mobility habits and social behaviour. We find that local interventions did not just impact the number of visits to different venues but also how people experience them. Individuals spend less time in venues, preferring simpler and more predictable routines, also reducing person-to-person contacts. Moreover, we find that the individual patterns of visits are influenced by the strength of the NPIs policies, the local severity of the pandemic and a risk adaptation factor, which increases the people's mobility regardless of the stringency of interventions. Finally, despite the gradual recovery in visit patterns, we find that individuals continue to keep person-to-person contacts low. This apparent conflict hints that the evolution of policy adherence should be carefully addressed by policymakers, epidemiologists and mobility experts.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Social Behavior , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , Health Behavior , Humans , Movement , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification
7.
PLoS One ; 16(3): e0247949, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1575332

ABSTRACT

AIM: In spring 2020, the first Covid-19-related lockdown included the closing of kindergartens and schools. Home schooling, the lack of social contacts with peers and the care of the children at home posed an enormous challenge for many families. METHODS: The present study investigated the leisure behavior of 285 one- to 10-year-old German children at two time points (t1 and t2) during the Covid-19-related lockdown in spring 2020. In the subsample of primary school children (n = 102), we also explored children's attitudes towards schoolwork at home. Analyses focused on the change of behavior from t1 to t2, on differences in these changes depending on socio-economic status (SES), and on associations of behavior with SES, the number of children at home, and the frequency of receiving learning materials from school. RESULTS: While the frequency of playing outside increased significantly from t1 to t2, the frequency of handicrafts, playing board games, indoor sports, and motivation to do schoolwork decreased. The observed changes between t1 and t2 did not differ depending on SES. However, a lower SES was associated with higher media use, less outdoor activity, and (though only marginally significant) a reduced time doing schoolwork and a reduced ability to concentrate on schoolwork at t1. In households with more children, children played outside more often, but were read to less frequently and (though only marginally significant) watched movies and series less frequently. Children receiving learning materials from school on a regular basis spent significantly more time doing schoolwork at home than children receiving materials only irregularly. CONCLUSIONS: A continuing loss of childcare in day-care facilities and schools entails the danger of declining education in the form of (inter)active indoor activities and schoolwork.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Exercise , Learning , Leisure Activities , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Child , Child Care , Child Day Care Centers , Child Health/statistics & numerical data , Child, Preschool , Female , Health Behavior/classification , Humans , Infant , Longitudinal Studies , Male , Pandemics/prevention & control , Patient Isolation , Schools , Social Class , Social Isolation , Social Media/statistics & numerical data , Sports/statistics & numerical data
8.
J Med Internet Res ; 23(2): e26292, 2021 02 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1574360

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Chronic low back pain is the most prevalent chronic pain condition worldwide and access to behavioral pain treatment is limited. Virtual reality (VR) is an immersive technology that may provide effective behavioral therapeutics for chronic pain. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to conduct a double-blind, parallel-arm, single-cohort, remote, randomized placebo-controlled trial for a self-administered behavioral skills-based VR program in community-based individuals with self-reported chronic low back pain during the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: A national online convenience sample of individuals with self-reported nonmalignant low back pain with duration of 6 months or more and with average pain intensity of 4 or more/10 was enrolled and randomized 1:1 to 1 of 2 daily (56-day) VR programs: (1) EaseVRx (immersive pain relief skills VR program); or (2) Sham VR (2D nature content delivered in a VR headset). Objective device use data and self-reported data were collected. The primary outcomes were the between-group effect of EaseVRx versus Sham VR across time points, and the between-within interaction effect representing the change in average pain intensity and pain-related interference with activity, stress, mood, and sleep over time (baseline to end-of-treatment at day 56). Secondary outcomes were global impression of change and change in physical function, sleep disturbance, pain self-efficacy, pain catastrophizing, pain acceptance, pain medication use, and user satisfaction. Analytic methods included intention-to-treat and a mixed-model framework. RESULTS: The study sample was 179 adults (female: 76.5%, 137/179; Caucasian: 90.5%, 162/179; at least some college education: 91.1%, 163/179; mean age: 51.5 years [SD 13.1]; average pain intensity: 5/10 [SD 1.2]; back pain duration ≥5 years: 67%, 120/179). No group differences were found for any baseline variable or treatment engagement. User satisfaction ratings were higher for EaseVRx versus Sham VR (P<.001). For the between-groups factor, EaseVRx was superior to Sham VR for all primary outcomes (highest P value=.009), and between-groups Cohen d effect sizes ranged from 0.40 to 0.49, indicating superiority was moderately clinically meaningful. For EaseVRx, large pre-post effect sizes ranged from 1.17 to 1.3 and met moderate to substantial clinical importance for reduced pain intensity and pain-related interference with activity, mood, and stress. Between-group comparisons for Physical Function and Sleep Disturbance showed superiority for the EaseVRx group versus the Sham VR group (P=.022 and .013, respectively). Pain catastrophizing, pain self-efficacy, pain acceptance, prescription opioid use (morphine milligram equivalent) did not reach statistical significance for either group. Use of over-the-counter analgesic use was reduced for EaseVRx (P<.01) but not for Sham VR. CONCLUSIONS: EaseVRx had high user satisfaction and superior and clinically meaningful symptom reduction for average pain intensity and pain-related interference with activity, mood, and stress compared to sham VR. Additional research is needed to determine durability of treatment effects and to characterize mechanisms of treatment effects. Home-based VR may expand access to effective and on-demand nonpharmacologic treatment for chronic low back pain. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT04415177; https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT04415177. INTERNATIONAL REGISTERED REPORT IDENTIFIER (IRRID): RR2-10.2196/25291.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Chronic Pain/therapy , Health Behavior , Low Back Pain/therapy , Pain Management/methods , Virtual Reality , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/epidemiology , Double-Blind Method , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Self Report , Time Factors , Young Adult
9.
J Med Internet Res ; 23(2): e26570, 2021 02 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1574329

