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1.
Nurs Educ Perspect ; 43(6): E50-E52, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2097464

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT: Associations between health belief model constructs and engagement in COVID-19 preventive practices were examined in a population of 234 nursing students. Most (93 percent/68 percent, respectively) reported occasionally/frequently performing 6-feet physical distancing and wearing face masks/covering in public. Among health belief model constructs, perceived benefits were significantly associated with practicing physical distancing; perceived barriers were associated with lower likelihood. Perceived self-efficacy was associated with a greater likelihood of wearing face masks/covering in public. Nursing students should be provided timely and relevant information on preventive measures based on the recognition of different risk appraisals among students.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Students, Nursing , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Health Belief Model
2.
Front Public Health ; 10: 917022, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1974690

ABSTRACT

Background: Emerging research has identified health literacy as an important resource for individual health care and disease prevention. In the context of COVID-19, People with limited HL are less likely to follow preventive measures such as wearing masks, social isolation, or taking the vaccination. However, the pathways of how health literacy affects decision-making have remained unclear. Methods: With a cross-sectional study, a total of 613 responses (mean age is 25.64 ± 6.46 years) were collected. The relationship between health literacy and health behaviors under COVID-19 was examined, and the potential mediation pathways were assessed based on the health belief model. Results: With linear regression, it was found that health literacy has a direct effect on health behaviors and three constructs in the health belief model, i.e., perceived susceptibility, perceived severity, perceived barriers, as well as an indirect effect on health behaviors via increasing perceived barriers related with COVID-19 preventive measures. The results showed that health literacy only goes through the pathway of perceived barriers to influence health behaviors, and the indirect effects via other pathways were not significant. Conclusions: The research addressed the mediation model underlying the effects of health literacy on health behaviors and identified a partial mediation role of perceived barriers. Health literacy could promote individual health behavior by reducing the perceived barriers to forming a healthy lifestyle and making health decisions. Future health promotion interventions increasing people's health literacy should be advocated to promote health initiatives in the whole population.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Health Literacy , Adult , COVID-19/prevention & control , Cross-Sectional Studies , Health Behavior , Health Belief Model , Health Promotion , Humans , Young Adult
3.
Curr Hypertens Rev ; 18(1): 78-84, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1902800

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Hypertension is a leading risk factor for morbidity and mortality around the world. Preventing this health problem is considered an important priority. The aim of this study was to investigate the predictive factors for care and control of hypertension (CCH) according to the health belief model (HBM), in patients with hypertension during the COVID-19 epidemic in Sirjan, Iran. METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, participants were chosen by simple random sampling. Data were collected by a valid and reliable researcher-made questionnaire from 200 patients with high blood pressure aged 30-60 years. Data were analyzed by SPSS21 and analysis based on descriptive statistics, Pearson correlation coefficients, and linear regression was conducted. RESULTS: The results of Pearson correlation coefficients showed that there was a significant correlation among almost all constructs of the Health Belief Model (HBM), but the strongest correlations were between self-efficacy and perceived susceptibility (r = 0.940, P ≤ 0.001), and between perceived barriers with perceived benefits (r = -0.615, P ≤ 0.001). According to linear regression, perceived barriers (ß = -0.291), cues to action (ß = -0.590), and knowledge (ß = 0.973) predicted more than 26% of CCH variability. Knowledge had a stronger role than other variables. CONCLUSION: The results of this study show that the constructs of the Health Belief Model can predict CCH in hypertensive patients. This model can be used as a tool for designing and implementing educational interventions to increase CCH among hypertensive patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hypertension , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Health Belief Model , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Humans , Hypertension/diagnosis , Hypertension/epidemiology , Hypertension/therapy , Iran/epidemiology
4.
PLoS One ; 17(6): e0269059, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1892320

