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1.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(40): e27422, 2021 Oct 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2191077

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT: As severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 continues to spread, easy-to-use risk models that predict hospital mortality can assist in clinical decision making and triage. We aimed to develop a risk score model for in-hospital mortality in patients hospitalized with 2019 novel coronavirus (COVID-19) that was robust across hospitals and used clinical factors that are readily available and measured standardly across hospitals.In this retrospective observational study, we developed a risk score model using data collected by trained abstractors for patients in 20 diverse hospitals across the state of Michigan (Mi-COVID19) who were discharged between March 5, 2020 and August 14, 2020. Patients who tested positive for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 during hospitalization or were discharged with an ICD-10 code for COVID-19 (U07.1) were included. We employed an iterative forward selection approach to consider the inclusion of 145 potential risk factors available at hospital presentation. Model performance was externally validated with patients from 19 hospitals in the Mi-COVID19 registry not used in model development. We shared the model in an easy-to-use online application that allows the user to predict in-hospital mortality risk for a patient if they have any subset of the variables in the final model.Two thousand one hundred and ninety-three patients in the Mi-COVID19 registry met our inclusion criteria. The derivation and validation sets ultimately included 1690 and 398 patients, respectively, with mortality rates of 19.6% and 18.6%, respectively. The average age of participants in the study after exclusions was 64 years old, and the participants were 48% female, 49% Black, and 87% non-Hispanic. Our final model includes the patient's age, first recorded respiratory rate, first recorded pulse oximetry, highest creatinine level on day of presentation, and hospital's COVID-19 mortality rate. No other factors showed sufficient incremental model improvement to warrant inclusion. The area under the receiver operating characteristics curve for the derivation and validation sets were .796 (95% confidence interval, .767-.826) and .829 (95% confidence interval, .782-.876) respectively.We conclude that the risk of in-hospital mortality in COVID-19 patients can be reliably estimated using a few factors, which are standardly measured and available to physicians very early in a hospital encounter.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/mortality , Hospital Mortality/trends , Age Factors , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Body Mass Index , Comorbidity , Creatinine/blood , Female , Health Behavior , Humans , Logistic Models , Male , Michigan/epidemiology , Middle Aged , Oximetry , Prognosis , ROC Curve , Retrospective Studies , Risk Assessment , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index , Sex Factors , Socioeconomic Factors
2.
Epidemiol Prev ; 46(5-6): In press, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2145853

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: to evaluate the impact of school closures, as a measure to contain the transmission of SARS-CoV-2 infection, on the psychological well-being of students of all levels starting from the 2020-2021 school year. DESIGN: a systematic literature review was conducted according to the PRISMA 2020 Guidelines. The literature search was conducted on 4 different databases: MedLine, Embase, PsycINFO, and L.OVE Platform. Quantitative observational studies published until 10.01.2022 were included. Studies conducted during the first pandemic wave, i.e., during the 2019-2020 school year and/or during the mandatory lockdown or confinement period, were excluded. The methodological quality of the studies was assessed with validated scales. Study selection, data extraction, and quality assessment were carried out independently by two authors. SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: children, adolescents, and young people attending all levels of education (including universities) and, for reasons related to COVID-19, having a suspension of "in presence" school or attending classes remotely. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: a. outcomes directly related to mental health: suicides, emergency department visits, and hospitalizations for psychiatric problems; anxiety and depression, emotional difficulties, feelings of loneliness and isolation; b. well-being outcomes: sleep quality, perceived well-being (by child/adolescent/youth or referred by parents); c. health-related behaviours: tobacco smoking, alcohol, drug use. Outcomes related to school/academic performance, physical health, and those related to parents were not considered. RESULTS: after having removed duplicate articles, 2,830 records were retrieved with the bibliographic search. Twelve studies (2 uncontrolled before-after studies and 10 cross sectional surveys) were included, involving a total of 27,787 participants. Three studies involved university students, 2 involved high school students, and the remaining involved a mixed population of students attending primary and middle schools. The studies were conducted between September 2020 and April 2021. The methodological quality was rated as high in five studies and intermediate in the remaining studies. Due to the high heterogeneity of outcome measures and statistical analyses performed among the included studies, it was not possible to conduct a meta-analysis of the results of the considered publications. Nevertheless, the present review showed a clear signal of increase in mental health problems in relation to school closure or virtual instruction. In particular, results suggest evidence of association between school closure and risk of suicidal attempts or thoughts, mental health symptoms such as anxiety, depression, emotional disorders, psychological stress. Sleeping problems, drug and alcohol addiction were poorly studied. CONCLUSIONS: despite the limitations of the included studies and possible residual confounding and contamination due to restrictive measures and social isolation implemented during the pandemic, the available evidence confirms the negative impact on students' mental health associated with school closures and distance learning. Given the availability of vaccination also for young children, a long period of school closure should be avoided also in the case of the emergence of new pandemic waves.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Suicide , Child , Adolescent , Humans , Child, Preschool , Mental Health , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Communicable Disease Control , SARS-CoV-2 , Italy , Health Behavior
3.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(19)2022 Oct 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2142956