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COVID-19-related information on social media is overabundant and sometimes questionable, resulting in an "infodemic" during the pandemic. While previous studies suggest social media usage increases the risk of developing anxiety symptoms, how induced anxiety affects attitudes and behaviors is less discussed, let alone during a global pandemic. Little is known about the relationship between older adults using social media during a pandemic and their anxiety, their attitudes toward social trust in information, and behaviors to avoid contracting COVID-19. OBJECTIVE: The goal of this study was to investigate the associations between using social media for COVID-19-related information and anxiety symptoms as well as the mediation effect of anxiety symptoms on social trust in information and COVID-safe behaviors among older adults. METHODS: A cross-sectional telephone survey was conducted in Hong Kong between May and August 2020. A rapid warm-call protocol was developed to train social workers and volunteers from participant nongovernmental organizations to conduct the telephone surveys. Questions related to COVID-safe behaviors, social trust in information, social media use, anxiety and depressive symptoms, and sociodemographic information were asked. The number of confirmed COVID-19 cases at the community level was used to account for the risk of contracting COVID-19. Ordinary least squares regressions examined the associations between social media use and anxiety symptoms, and how they were associated with social trust in information and COVID-safe behaviors. Structural equation modeling further mapped out these relationships to identify the mediation effects of anxiety symptoms. RESULTS: This study collected information regarding 3421 adults aged 60 years and older. Use of social media for COVID-19-related information was associated with more anxiety symptoms and lower social trust in information but had no significant relationship with COVID-safe behaviors. Anxiety symptoms predicted lower social trust in information and higher COVID-safe behaviors. Lower social trust in information was predicted by using social media for COVID-19 information, mediated by anxiety symptoms, while no mediation effect was found for COVID-safe behaviors. CONCLUSIONS: Older adults who rely on social media for COVID-19-related information exhibited more anxiety symptoms, while showing mixed effects on attitudes and behaviors. Social trust in information may be challenged by unverified and contradictory information online. The negligible impact on COVID-safe behaviors suggested that social media may have caused more confusion than consolidating a consistent effort against the pandemic. Media literacy education is recommended to promote critical evaluation of COVID-19-related information and responsible sharing among older adults.