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Several countries have started mass vaccination programs to halt the spread of the COVID-19 pandemic. With an R naught value of 2 to 3, about 70% of the population needs to be immunized to achieve herd immunity. This study aimed to investigate the reasons for acceptance or refusal of COVID-19 vaccines among the Malaysian population. METHODOLOGY: An exploratory, descriptive qualitative design was performed. The cross-sectional survey used a non-probability convenient sampling technique to recruit the respondents, who were required to answer an open-ended question: Either "If you are willing to get the vaccine, please state your reason" or "If you are not willing to get vaccinated, please state your reason." The survey also included questions on demography such as age, gender, and place of residence. According to the Health Belief Model, the data was transcribed, translated, and analyzed: perceived susceptibility, perceived severity, perceived barrier, and cues for action. RESULTS: A total of 1091 respondents who completed the online survey comprised 685 (62.8%) females, 406 (37.2%) males, with a mean age of 38.16 (SD = 16.44). The majority (81.1%) were willing to get vaccinated. Thematic analysis showed that most respondents perceived that the vaccine is safe, effective, protective and will provide herd immunity. Barriers to vaccination include unknown long-term side effects, rapid vaccine production, inadequate information and concerns regarding halal status. Cues to vaccination included individual desire, social responsibility, economic concerns and wait-and-see behavior. CONCLUSIONS: The public should be well informed about the vaccine, its efficacy, side effects, and halal status to increase vaccine acceptability and achieve herd immunity.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Health Belief Model , Humans , Male , Pandemics/prevention & control , Vaccination
5.
BMC Public Health ; 22(1): 1077, 2022 05 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1875005

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Governments have attempted to combat the COVID-19 pandemic by issuing guidelines for disease prevention behavior (e.g., wearing masks, social distancing, etc.) and by enforcing these guidelines. However, while some citizens have complied with these guidelines, others have ignored them or have even participated in large-scale protests. This research aims both to understand the causes of such variation in citizens' adherence to government guidelines on disease prevention behavior and to extend the scientific literature on disease prevention to account for the collective resilience of a society to diseases. Thus, this research draws on the health belief model and collective resilience theory to develop hypotheses about the determinants of a citizen's disease prevention behavior. These hypotheses deal with how citizens' vulnerability, attitudes toward disease prevention, and social orientation are associated with COVID-19 prevention behaviors. METHODS: From March 24 to April 4, 2020, a cross-sectional online survey was conducted in Bolivia. It included questions on demographic characteristics, chronic health problems, emotional burden, attitudes towards preventive behaviors, trust in public institutions, and culture. Among 5265 participants who clicked on the survey, 1857 at least partially filled it out. After removing data with missing responses to any variable, the final sample consists of 1231 respondents. The collected data were analyzed using hierarchical linear modeling. RESULTS: Regarding a citizen's vulnerability, chronic health problems have a U-shaped association with disease prevention behavior. Moreover, age, female gender, and worries have positive associations with disease prevention behavior, whereas depression showed a negative association. Regarding attitudes toward disease prevention, trust in public institutions, and attitudes toward social distancing, a government-imposed lockdown and the enforcement of this lockdown showed positive associations with disease prevention behavior. Regarding social orientation, individualism and collectivism both have positive relationships with disease prevention behavior. CONCLUSIONS: In the COVID-19 pandemic, a citizen's low vulnerability, weak social orientation, and beliefs about low benefits of disease prevention behavior are associated with poor compliance with guidelines on disease prevention behavior. More research on these associations would help generalize these findings to other populations and other public health crises.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Bolivia/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Communicable Disease Control , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Health Belief Model , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control
6.
Vaccine ; 40(19): 2772-2780, 2022 04 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1867863

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 vaccines have been authorized for use in children in some societies. Parents' intention to vaccinate their children is context-specific. Drawing upon health belief model (HBM) and theory of planned behavior (TPB), this study contributed to a timely topic by examining the extent to which parents intended to vaccinate their children and its associated factors in Hong Kong, where the government announced children as young as five could take COVID-19 vaccines starting from 21 January 2022. A large-scale, online survey was conducted among 11,141 Hong Kong parents (86% mothers) of children aged 5-12 (N = 14,468, 49.5% girls). They reported on measures that assessed HBM constructs (i.e., perceived susceptibility, perceived severity, perceived benefits, perceived barriers, and cues to action), TPB constructs (i.e., attitudes, subjective norms, and perceived behavioral control), and their intention to vaccinate each of their children. Results of descriptive statistics showed that Hong Kong parents' intention to vaccinate their children was very low (1.55 out of 5.00). Multilevel regression showed that after controlling for parents' and children's demographic variables (e.g., sex and age), parents' intention to vaccinate their children was higher if parents had higher levels of perceived susceptibility, perceived benefits, positive attitudes, and subjective norms and if they had lower levels of perceived barriers. Positive attitudes were the strongest correlate of parents' intention. These findings have important implications for public health by informing which factors authorities should address in order to boost Hong Kong parents' intention to vaccinate their children.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Intention , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , Child , Female , Health Belief Model , Hong Kong , Humans , Male , Parents , Vaccination
7.
Front Public Health ; 10: 842862, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1792875