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The implementation of online teaching in the context of epidemic prevention and control has had an impact on the learning engagement of college students to some extent. This study aims to investigate the mechanisms that influence perceived social support and health behaviors on learning engagement, so as to make college students more focused on their studies by improving their physical and mental health as well as their ability to perceive social support. METHODS: A total of 538 college students from Henan Province, China, were studied using the Perceived Social Support Scale, Health Behavior Scale and Learning Engagement Scale, and the data were analyzed by IBM SPSS Amos 26.0 software (IBM SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL, USA). RESULTS: (1) The level of health behavior among college students was positively correlated with perceived social support ability (ß = 0.289, p < 0.001); both perceived social support and health behaviors predicted college students' learning engagement significantly (ß = 0.200, p < 0.01; ß = 0.406, p < 0.001). (2) College students' perceived social support partially mediated the relationship between health behaviors and learning engagement. CONCLUSION: One of the main ways to improve college students' learning engagement is to improve their health behavior and perceived social support. This study contributes to a better understanding of the relationships between health behaviors and learning engagement, as well as to the development of interventions to improve learning engagement among college students.


Subject(s)
Social Support , Students , Health Behavior , Humans , Learning , Mental Health
4.
JMIR Public Health Surveill ; 7(1): e24756, 2021 01 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2141295

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 is a highly transmissible illness caused by SARS-CoV-2. The disease has affected more than 200 countries, and the measures that have been implemented to combat its spread, as there is still no vaccine or definitive medication, have been based on supportive interventions and drug repositioning. Brazil, the largest country in South America, has had more than 140,000 recorded deaths and is one of the most affected countries. Despite the extensive quantity of scientifically recognized information, there are still conflicting discussions on how best to face the disease and the virus, especially with regard to social distancing, preventive methods, and the use of medications. OBJECTIVE: The main purpose of this study is to evaluate the Brazilian population's basic knowledge about COVID-19 to demonstrate how Brazilians are managing to identify scientifically proven information. METHODS: A cross-sectional study design was used. An original online questionnaire survey was administered from June 16 to August 21, 2020, across all five different geopolitical regions of the country (ie, the North, Northeast, Center-West, Southeast, and South). The questionnaire was comprised of questions about basic aspects of COVID-19, such as the related symptoms, conduct that should be followed when suspected of infection, risk groups, prevention, transmission, and social distancing. The wrong questionnaire response alternatives were taken from the fake news combat website of the Brazilian Ministry of Health. Participants (aged ≥18 years) were recruited through social networking platforms, including Facebook, WhatsApp, and Twitter. The mean distributions, frequencies, and similarities or dissimilarities between the responses for the different variables of the study were evaluated. The significance level for all statistical tests was less than .05. RESULTS: A total of 4180 valid responses representative of all the states and regions of Brazil were recorded. Most respondents had good knowledge about COVID-19, getting an average of 86.59% of the total score with regard to the basic aspects of the disease. The region, education level, age, sex, and social condition had a significant association (P<.001) with knowledge about the disease, which meant that women, the young, those with higher education levels, nonrecipients of social assistance, and more economically and socially developed regions had more correct answers. CONCLUSIONS: Overall, Brazilians with social media access have a good level of basic knowledge about COVID-19 but with differences depending on the analyzed subgroup. Due to the limitation of the platform used in carrying out the study, care should be taken when generalizing the study findings to populations with less education or who are not used to accessing social networking platforms.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Health Behavior , Health Education/methods , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Social Media/statistics & numerical data , Adult , Aged , Brazil , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Middle Aged , Social Networking , Surveys and Questionnaires , Young Adult
5.
Front Public Health ; 10: 886137, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2119634