Subject(s)
Anxiety/epidemiology , Attitude to Health , COVID-19/epidemiology , Health Behavior , Health Education , Social Media/statistics & numerical data , Surveys and Questionnaires , Telephone , Trust , Aged , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depression/epidemiology , Female , Hong Kong/epidemiology , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics
10.
J Med Internet Res ; 23(2): e22197, 2021 02 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1573649

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: To control the COVID-19 pandemic, people should adopt protective behaviors at home (self-isolation, social distancing, putting shopping and packages aside, wearing face coverings, cleaning and disinfecting, and handwashing). There is currently limited support to help individuals conduct these behaviors. OBJECTIVE: This study aims to report current household infection control behaviors in the United Kingdom and examine how they might be improved. METHODS: This was a pragmatic cross-sectional observational study of anonymous participant data from Germ Defence between May 6-24, 2020. Germ Defence is an open-access fully automated website providing behavioral advice for infection control within households. A total of 28,285 users sought advice from four website pathways based on household status (advice to protect themselves generally, to protect others if the user was showing symptoms, to protect themselves if household members were showing symptoms, and to protect a household member who is at high risk). Users reported current infection control behaviors within the home and intentions to change these behaviors. RESULTS: Current behaviors varied across all infection control measures but were between sometimes (face covering: mean 1.61, SD 1.19; social distancing: mean 2.40, SD 1.22; isolating: mean 2.78, SD 1.29; putting packages and shopping aside: mean 2.75, SD 1.55) and quite often (cleaning and disinfecting: mean 3.17, SD 1.18), except for handwashing (very often: mean 4.00, SD 1.03). Behaviors were similar regardless of the website pathway used. After using Germ Defence, users recorded intentions to improve infection control behavior across all website pathways and for all behaviors (overall average infection control score mean difference 0.30, 95% CI 0.29-0.31). CONCLUSIONS: Self-reported infection control behaviors other than handwashing are lower than is optimal for infection prevention, although handwashing is much higher. Advice using behavior change techniques in Germ Defence led to intentions to improve these behaviors. Promoting Germ Defence within national and local public health and primary care guidance could reduce COVID-19 transmission.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/transmission , Infection Control/methods , Internet-Based Intervention , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Disease Transmission, Infectious/prevention & control , Family Characteristics , Health Behavior , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Surveys and Questionnaires , United Kingdom/epidemiology
11.
J Infect Dev Ctries ; 15(11): 1603-1606, 2021 11 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1572701

ABSTRACT

During phase 2 of the COVID-19 pandemic in a Mexican City, informal street vendors (cases) and formal employees (controls) were interviewed. A total of 82.6% of street vendors preferred to expose themselves to the coronavirus than to stop working, compared with 18.4% of formal employees (adjusted OR = 19.4, 95%CI: 4.6-81.7, p < 0.001). Street vendors had 7 times less fear of dying from coronavirus (adjusted OR = 0.14, 95% CI: 0.03-0.5, p = 0.005) and showed a 16-times greater lack of real concern for the increase in cases in their community than the formal employees (adjusted OR = 0.06, 95% CI: 0.01-0.3, p = 0.002). Street vendors were the group with the poorest adherence to household and work area containment measures that continued to be in contact with others. The corresponding authorities must plan specific strategies that allow street vendors to survive economically, while at the same time, protecting community health.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Health Behavior , Occupational Diseases/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Workplace , Adult , COVID-19/transmission , Female , Humans , Interviews as Topic , Male , Mexico/epidemiology , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Poverty
12.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(5)2021 03 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1557551

ABSTRACT

The prevalence of type-2 diabetes (T2D) is increasing, particularly among South Asian (SA) communities. Previous research has highlighted the heterogeneous nature of SA ethnicity and the need to consider culture in SA patients' self-management of T2D. We conducted a critical interpretative synthesis (CIS) which aimed to a) develop a new and comprehensive insight into the psychology which underpins SA patients' T2D self-management behaviours and b) present a conceptual model to inform future T2D interventions. A systematic search of the literature retrieved 19 articles, including 536 participants. These were reviewed using established CIS procedures. Analysis identified seven constructs, from which an overarching synthesizing argument 'Cultural Conflict' was derived. Our findings suggest that patients reconstruct knowledge to manage their psychological, behavioural, and cultural conflicts, impacting decisional conflicts associated with T2D self-management and health professional advice (un)consciously. Those unable to resolve this conflict were more likely to default towards cultural identity, continue to align with cultural preferences rather than health professional guidance, and reduce engagement with self-management. Our synthesis and supporting model promote novel ideas for self-management of T2D care for SA patients. Specifically, health professionals should be trained and supported to explore and mitigate negative health beliefs to enable patients to manage social-cultural influences that impact their self-management behaviours.