ABSTRACT

Data exploring parents' hesitancy to vaccinate their 5-11-year-old children against COVID-19, and associated factors, is limited. This study aims to investigate parents' beliefs and intentions to vaccinate their 5-11-year-old children using the Health Belief Model in Saudi Arabia. A national, cross-sectional, questionnaire-based study was conducted in November, 2021. The self-administered online questionnaire was distributed to a random sample of parents. Adult parents with at least one 5-11-year-old child were included. The main outcome was parents' intention to vaccinate their 5-11-year-old children. Variability in parents' intention was assessed by demographics, COVID-19-related factors, children's health status, and constructs from the Health Belief Model. Univariate and multivariable logistic regression were used to investigate each factor and adjust for the intervariable effect on parental intention to vaccinate their children. Of the 4,135 participants, 61.9% were hesitant to vaccinate their 5-11-year-old children. Parents aged 31 to 40 years (OR = 1.23; 95% CI, 1.02-1.49) and females (OR = 1.52; 95% CI, 1.25-1.84) had higher odds of being hesitant to vaccinate their children than parents from other groups. Parents who perceived low benefit from the vaccine (OR = 16.3; 95% CI, 12.1-21.9) or who had safety or efficacy concerns (OR = 3.76; 95% CI, 3.10-4.58) were among the most hesitant to vaccinate their children. In conclusion, vaccine hesitancy is prevalent among parents of 5-11-year-old children in Saudi Arabia and those who had beliefs of minimal benefits or lack of safety from the COVID-19 vaccine were more hesitant. Government efforts must be directed toward increasing parents' vaccine awareness and tackling the constructs of the Health Belief Model through a well-designed vaccination campaign.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Vaccines , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , Child , Child, Preschool , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Health Belief Model , Humans , Male , Parents , Saudi Arabia , Vaccination
8.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(7)2022 03 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1776203

ABSTRACT

This study aimed to investigate the adoption of the Sehha, Mawid, and Tetamman mobile health applications during the COVID-19 pandemic in Saudi Arabia. The present study investigated factors influencing app use intention based on the Health Belief Model (HBM) approach. This study was conducted using a sample of 176 participants from the Riyadh and Makkah regions during the lockdown in May 2020. This study uses structural equation modeling for data collected using SmartPLS 3.3.9 (GmbH, Oststeinbek, Germany) to examine the effect of constructs on the model. The most important predictor was the perceived benefits of the mobile health apps, followed by self-efficacy. The perceived barriers and cues to action have no significant effect on behavioral intention. The perceived benefits and self-efficacy as keys can provide an overview to the government and to health organizations for taking into account the most important factors of the adoption of mobile health apps, meaning that the developer must adjust to the characteristics of the community of people that need applications that provide many benefits and have an impact.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Mobile Applications , Telemedicine , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Communicable Disease Control , Health Belief Model , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control
9.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(6)2022 03 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1760615

ABSTRACT

This large-sample study of three Chinese societies-Mainland China, Taiwan, and Hong Kong-demonstrates the importance of media exposure for people's vaccination intentions during the COVID-19 pandemic. By employing two constructs (i.e., perceived susceptibility and severity) in the health belief model (HBM), the study identifies significant indirect effects of media exposure on individuals' vaccination intention in all three Chinese societies. That said, media trust negatively moderated the path from perceived severity to vaccination intention in Mainland China and Taiwan. In these two societies, the higher an individual's trust in media, the less influence of perceived severity on his/her vaccination intention. It suggests that the level of trust in media is a contextual factor in explaining individuals' decision-making on health issues. Generally, the combination of the HBM and media trust has been proven to be useful for understanding individuals' vaccination intentions. These findings provide practical considerations for governmental agencies, public institutions, and health campaign designers to promote vaccination in the pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , COVID-19/prevention & control , China , Female , Health Belief Model , Humans , Male , Vaccination
10.
PLoS One ; 17(3): e0263568, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1753186