ABSTRACT

This study aimed to identify factors that affect lifestyle changes and focused on coronavirus disease (COVID-19)-related anxiety since the COVID-19 outbreak in South Korea. Data from 213,848 individuals from the 2020 Korean Community Health Survey were analyzed using a complex sampling design. Descriptive statistics, t-tests, one-way ANOVA, and multiple regression analyses were performed. Participants reported a high level of COVID-19-related anxiety, with a score of 19.28 out of 25. The score of healthy behavioral change index was -0.51, indicating negative changes in physical activity, dietary habits, and sleep patterns. A slight positive change was reported for addictive behavioral change index, such as smoking and alcohol consumption, at 0.27 scores, indicating a decrease in these behaviors. COVID-19-related anxiety was an important factor that negatively affected health behavior. The high-risk groups that were vulnerable to anxiety included older adults and those who have little social support or few social encounters. Thus, identifying high-risk groups with the potential for worsened health behavior and providing interventions to reduce the anxiety caused by COVID-19 are necessary.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , Life Style , Anxiety/epidemiology , Anxiety Disorders , Health Behavior
6.
Span J Psychol ; 24: e13, 2021 Feb 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2096600

ABSTRACT

In recent years, there has been an increasing interest in the consequences of conspiracy theories and the COVID-19 pandemic raised this interest to another level. In this article, I will outline what we know about the consequences of conspiracy theories for individuals, groups, and society, arguing that they are certainly not harmless. In particular, research suggests that conspiracy theories are associated with political apathy, support for non-normative political action, climate denial, vaccine refusal, prejudice, crime, violence, disengagement in the workplace, and reluctance to adhere to COVID-19 recommendations. In this article, I will also discuss the challenges of dealing with the negative consequences of conspiracy theories, which present some opportunities for future research.


Subject(s)
Attitude to Health , COVID-19 , Communicable Disease Control , Health Behavior , Politics , Prejudice , Vaccination Refusal , Apathy , Attitude , Climate Change , Crime , Culture , Denial, Psychological , Guideline Adherence , Humans , Personnel Loyalty , SARS-CoV-2 , Violence
8.
PLoS One ; 17(10): e0275008, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2089409

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Fly-In-Fly-Out (FIFO) workers travel to work at isolated locations, and rotate continuous workdays with leave periods at home, and such work practice is common in the offshore oil and gas and onshore mining industry worldwide. The COVID-19 pandemic and accompanying public health actions appear to have had a negative impact on several health-related behaviours among the general population. However, little is known about the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on the health behaviours of FIFO workers, who have shown higher pre-pandemic rates of risky behaviours than the general population in Australia. This study examined the health-related behaviours of FIFO workers in the mining industry during the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: A descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted. FIFO workers from an Australian mining company who underwent COVID-19 screening between May and November 2020 completed an online survey about their regular health-related behaviours. The independent sample t-test and Pearson's chi-square test where appropriate were conducted to examine the differences between males and females for the behavioural outcomes. RESULTS: A total of 768 FIFO workers (633 males and 135 females) participated in the study. Prevalence of smoking was high (32%). Males smoked more cigarettes per day than females (15.2±7.0 vs 13.1±7.1, p = .174). Most participants (74.7%) drank alcohol on more than two days per week. Compared to females, more males (20.2% vs 8.0%) consumed alcohol at short-term harmful levels (p = .010). About a third (34.4%) of the workers (33.5% of males and 38.5% of females, p = .264) engaged in inadequate moderate-vigorous exercises/physical activity. About a third (33.1%) of workers (33.7% of males and 30.4% of females; p = .699) had multiple risk behaviours. CONCLUSIONS: Prevalence of multiple risk behaviours was high. Interventions aimed at the prevention of risky health-related behaviours should target the different behavioural patterns and may require emphasis on gender-informed techniques particularly when addressing alcohol consumption.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diptera , Male , Female , Animals , Humans , Australia/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , COVID-19/epidemiology , Pandemics , Health Behavior
9.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 17704, 2022 Oct 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2087263