Subject(s)
Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Self-Management , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/therapy , Health Behavior , Health Personnel , Humans , Qualitative Research
13.
Acta Psychol (Amst) ; 222: 103458, 2022 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1549619

ABSTRACT

Risk perceptions are important influences on health behaviours. We used descriptive statistics and multivariable logistic regression models to assess cross-sectionally risk perceptions for severe Covid-19 symptoms and their health behaviour correlates among 2206 UK adults from the HEBECO study. The great majority (89-99%) classified age 70+, having comorbidities, being a key worker, overweight, and from an ethnic minority as increasing the risk. People were less sure about alcohol drinking, vaping, and nicotine replacement therapy use (17.4-29.5% responding 'don't know'). Relative to those who did not, those who engaged in the following behaviours had higher odds of classifying these behaviours as (i) decreasing the risk: smoking cigarettes (adjusted odds ratios, aORs, 95% CI = 2.26, 1.39-3.37), and using e-cigarettes (aORs = 5.80, 3.25-10.34); (ii) having no impact: smoking cigarettes (1.98; 1.42-2.76), using e-cigarettes (aORs = 2.63, 1.96-3.50), drinking alcohol (aORs = 1.75, 1.31-2.33); and lower odds of classifying these as increasing the risk: smoking cigarettes (aORs: 0.43, 0.32-0.56), using e-cigarettes (aORs = 0.25, 0.18-0.35). Similarly, eating more fruit and vegetables was associated with classifying unhealthy diet as 'increasing risk' (aOR = 1.37, 1.12-1.69), and exercising more with classifying regular physical activity as 'decreasing risk' (aOR = 2.42, 1.75-3.34). Risk perceptions for severe Covid-19 among UK adults were lower for their own health behaviours, evidencing optimism bias. These risk perceptions may form barriers to changing people's own unhealthy behaviours, make them less responsive to interventions that refer to the risk of Covid-19 as a motivating factor, and exacerbate inequalities in health behaviours and outcomes.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Electronic Nicotine Delivery Systems , Smoking Cessation , Adult , Aged , Cross-Sectional Studies , Health Behavior , Humans , Minority Groups , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Tobacco Use Cessation Devices
14.
Nutrients ; 13(12)2021 Nov 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1542689

ABSTRACT

The aim of this study was to perform a 12-month follow-up of health parameters after a 17-week lifestyle intervention in overweight airline pilots. A parallel-group (intervention and control) study was conducted amongst 72 overweight airline pilots (body mass index > 25) over a 12-month period following the emergence of COVID-19. The intervention group (n = 35) received a personalized dietary, sleep, and physical activity program over a 17-week period. The control group (n = 37) received no intervention. Measurements for subjective health (physical activity, sleep quality and quantity, fruit and vegetable intake, and self-rated health) via an electronic survey, and objective measures of body mass and blood pressure were taken at baseline and at 12 months. Significant interactions for group × time from baseline to 12-months were found for all outcome measures (p < 0.001). Body mass and mean arterial pressure significantly decreased in the intervention group when compared to the control group (p < 0.001). Outcome measures for subjective health (physical activity, sleep quality and quantity, fruit and vegetable intake, and self-rated health) significantly increased in the intervention group when compared to the control group (p < 0.001). Results provide preliminary evidence that a brief three-component healthy sleep, diet and physical activity intervention can elicit and sustain long-term improvements in body mass and blood pressure management, health behaviors, and perceived subjective health in pilots and may support quality of life during an unprecedented global pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Exercise , Health Behavior , Life Style , Quality of Life , SARS-CoV-2 , Adult , Australia/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Overweight
15.
Nutrients ; 13(12)2021 Nov 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1542684

ABSTRACT

During the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, social isolation, semi-lockdown, and "stay at home" orders were imposed upon the population in the interest of infection control. This dramatically changes the daily routine of children and adolescents, with a large impact on lifestyle and wellbeing. Children with obesity have been shown to be at a higher risk of negative lifestyle changes and weight gain during lockdown. Obesity and COVID-19 negatively affect children and adolescents' wellbeing, with adverse effects on psychophysical health, due in large part to food choices, snacking between meals, and comfort eating. Moreover, a markable decrease in physical activity levels and an increase in sedentary behavior is associated with weight gain, especially in children with excessive weight. In addition, obesity is the most common comorbidity in severe cases of COVID-19, suggesting that immune dysregulation, metabolic unbalance, inadequate nutritional status, and dysbiosis are key factors in the complex mechanistic and clinical interplay between obesity and COVID-19. This narrative review aims to describe the most up-to-date evidence on the clinical characteristics of COVID-19 in children and adolescents, focusing on the role of excessive weight and weight gain in pediatrics. The COVID-19 pandemic has taught us that nutrition education interventions, access to healthy food, as well as family nutrition counselling should be covered by pediatric services to prevent obesity, which worsens disease outcomes related to COVID-19 infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Health Behavior , Nutritional Status , Pandemics , Pediatric Obesity , Quarantine , SARS-CoV-2 , Sedentary Behavior , Adolescent , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/physiopathology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Child , Female , Humans , Male , Pediatric Obesity/epidemiology , Pediatric Obesity/physiopathology , Snacks
16.
Inquiry ; 58: 469580211055587, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1528625