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 is a new pandemic that poses a threat to people globally. In Ethiopia, where classrooms are limited, students are at higher risk for COVID-19 unless they take consistent preventative actions. However, there is a lack of evidence in the study area regarding student compliance with COVID-19 preventive behavior (CPB) and its predictors. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to assess CPB and its predictors among students based on the perspective of the Health Belief Model (HBM). METHOD AND MATERIALS: A school-based cross-sectional survey was conducted from November to December 2020 to evaluate the determinants of CPB among high school students using a self-administered structured questionnaire. 370 participants were selected using stratified simple random sampling. Descriptive statistics were used to summarize data, and partial least squares structural equation modeling (PLS-SEM) analyses to evaluate the measurement and structural models proposed by the HBM and to identify associations between HBM variables. A T-value of > 1.96 with 95% CI and a P-value of < 0.05 were used to declare the statistical significance of path coefficients. RESULT: A total of 370 students participated with a response rate of 92%. The median (interquartile range) age of the participants (51.9% females) was 18 (2) years. Only 97 (26.2%), 121 (32.7%), and 108 (29.2%) of the students had good practice in keeping physical distance, frequent hand washing, and facemask use respectively. The HBM explained 43% of the variance in CPB. Perceived barrier (ß = - 0.15, p < 0.001) and self-efficacy (ß = 0.51, p <0.001) were significant predictors of student compliance to CPB. Moreover, the measurement model demonstrated that the instrument had acceptable reliability and validity. CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS: COVID-19 prevention practice is quite low among students. HBM demonstrated adequate predictive utility in predicting CPBs among students, where perceived barriers and self-efficacy emerged as significant predictors of CPBs. According to the findings of this study, theory-based behavioral change interventions are urgently required for students to improve their prevention practice. Furthermore, these interventions will be effective if they are designed to remove barriers to CPBs and improve students' self-efficacy in taking preventive measures.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Communicable Disease Control/methods , Students/psychology , Adolescent , COVID-19/psychology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Ethiopia/epidemiology , Female , Health Behavior , Health Belief Model , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Humans , Latent Class Analysis , Male , Reproducibility of Results , Self Efficacy , Surveys and Questionnaires , Young Adult
11.
Expert Rev Pharmacoecon Outcomes Res ; 22(5): 753-761, 2022 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1697188

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: This study uses the Health Belief Model (HBM) to explain parents' willingness to vaccinate (WTV) their children with COVID-19 vaccine in the United States (US). The analysis included determining if vaccination choice among parents statistically varied based on geography among the sample collected. METHODS: A cross-sectional survey was administered on November 2020. Multiple regression analysis was completed, determining which HBM constructs to be most relevant to parents' WTV their children with COVID-19 vaccine. To determine 'hot' and 'cold' geographic spots for WTV, a hot spot analysis based on Getis-Ord Gi* statistics was executed. RESULTS: Primary data collection included a convenience sample of US parents. Approximately 66% of parents surveyed were 'likely/extremely likely' to vaccinate their children if the COVID-19 vaccine was provided free by the government. The results highlight HBM connections to WTV. CONCLUSIONS: The relationship between parents' WTV their children with a COVID-19 vaccine and constructs within the theoretical framework of the HBM represents a necessary point in the development of efficacious COVID-19 vaccination programs among parents in the US. Interpreting differences in location and health beliefs toward vaccines merit in-depth investigation for local-, state-, and federal-level vaccination programs to be effective.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Vaccines , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , Child , Cross-Sectional Studies , Health Belief Model , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Humans , Parents , United States , Vaccination
12.
PLoS One ; 17(2): e0264128, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1699351