ABSTRACT

To protect themselves from COVID-19, people follow the recommendations of the authorities, but they also resort to placebos. To stop the virus, it is important to understand the factors underlying both types of preventive behaviour. This study examined whether our model (developed based on the Health Belief Model and the Transactional Model of Stress) can explain participation in WHO-recommended and placebo actions during the pandemic. Model was tested on a sample of 3346 participants from Italy, Japan, Poland, Korea, Sweden, and the US. It was broadly supported: objective risk and cues to action showed both direct and indirect (through perceived threat) associations with preventive behaviours. Moreover, locus of control, decision balance, health anxiety and preventive coping moderated these relationships. Numerous differences were also found between countries. We conclude that beliefs about control over health and perceived benefits of actions are critical to the development of interventions to improve adherence to recommendations.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , COVID-19/prevention & control , Pandemics/prevention & control , Health Behavior , Anxiety/prevention & control , World Health Organization
10.
Soc Sci Med ; 314: 115446, 2022 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2084474

ABSTRACT

Determining the best way to increase public health behaviors like mask-wearing in non-compliant individuals remains an important problem. In this two-part study, we examined the correlates of mask non-compliance in undergraduates at a selective East Coast university, and then developed an intervention designed to appeal to individuals with those traits. We found that being politically conservative and favoring the core values of respect for authority and in-group loyalty were associated with mask non-compliance. We then developed two novel public service announcement (PSA) videos. One featured peer campus leaders (e.g. the president of the College Republicans) to appeal to both social influence and the core values of authority and loyalty. The other featured national and local health care authorities. We found that (a) conservative students rated the two videos as equally authoritative, while liberal students rated the health authority PSA to be significantly more authoritative; (b) conservative participants significantly increased their self-reported mask-wearing rates compared to baseline, narrowing the gap in compliance substantially; and (c) the two PSAs were equally effective for conservative students at increasing mask-wearing. This study shows that public health interventions that target the values and beliefs associated with non-compliance may best influence behavior.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Masks , Humans , Students , Public Health , Health Behavior
11.
J Anxiety Disord ; 92: 102643, 2022 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2069246

ABSTRACT

Although heightened anxiety and health behavior use (i.e., masking, hand washing) may be viewed as an adaptive response to the coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic, it is unclear how the politicization of the pandemic has influenced the trajectory of such responses. Accordingly, the present study examined differences between those that identify as more conservative or liberal in the trajectory of anxiety and health behaviors during the pandemic. This study also examines shifts in this trajectory before and after the presidential election. As part of a larger study, participants (N = 374) completed a symptom survey starting on May 27, 2020 every 2 weeks for a total of 15 timepoints over 30 weeks. The findings showed that more conservative participants reported lower levels of COVID-19 anxiety and less health behavior use compared to more liberal participants. In fact, anxiety levels increased slightly for more liberal participants and decreased slightly for more conservative participants during the pre-election time frame. Health behavior use also decreased more rapidly for conservative participants than for liberal participants during the pre-election time frame. However, COVID-19 anxiety and health behavior use rose sharply and similarly for both liberal and conservative individuals after the election. Importantly, these patterns were independent of state level variability in COVID-19 positivity and death rates. Subsequent analysis also revealed significant relations between COVID-19 anxiety and health behavior use that was slightly stronger among conservatives. Implications of these findings for navigating the influence of political ideology on anxiety-related responses during a public health emergency like the COVID-19 pandemic are discussed.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Humans , Politics , Health Behavior , Anxiety
12.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(19)2022 Oct 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2066001

ABSTRACT

Migrant domestic workers (MDWs) in Hong Kong remain vulnerable during the COVID-19 pandemic. Obtaining accurate information is essential for MDWs as it helps them understand their predicament and protect themselves. Therefore, this study delves into the MDWs' health literacy by scrutinizing how they acquire, verify, and respond to pandemic-related information. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 32 Indonesian MDWs, recruited through purposive and snowball sampling. The data were examined using a constant comparative approach in grounded theory. The findings reveal that the participants engaged in information seeking and scanning to obtain health crisis information, mainly through their friends, family members, and community organizations. The participants also verified the information using their judgment or by consulting other actors, such as local organizations and media outlets. The messages they obtained informed the means to protect themselves, which motivated them to adopt preventive measures. However, some also engaged in maladaptive coping, such as taking ineffective preventive actions. The participants also disseminated health crisis information throughout their social circle. This study concluded that MDWs performed four health information behaviors during the pandemic, namely information acquisition, authentication, sharing, and adoption of preventive measures. However, their information practices may change at different stages of the pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Health Literacy , Transients and Migrants , COVID-19/epidemiology , Health Behavior , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control
13.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(19)2022 Sep 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2065992