ABSTRACT

Objectives: Due to the COVID-19 pandemic, older people are threatened, and there may be different psychological responses toward COVID-19 between women and men. The present study explored the factors and gender differences related to the fear of COVID-19 among older women and men in Taiwan. Methods: Geriatric patients (n = 139; 42 men; mean age = 71.73 years) who visited outpatient departments were recruited. They self-reported demographic data and completed questions asking about (i) their fear of COVID-19, (ii) whether they paid attention to COVID-19 news, (iii) whether searched for COVID-19 news, (iv) whether they believed in COVID-19 news, and (v) their preventive COVID-19 behaviors. Results: Both women and men reported a low fear of COVID-19, paid close attention to COVID-19 news, and practiced good preventive COVID-19 infection behaviors. The perceived chance of COVID-19 infection was a significant factor contributing to the fear of COVID-19 among both women and men. Preventive behaviors had a positive effect in lowering the fear of COVID-19. News about COVID-19 had a negative effect in lowering the fear of the disease among women but not men. Conclusions: As the performing of preventive COVID-19 infection behaviors was associated with a lower fear of COVID-19, healthcare providers should consider strategies for improving preventive behaviors among older people to help ease their worries and fears concerning COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Aged , Fear , Female , Health Behavior , Humans , Male , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Sex Factors
17.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 22480, 2021 11 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1526099

ABSTRACT

Monitoring community psychological and behavioural responses to coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is important for informing policy making and risk communication to sustain public compliance with challenging precautionary behaviours and mitigating the psychological impacts. Monthly telephone-based cross-sectional surveys in January-April 2020 and then weekly surveys from May through December 2020 were conducted to monitor changes in public risk perception of COVID-19, personal efficacy in self-protection, confidence in government's ability to control the pandemic, precautionary behaviours, perceived impact of precautionary behaviours, psychological fatigue and distress in Hong Kong, and examine their inter-relationships. While worry about contracting COVID-19 increased, personal efficacy and confidence in government declined as the community incidence of COVID-19 increased. The public maintained high compliance with most precautionary behaviours throughout but relaxed behaviours that were more challenging when disease incidence declined. Public confidence in government was persistently low throughout, of which, a lower level was associated with more psychological fatigue, lower compliance with precautionary behaviours and greater psychological distress. Perceived greater negative impact of precautionary behaviours was also associated with more psychological fatigue which in turn was associated with relaxation of precautionary behaviours. Female, younger and unemployed individuals reported greater psychological distress throughout different stages of the pandemic. Risk communication should focus on promoting confidence in self-protection and pandemic control to avoid helplessness to act when the pandemic resurges. Policy making should prioritize building public trust, enhancing support for sustaining precautionary behaviours, and helping vulnerable groups to adapt to the stress during the pandemic.


Subject(s)
Anxiety , COVID-19 , Health Behavior , Pandemics , Psychological Distress , SARS-CoV-2 , Adolescent , Adult , Age Factors , Aged , Anxiety/epidemiology , Anxiety/psychology , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/psychology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Hong Kong/epidemiology , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Sex Factors
18.
Can J Public Health ; 112(5): 831-842, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1524702