ABSTRACT

Since Health care workers (HCWs) are at high occupational risk for COVID-19, they are prioritized for immunization. This study aimed to assess the acceptance rate of the COVID-19 vaccine among HCWs and to identify its determinants. A web-based cross-sectional study was conducted between10 and 31 December 2020 among Lebanese HCWs. The Health Belief Model (HBM) was used as a theoretical framework. Multivariable logistic analyses were carried out to identify the factors associated with the acceptance of the COVID-19 vaccine among HCWs. A total of 1800 HCWs have completed the survey. Around half (58.10%) of them were frontline HCWs and aged between (30-49) years old. Over two-thirds (67.33%) of the participants have received the seasonal influenza vaccine. The acceptance rate of the COVID-19 vaccine among surveyed HCWs was 58%. HCWs who were male (aOR = 1.99, 95% CI (1.41-2.80)), working in the frontlines (aOR = 1.61, 95% CI (1.17-2.21), and those who have received influenza vaccination for the current year (aOR = 1.38, 95% CI(0.99-1.92)) were more willing to get the COVID-19 vaccine. However, factors such as living in rural areas (aOR = 0.61, 95% CI (0.44-0.84)), and being previously diagnosed with COVID-19 (aOR = 0.66, 95%CI (0.45-0.96) were found negatively associated with vaccine acceptance. In terms of health beliefs items, concerns related to the novelty of vaccine (aOR = 0.42, 95% CI (0.25-0.71)), side effects/vaccine safety (aOR = 0.41, 95% CI (0.23-0.73), reliability of manufacturer (aOR = 0.43, 95% CI (0.30-0.63)), and the number of required doses (aOR = 0.58, 95% CI (0.40-0.84)) were also negatively associated with the willingness to get vaccinated against COVID-19. Remarkably, concerns such as the limited accessibility (aOR = 1.68, 95% CI (1.14-2.47)), and availability of vaccines (aOR = 2.16, 95% CI (1.46-3.20)) were associated with an increased likelihood of willingness to receive the COVID-19 vaccine. With regards to cues of action, receiving reliable and adequate information about the vaccine (aOR = 1.98, 95% CI (1.36-2.88)), recommendation by health authorities (aOR = 1.93, 95% CI(1.33-2.81)), and recommendations from health facilities (aOR = 2.68, 95% CI(1.80-3.99)) were also positively associated with vaccine acceptance. Lastly, perception of COVID-19 vaccine benefits by HCWs in terms of protecting them and their close contacts (patients, family members, and friends) from COVID-19 infection (aOR = 4.21, 95% CI (2.78-7.11)) was associated with an increased likelihood of vaccine uptake. The moderate acceptance rate of the COVID-19 vaccine among HCWs found in our study could have broader extents. Understanding and pointing out factors impairing vaccine acceptance such as concerns about the novelty of vaccine and manufacturers' reliability are required to reach a higher vaccination rate.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19/prevention & control , Health Belief Model , Health Personnel , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination , Adolescent , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged
13.
J Evid Based Integr Med ; 26: 2515690X211006332, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1691168

ABSTRACT

The purpose of this study was to learn about the use, barriers, reasons and beliefs regarding mind-body practices among adults living in the United States during the beginning months of the 2019 novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic. An on-line survey was developed following the Checklist for Reporting Results of Internet e-Surveys (CHERRIES) guidelines and using the online survey software program, Qualtrics® XM, platform. Pilot testing of the survey was conducted for usability and functionality. The final 24-item survey was distributed via email and social media. A total of 338 adults responded to the survey, with 68.8% indicating that they participated in mind-body activities since the start of the pandemic. Physical activity was the most frequently (61.5%, n = 227) used mind-body practice. Further, 2 of the common barriers to engaging in mind-body practices were lack of motivation and wandering mind. Frequently listed reasons for using mind-body practices were to promote health, reduce stress and relaxation. Respondents believed that mind-body practices resulted in less stress. These findings may be applicable for reducing psychological stress related to the pandemic, as the pandemic continues to impact many areas of the United States.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Culture , Exercise/psychology , Mind-Body Therapies , Stress, Psychological , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/physiopathology , COVID-19/psychology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Health Behavior , Health Belief Model , Humans , Male , Mind-Body Therapies/methods , Mind-Body Therapies/psychology , Motivation , SARS-CoV-2 , Self Care , Stress, Psychological/etiology , Stress, Psychological/prevention & control , United States/epidemiology
14.
J Community Health ; 47(3): 464-474, 2022 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1669902