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 has had profound effects on physical activity behaviours of older adults, and understanding this impact is essential to driving public health policies to promote healthy ageing. The present study aimed to determine; (1) intended physical activity behaviours of older adults following the easing of UK COVID-19 restrictions; (2) the relationship between self-reported physical activity and intended physical activity behaviour; (3) perceived barriers to achieving the intended physical activity goal. Ninety-six participants (74.8 ± 4.4 years; 52 female) from a longitudinal study examining the impact of COVID-19 on physical activity were recruited. Participants outlined their future physical activity intentions and completed the COM-B Self Evaluation Questionnaire. Participants were split into groups based on their intention to 'Maintain' (n = 29), 'Increase' (n = 38) or 'Return' (n = 29) to pre-COVID-19 physical activity. Self-reported physical activity undulated over the pandemic but was mostly equivalent between groups. Intended physical activity behaviour was independent of self-report physical activity. Capability and motivation factors were the most frequently cited barriers to the intended physical activity behaviour, with a greater number of capability barriers in the 'Return' group. Such barriers should be considered in the COVID-19 recovery public health physical activity strategy for promoting healthy ageing.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Intention , Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Exercise , Female , Health Behavior , Humans , Longitudinal Studies , United Kingdom/epidemiology
14.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(19)2022 Sep 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2065986

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: This study examined employer experience with SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) asymptomatic testing through a social marketing lens. Social marketing uses commercial marketing principles to achieve socially beneficial ends including improved health and safety behavior. METHOD: Twenty employers across 11 occupational sectors were interviewed about implementation of COVID-19 testing from January through April 2021. Recorded transcripts were coded and analyzed using marketing's "Four P's": "product," "price," "place," "promotion." RESULTS: COVID-19 tests (product) were uncomfortable, were easily confused, and didn't solve problems articulated by employers. Testing was not widely available or didn't line up with shifts or locations (place). The perceived price, which included direct and associated costs (e.g., laboratory fees, productivity loss, logistical challenges) was high. Most crucially, the time to receive (PCR) results negated the major benefit of less time spent in quarantine and challenged employer trust. A potential audience segmentation strategy based on perceptions of exposure risk also emerged. CONCLUSIONS: This social marketing analysis suggests ways to improve the value proposition for asymptomatic testing through changes in product, price, and placement features in line with employers' expressed needs. Study findings can also inform creation of employee communication materials that balance perceived rewards of testing against perceived risks of exposure.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Social Marketing , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19 Testing , Health Behavior , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
16.
BMC Prim Care ; 23(1): 253, 2022 09 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2053865

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic began to affect the world in early 2020. As a preventive measure, schools in the UAE adopted remote learning. This study aimed to assess the effects of the lockdown and remote learning on the health-related behaviours of school students in the UAE. METHODS: A cross-sectional study using an online survey comprising 33 questions related to physical activity, eating, sleeping and screen time was answered by the students' parents. Chi-square tests, paired Student's t tests and frequency tables were used for analysis. RESULTS: A total of 27,754 responses were received: 46.3% of the parents indicated a significant decrease in physical activity; 44.6% indicated an increase in unhealthy snack consumption; and 51.9% indicated decreased food ordering from restaurants. The percentage of students who slept more than 9 hours and those who slept less than 6 hours increased. Screen time increased significantly for both educational and entertainment purposes (P value < 0.0001). CONCLUSION: The study showed changes in the lifestyle and health-related behaviours of school students as indicated by their parents. Risk factors such as a lack of physical activity, increased food consumption, sleeping and screen time were directly affected. Therefore, it is important to further investigate these changes and their effects to help design targeted health education programs and promotion campaigns.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , COVID-19/epidemiology , Communicable Disease Control , Cross-Sectional Studies , Health Behavior , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control , Students , United Arab Emirates/epidemiology
17.
Nature ; 609(7928): 679-680, 2022 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2050293
18.
Front Public Health ; 10: 958021, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2043532