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The primary objective was to determine the association between public health preventive measures and children's outdoor time, sleep duration, and screen time during COVID-19. METHODS: A cohort study using repeated measures of exposures and outcomes was conducted in healthy children (0 to 10 years) through The Applied Research Group for Kids (TARGet Kids!) COVID-19 Study of Children and Families in Toronto, Canada, between April 14 and July 15, 2020. Parents were asked to complete questionnaires about adherence to public health measures and children's health behaviours. The primary exposure was the average number of days that children practiced public health preventive measures per week. The three outcomes were children's outdoor time, total screen time, and sleep duration during COVID-19. Linear mixed-effects models were fitted using repeated measures of primary exposure and outcomes. RESULTS: This study included 554 observations from 265 children. The mean age of participants was 5.5 years, 47.5% were female and 71.6% had mothers of European ethnicity. Public health preventive measures were associated with shorter outdoor time (-17.2; 95% CI -22.07, -12.40; p < 0.001) and longer total screen time (11.3; 95% CI 3.88, 18.79; p = 0.003) during COVID-19. The association with outdoor time was stronger in younger children (<5 years), and the associations with total screen time were stronger in females and in older children (≥5 years). CONCLUSION: Public health preventive measures during COVID-19 were associated with a negative impact on the health behaviours of Canadian children living in a large metropolitan area.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Health Behavior , Public Health , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Canada/epidemiology , Child , Child, Preschool , Cohort Studies , Female , Humans , Male
19.
Rev Rene (Online) ; 22: e60296, 2021.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS (Americas) | ID: covidwho-1518831

ABSTRACT

RESUMO Objetivo compreender as vulnerabilidades percebidas por homens no enquadramento da pandemia da Covid-19. Métodos estudo sociohistórico, qualitativo, realizado a partir dos resultados de pesquisa on-line em todas as regiões do Brasil. A amostra foi composta de 200 homens. Os dados foram processados e analisados metodologicamente pelo Discurso do Sujeito Coletivo, suportados no referencial de enquadramento da doença epidêmica. Resultados os homens perceberam as vulnerabidades em razão da existência de doenças crônicas neles e na família, da necessidade de manter rotina de trabalho que limita a adoção do distanciamento social, das incertezas geradas pela pandemia com ameaça à manutenção do emprego e dos projetos de realização profissional, além dos desconfortos pela interrupção das interações sexuais. Conclusão as percepções dos homens sobre as vulnerabilidades na pandemia giraram em torno da saúde, da profissionalização, do trabalho e da sexualidade.


ABSTRACT Objective to understand the vulnerabilities perceived by men in the context of the Covid-19 pandemic. Methods socio-historical, qualitative study, carried out from the results of online research in all regions of Brazil. The sample consisted of 200 men. The data were processed and analyzed methodologically by the Collective Subject Discourse, supported by the framework of epidemic disease. Results men perceived the vulnerabilities due to the existence of chronic diseases in them and in the family, the need to maintain a work routine that limits the adoption of social distance, the uncertainties generated by the pandemic, which threatens the maintenance of employment and the professional achievement projects, in addition to the discomfort caused by the interruption of sexual interactions. Conclusion men's perceptions of vulnerabilities in the pandemic revolved around health, professionalization, work and sexuality.


Subject(s)
Health Behavior , Coronavirus Infections , Vulnerability Analysis , Men's Health , Masculinity , Pandemics
20.
Bull World Health Organ ; 99(11): 828-833, 2021 Nov 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1515515

ABSTRACT

Despite the importance of behaviours in promoting health and wellness, persuading people to adopt and sustain healthy behaviours remains a significant public health challenge. Considerable progress has been made in developing and testing theories about the personal, social, environmental and structural drivers of behaviours. However, theorizing about behaviours themselves has remained elusive, as evidenced by the absence of a widely accepted taxonomy of behaviours. By carefully examining the nature of behaviours, practitioners and researchers can identify the most effective ways to promote behavioural change. We propose attribute-centred theorizing as an approach for defining behaviours based on their relevant properties, which can then assist in developing a taxonomy of behaviours and theorizing about them. Behaviours differ because of their underlying properties; for example, some behaviours are addictive, others are publicly observable and others are expensive. Addictiveness, privacy and cost are therefore three (of the many) attributes relevant for theorizing about behaviours. We describe a framework for operationalizing attribute-centred theorizing, which includes generating behavioural attributes, verifying and testing those attributes, and constructing a behavioural matrix to inform campaigns or interventions. We illustrate this framework using the examples of Guinea-worm disease and cardiovascular diseases. The benefits of our approach include the ability to inform intervention development and the ability to generalize across different behaviours; however, more research on converting the behavioural matrix into actual policy is needed.


Subject(s)
Cardiovascular Diseases , Health Behavior , Humans
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