ABSTRACT

An individual's perception of risk plays an influential role in the behaviors they engage in, which could reduce or increase exposure or transmission of a certain disease. Since risk perceptions vary by social identities (e.g., gender, race/ethnicity, age) they are believed to influence the interpretation and likelihood of following guidance from risk-communication efforts. This study aims to understand how COVID-19 risk perceptions vary by social identity (with an emphasis upon socioeconomic factors), how such identities influence behavior adoption through risk-communication pathways, and how findings can be practically applied in messaging. Previous studies have investigated the role of social factors on risk perceptions, but SES has not been modeled as the main factor. Guided by the Health Belief Model and Social Determinant of Health Frameworks, findings from our 326 participants suggest those with high-risk COVID-19 perceptions identified as higher income and held more advanced educational degrees, suggesting a positive relationship between risk perceptions and SES. Individuals with high-risk perceptions more frequently reported practicing protective behaviors against COVID-19 and reported greater severity, susceptibility, barriers, benefits, trust, confidence, and health literacy in adopting behavior changes against the virus. When applying such findings to create a local risk-communication plan (logic model), it was found that messaging should be culturally relevant, in-plain language, and consistent to improve health literacy. In addition to using the most trusted and frequently used communication sources self-identified by residents, we recommend uniting trusted formal and informal community leaders to provide information in diverse pathways and formats.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Health Belief Model , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Social Class , Trust , United States/epidemiology
15.
Vaccine ; 40(10): 1404-1412, 2022 03 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1665513

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy is a significant public health issue. While vaccines are not yet available for children, clinical trials are underway, and children will likely be an important factor in the U.S. reaching herd immunity. However, little research has been conducted to examine parents' intention to vaccinate their young children for COVID-19. METHOD: An online survey with a national U.S. sample of 682 primary caregivers of children under age six assessed variables associated with intention to accept the COVID-19 vaccine for their children from November 13, 2020, to December 8, 2020. RESULTS: Caregivers whose child received a recent influenza vaccine, as well as those with previous experience COVID-19, were more likely to express COVID-19 vaccination intention for their young child. Identifying as female was associated with lower COVID-19 vaccination intention, while identifying as Hispanic or Latino was associated with higher intention. Health Belief Model variables of perceived severity of COVID-19 for their child, as well as vaccine confidence, were positive predictors of COVID-19 vaccine intention and mediated the relationship between prior behavior, demographic variables, and intention. CONCLUSIONS: The findings highlight the importance of early, proactive COVID-19 vaccination education efforts directed at caregivers, including those with young children. Vaccines for young children will likely become a necessary part of ending the pandemic's impact in school settings. Operationally, COVID-19 vaccination may also become a part of childhood vaccination schedules. Understanding the beliefs and intentions of caregivers of young children before vaccinations are recommended for children will enable public health officials and medical practitioners to prepare in advance.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Caregivers , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Health Belief Model , Humans , Intention , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination
16.
BMJ Open ; 12(1): e050867, 2022 01 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1633512

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: A COVID-19 outbreak has been contained in China through effective prevention measures with the collaboration of the citizens. However, there is resistance to self-reported symptoms as required in the international student community. This study explored knowledge level and symptoms reporting behaviours toward COVID-19 among international students. METHODS: An online cross-sectional investigation was conducted among 119 international students across Heilongjiang province and questionnaires implemented through WeChat between 1 and 25 March 2020. The results were explained using descriptive Χ2 test and binary logistic regression analysis using SPSS V.20. RESULTS: In total, 119 international students participated, with a response rate of 90.16%. Of the 119 respondents, 96 (80.7%) knew COVID-19 symptoms, 109 (91.6%) took cognisance of questions on the importance of the maintenance of wearing masks and 113 (95%) on questions regarding hand hygiene in the prevention of disease transmission. However, results show that there were still large gaps in knowledge about questions regarding the virus and the treatment methods (many participants incorrectly believed that the virus could be kill by drinking alcohol or smoking). In addition, more than half of the participants declared compliance with positive health behaviours, however 27.7% did not agree with vaccination (if any), and 31.1% did not agree to be quarantined after being diagnosed with COVID-19. Furthermore, 20 participants (16, 80%) expressed an inclination to deliberately withhold symptoms. Variables in the Health Belief Model showed a significant association with behavioural change. CONCLUSION: From our study, we found that there is evident knowledge about COVID-19 among international students, although orientation and sensitisation are still required. Those who were aware of the benefits of reporting, the severity of COVID-19 and the legal consequences of deliberately concealing information showed a greater willingness to report; conversely, those who believed reporting is very inconvenient and feared being quarantined after reporting showed less willingness to report. A study focusing on international students' knowledge and behaviour amid the pandemic will provide information for countries to cut off the chain of disease transmission of all variants of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , China/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Health Belief Model , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Humans , Intention , SARS-CoV-2 , Self Report , Students , Surveys and Questionnaires
17.
J Med Internet Res ; 23(2): e23720, 2021 02 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1574569