ABSTRACT

The persistent rise of pandemics across the globe in recent times has led to the prescription of several collaborative preventive strategies to reduce the effect that the pandemic has on public health. Consistent monitoring and surveillance appear to be the only available approach to detecting and classifying the issues of public health threats. Global pandemic threats demand public co-operation to take preventive actions at a personal level so that the risk of infectious diseases can be contained. Said that, this study explored the influence of awareness of precaution measures (APM), concerns about coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) (CAC), knowledge of COVID-19 (KOC), and perceived risk (PRK) on preventive behavior (PRB), as well as the effect of age and gender on the relationships among the studied variables. Quantitative data were collected from 551 university students across Malaysia and Vietnam through field survey and online survey, respectively. The data collection was performed from 13 March to 23 March 2020. Partial least square structural equation modeling (PLS-SEM) was employed for data analysis. The multiple group analysis (MGA) technique was applied to compare the data retrieved from the respondents based on age and gender. The results revealed that APM, CAC, KOC, and PRK on PRB significantly influenced PRB toward COVID-19. In light of the two personal factors, age and gender, significant variances were noted for age and KOC, while PRK on PRB on the PRB toward COVID-19. Based on the study outcomes, APM emerged as the most significant predictor of PRB, followed by PRK on PRB, and CAC. Since a large fraction of the world reside in rural areas and have high-level interaction with animals, the provision of education at all level can harness the attitude to adopt PRB toward COVID-19. As such, policymakers need to work with the young generation so that the latter may serve as change agents to spread the message of taking precautions and adopting effective PRB toward COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Asia, Southeastern , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Health Behavior , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Students , Universities
19.
BMC Public Health ; 22(1): 1820, 2022 09 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2043119

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Non-pharmaceutical interventions to reduce the spread of COVID-19 may have disproportionately affected already disadvantaged populations. METHODS: We analysed data from 2710 young adult participants of the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children. We assessed the associations of socioeconomic position (SEP) and Adverse Childhood Experiences (ACEs, e.g. abuse, neglect, measures of family dysfunction) with changes to health-related behaviours (meals, snacks, exercise, sleep, alcohol and smoking/vaping), and to financial and employment status during the first UK lockdown between March-June 2020. RESULTS: Experiencing 4+ ACEs was associated with reporting decreased sleep quantity during lockdown (OR 1.53, 95% CI: 1.07-2.18) and increased smoking and/or vaping (OR 1.85, 95% CI: 0.99-3.43); no other associations were seen between ACEs or SEP and health-related behaviour changes. Adverse financial and employment changes were more likely for people with low SEP and for people who had experienced multiple ACEs; e.g. a history of 4+ ACEs was associated with being furloughed or on other leave during lockdown (OR 1.92, 95% CI: 1.35-2.74). CONCLUSIONS: In this sample of young adults, there was little evidence that lockdown worsened inequalities in health-related behaviours. However, adverse financial and employment consequences of lockdown were more likely to be experienced by people who have already experienced socioeconomic deprivation or childhood adversity, thereby widening social inequalities and demonstrating the need for support into adulthood for those with a history of ACEs.


Subject(s)
Adverse Childhood Experiences , COVID-19 , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , Child , Communicable Disease Control , Employment , Health Behavior , Humans , Longitudinal Studies , Pandemics , Prospective Studies , Risk Factors , Socioeconomic Factors , United Kingdom/epidemiology , Young Adult
20.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 15956, 2022 09 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2042340

ABSTRACT

Government enforced restrictions on movement during the COVID-19 pandemic are likely to have had profound impacts on the daily behaviours of many individuals, including physical activity (PA). Given the associations between PA and other health behaviours, changes in PA during the pandemic may have been detrimental for other health behaviours. This study aimed to evaluate whether changes in PA during and after the first national lockdown in the United Kingdom (UK) were associated with concurrent changes in alcohol consumption, sleep, nutrition quality, diet quantity and sedentary time. Data were derived from the UCL COVID-19 Social Study, in which 52,784 adults were followed weekly across 22 weeks of the pandemic from 23rd March to 23rd August 2020. Fixed effects regression models showed that greater PA was positively associated with improved sleep and nutrition quality. However, increases in PA also showed modest associations with increased alcohol consumption and sedentary time. Encouraging people to engage in PA may lead to wider changes in other health behaviours in times of adversity. These associations could be a result of increases in available leisure time for many people during COVID-19 restrictions and are of ongoing importance given the emerging long-term changes to lifestyle and working patterns.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , Communicable Disease Control , Exercise , Health Behavior , Humans , Pandemics , Surveys and Questionnaires
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