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Health behavior is influenced by culture and social context. However, there are limited data evaluating the scope of these influences on COVID-19 response. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to compare handwashing and social distancing practices in different countries and evaluate practice predictors using the health belief model (HBM). METHODS: From April 11 to May 1, 2020, we conducted an online, cross-sectional survey disseminated internationally via social media. Participants were adults aged 18 years or older from four different countries: the United States, Mexico, Hong Kong (China), and Taiwan. Primary outcomes were self-reported handwashing and social distancing practices during COVID-19. Predictors included constructs of the HBM: perceived susceptibility, perceived severity, perceived benefits, perceived barriers, self-efficacy, and cues to action. Associations of these constructs with behavioral outcomes were assessed by multivariable logistic regression. RESULTS: We analyzed a total of 71,851 participants, with 3070 from the United States, 3946 from Mexico, 1201 from Hong Kong (China), and 63,634 from Taiwan. Of these countries, respondents from the United States adhered to the most social distancing practices (χ23=2169.7, P<.001), while respondents from Taiwan performed the most handwashing (χ23=309.8, P<.001). Multivariable logistic regression analyses indicated that self-efficacy was a positive predictor for handwashing (odds ratio [OR]United States 1.58, 95% CI 1.21-2.07; ORMexico 1.5, 95% CI 1.21-1.96; ORHong Kong 2.48, 95% CI 1.80-3.44; ORTaiwan 2.30, 95% CI 2.21-2.39) and social distancing practices (ORUnited States 1.77, 95% CI 1.24-2.49; ORMexico 1.77, 95% CI 1.40-2.25; ORHong Kong 3.25, 95% CI 2.32-4.62; ORTaiwan 2.58, 95% CI 2.47-2.68) in all countries. Handwashing was positively associated with perceived susceptibility in Mexico, Hong Kong, and Taiwan, while social distancing was positively associated with perceived severity in the United States, Mexico, and Taiwan. CONCLUSIONS: Social media recruitment strategies can be used to reach a large audience during a pandemic. Self-efficacy was the strongest predictor for handwashing and social distancing. Policies that address relevant health beliefs can facilitate adoption of necessary actions for preventing COVID-19. Our findings may be explained by the timing of government policies, the number of cases reported in each country, individual beliefs, and cultural context.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/psychology , Health Belief Model , Social Media , Adolescent , Adult , Cross-Sectional Studies , Disease Transmission, Infectious/prevention & control , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Surveys and Questionnaires , Young Adult
18.
Asian Pac J Cancer Prev ; 22(11): 3499-3506, 2021 Nov 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1539062

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Vaccination is the most effective way to fight the COVID-19 pandemic and to protect people who have a higher risk of developing severe illness and death from COVID-19 such as cancer patients. We aimed in this study to determine the acceptance rate of COVID-19 vaccination of the Salah Azaiez Institute (SAI) of cancer of Tunisia patients and to identify its associated factors. METHODS: It was a cross sectional study about patients admitted to the SAI for treatment during the month of February 2021. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to identify factors associated with the COVID-19 vaccine acceptance among Tunisian cancer patients. RESULTS: A total of 200 patients were included in this study with a mean age of 54.4±12.7 years and a gender ratio of 0.5. Only 35.0% of surveyed patients reported their acceptance to receive the COVID-19 vaccine. Multivariate analysis showed that believing in COVID-19 vaccine safety and efficacy (OR=3.1 [1.3-7.4]), enrollment in the COVID-19 vaccine platform (OR=8.3 [1.8-38.1]) and the willingness to receive influenza vaccine (OR=3.9 [1.6-9.3]) were independently associated with the COVID-19 vaccine acceptance among SAI cancer patients. CONCLUSIONS: The COVID-19 vaccine acceptance rate found in this study was low. Communication strategies of the vaccination campaigns should provide clear, simple and detailed messages about the efficacy and the benefits of the COVID-19 vaccines. More engagement of health authorities to promote COVID-19 vaccination is necessary.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , COVID-19/prevention & control , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Neoplasms/prevention & control , Patient Acceptance of Health Care , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Vaccination/psychology , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Health Belief Model , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Neoplasms/epidemiology , Neoplasms/virology , Surveys and Questionnaires , Tunisia/epidemiology , Young Adult
19.
BMC Pregnancy Childbirth ; 21(1): 745, 2021 Nov 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1501992

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Seasonal influenza can circulate in parallel with coronavirus disease (COVID-19) in winter. In the context of COVID-19 pandemic, the risk of co-infection and the burden it poses on healthcare system calls for timely influenza vaccination among pregnant women, who are the priority population recommended for vaccination. We aimed to evaluate the acceptance of influenza vaccination and associated factors among pregnant women during COVID-19 pandemic, provide evidence to improve influenza vaccination among pregnant women, help reduce the risk of infection and alleviate the burden of healthcare system for co-infected patients. METHODS: We conducted a multi-center cross-sectional study among pregnant women in China. Sociodemographic characteristics, health status, knowledge on influenza, attitude towards vaccination, and health beliefs were collected. Locally weighted scatterplot smoothing regression analysis was used to evaluate the trends in the acceptance of influenza vaccine. Logistic regression was applied to identify factors associated with vaccination acceptance. RESULTS: The total acceptance rate was 76.5% (95%CI: 74.8-78.1%) among 2568 pregnant women enrolled. Only 8.3% of the participants had a history of seasonal influenza vaccination. In the logistic regression model, factors associated with the acceptance of influenza vaccine were western region, history of influenza vaccination, high knowledge of influenza infection and vaccination, high level of perceived susceptibility, perceived benefit, cues to action and low level of perceived barriers. Among 23.5% of the participants who had vaccine hesitancy, 48.0% of them were worried about side effect, 35.6% of them lacked confidence of vaccine safety. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings highlighted that tailored strategies and publicity for influenza vaccination in the context of COVID-19 pandemic are warranted to reduce pregnant women's concerns, improve their knowledge, expand vaccine uptake and alleviate pressure for healthcare system.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Influenza A virus/immunology , Influenza Vaccines/pharmacology , Influenza, Human/prevention & control , Pandemics , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/prevention & control , Vaccination/methods , Adult , China/epidemiology , Comorbidity , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Health Belief Model , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Humans , Influenza, Human/epidemiology , Patient Acceptance of Health Care , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Seasons , Surveys and Questionnaires
20.
J Infect Public Health ; 14(10): 1398-1403, 2021 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1492296

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 government public health measures are necessary to prevent the spread of COVID-19, however, their efficacy is largely dependent on adherence. This study utilized the Health Belief Model (HBM) to explain the public's adopted prevention practices during the COVID-19 outbreak in Saudi Arabia. METHODS: This study used "COVID-19 Snapshot MOnitoring (COSMO): monitoring knowledge, risk perceptions, preventive behaviours, and public trust in the current coronavirus outbreak" research protocol which is developed by the WHO Regional Office for Europe and the COSMO group. The COSMO questionnaire was translated into Arabic and distributed as an online survey via WhatsApp instant messaging application from May 2nd to May 26th, 2020. The dependent variable was the mean of adopting ten COVID-19 preventive practices. These practices were hand washing, avoiding touching eyes, nose and mouth, use of hand sanitizer, covering mouth and nose when coughing/sneezing, staying home when sick, avoiding close contact with infected persons, social distancing, wearing masks, home isolation, and lockdown. The independent variables included the HBM constructs (susceptibility to and severity of COVID-19, benefits of and barriers to adopting preventive behaviors, cues to action, health motivation, and self-efficacy), sociodemographic factors, presence of chronic illness, and perceived and actual knowledge. We conducted bivariate and multivariate analyses and reported significant findings (P ≤ 0.05). RESULTS: We analyzed 1027 surveys. About 38% adhered to all COVID-19 preventive behaviors and the mean for adherence was 9. The HBM perceived benefits (p = 0.001), perceived barriers (p = 0.004), and cues to action (p = 0.046) were associated with adherence to COVID-19 preventive behaviors after adjusting for all other factors. Respondents with the highest levels of education and income were less likely to adopt COVID-19 preventive behaviors compared to those in the lower ranks of education and income. CONCLUSION: Our findings suggest that the HBM can be applied to understand adherence to COVID-19 prevention practices. The recognition of perceived health beliefs and practices is important for developing effective COVID-19 health intervention strategies.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Communicable Disease Control , Cross-Sectional Studies , Health Belief Model , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
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