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2.
PLoS One ; 16(10): e0258182, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1496505

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Healthcare spending in the emergency department (ED) setting has received intense focus from policymakers in the United States (U.S.). Relatively few studies have systematically evaluated ED spending over time or disaggregated ED spending by policy-relevant groups, including health condition, age, sex, and payer to inform these discussions. This study's objective is to estimate ED spending trends in the U.S. from 2006 to 2016, by age, sex, payer, and across 154 health conditions and assess ED spending per visit over time. METHODS AND FINDINGS: This observational study utilized the National Emergency Department Sample, a nationally representative sample of hospital-based ED visits in the U.S. to measure healthcare spending for ED care. All spending estimates were adjusted for inflation and presented in 2016 U.S. Dollars. Overall ED spending was $79.2 billion (CI, $79.2 billion-$79.2 billion) in 2006 and grew to $136.6 billion (CI, $136.6 billion-$136.6 billion) in 2016, representing a population-adjusted annualized rate of change of 4.4% (CI, 4.4%-4.5%) as compared to total healthcare spending (1.4% [CI, 1.4%-1.4%]) during that same ten-year period. The percentage of U.S. health spending attributable to the ED has increased from 3.9% (CI, 3.9%-3.9%) in 2006 to 5.0% (CI, 5.0%-5.0%) in 2016. Nearly equal parts of ED spending in 2016 was paid by private payers (49.3% [CI, 49.3%-49.3%]) and public payers (46.9% [CI, 46.9%-46.9%]), with the remainder attributable to out-of-pocket spending (3.9% [CI, 3.9%-3.9%]). In terms of key groups, the majority of ED spending was allocated among females (versus males) and treat-and-release patients (versus those hospitalized); those between age 20-44 accounted for a plurality of ED spending. Road injuries, falls, and urinary diseases witnessed the highest levels of ED spending, accounting for 14.1% (CI, 13.1%-15.1%) of total ED spending in 2016. ED spending per visit also increased over time from $660.0 (CI, $655.1-$665.2) in 2006 to $943.2 (CI, $934.3-$951.6) in 2016, or at an annualized rate of 3.4% (CI, 3.3%-3.4%). CONCLUSIONS: Though ED spending accounts for a relatively small portion of total health system spending in the U.S., ED spending is sizable and growing. Understanding which diseases are driving this spending is helpful for informing value-based reforms that can impact overall health care costs.


Subject(s)
Disease/economics , Emergency Service, Hospital/economics , Health Care Costs , Health Care Costs/trends , Humans , Time Factors , United States
5.
PLoS One ; 16(6): e0252919, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1278181

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Over the course of the COVID19 pandemic, global healthcare delivery has declined. Surgery is one of the most resource-intensive area of medicine; loss of surgical care has had untold health and economic consequences. Herein, we evaluate resource utilization, outcomes, and healthcare costs associated with unplanned surgery admissions during the height of the pandemic in 2020 versus the same period in 2019. METHODS: Retrospective analysis on patients ≥18 years admitted from the emergency department to General & Digestive and Gastrointestinal Surgery Services between February and May 2019 and 2020 at our center; clinical outcomes and unadjusted and adjusted per-person healthcare costs were analyzed. RESULTS: Consults and admissions to surgery declined between February and May 2020 by 37% and 19%, respectively, relative to the same period in 2019, with even greater relative decline during late March and early April. Time between onset of symptoms to diagnosis increased from 2±3 days 2019 to 5±22 days 2020 (P = 0.01). Overall hospital stay was two days less in 2020 (P = 0.19). Complications (Comprehensive Complication Index 10.3±23.7 2019 vs. 13.9±25.5 2020, P = 0.10) and mortality rates (3% vs. 4%, respectively, P = 0.58) did not vary. Mean unadjusted per-person costs for patients in the 2019 and 2020 cohorts were 5,886.72€±12,576.33€ and 5,287.62±7,220.16€, respectively (P = 0.43). Following multivariate analysis, costs remained similar (4,656.89€±390.53€ 2019 vs. 4,938.54±406.55€ 2020, P = 0.28). CONCLUSIONS: Healthcare delivery and spending for unplanned general surgery admissions declined considerably due to COVID19. These results provide a small yet relevant illustration of clinical and economic ramifications of this healthcare crisis.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Emergency Service, Hospital/economics , Health Care Costs/trends , Hospitalization/economics , Surgery Department, Hospital/economics , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Female , Humans , Length of Stay , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , Young Adult
6.
Value Health ; 24(5): 632-640, 2021 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1121933

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To estimate the overall quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs) gained by averting 1 coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) infection over the duration of the pandemic. METHODS: A cohort-based probabilistic simulation model, informed by the latest epidemiological estimates on COVID-19 in the United States provided by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and literature review. Heterogeneity of parameter values across age group was accounted for. The main outcome studied was QALYs for the infected patient, patient's family members, and the contagion effect of the infected patient over the duration of the pandemic. RESULTS: Averting a COVID-19 infection in a representative US resident will generate an additional 0.061 (0.016-0.129) QALYs (for the patient: 0.055, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.014-0.115; for the patient's family members: 0.006, 95% CI 0.002-0.015). Accounting for the contagion effect of this infection, and assuming that an effective vaccine will be available in 3 months, the total QALYs gains from averting 1 single infection is 1.51 (95% CI 0.28-4.37) accrued to patients and their family members affected by the index infection and its sequelae. These results were robust to most parameter values and were most influenced by effective reproduction number, probability of death outside the hospital, the time-varying hazard rates of hospitalization, and death in critical care. CONCLUSION: Our findings suggest that the health benefits of averting 1 COVID-19 infection in the United States are substantial. Efforts to curb infections must weigh the costs against these benefits.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Health Care Costs/statistics & numerical data , Preventive Medicine/standards , Quality-Adjusted Life Years , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cost-Benefit Analysis , Health Care Costs/trends , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pandemics/statistics & numerical data , Preventive Medicine/economics , Preventive Medicine/methods , United States
7.
Int J Epidemiol ; 49(5): 1443-1453, 2020 10 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1066328

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: While the COVID-19 outbreak in China now appears suppressed, Europe and the USA have become the epicentres, both reporting many more deaths than China. Responding to the pandemic, Sweden has taken a different approach aiming to mitigate, not suppress, community transmission, by using physical distancing without lockdowns. Here we contrast the consequences of different responses to COVID-19 within Sweden, the resulting demand for care, intensive care, the death tolls and the associated direct healthcare related costs. METHODS: We used an age-stratified health-care demand extended SEIR (susceptible, exposed, infectious, recovered) compartmental model for all municipalities in Sweden, and a radiation model for describing inter-municipality mobility. The model was calibrated against data from municipalities in the Stockholm healthcare region. RESULTS: Our scenario with moderate to strong physical distancing describes well the observed health demand and deaths in Sweden up to the end of May 2020. In this scenario, the intensive care unit (ICU) demand reaches the pre-pandemic maximum capacity just above 500 beds. In the counterfactual scenario, the ICU demand is estimated to reach ∼20 times higher than the pre-pandemic ICU capacity. The different scenarios show quite different death tolls up to 1 September, ranging from 5000 to 41 000, excluding deaths potentially caused by ICU shortage. Additionally, our statistical analysis of all causes excess mortality indicates that the number of deaths attributable to COVID-19 could be increased by 40% (95% confidence interval: 0.24, 0.57). CONCLUSION: The results of this study highlight the impact of different combinations of non-pharmaceutical interventions, especially moderate physical distancing in combination with more effective isolation of infectious individuals, on reducing deaths, health demands and lowering healthcare costs. In less effective mitigation scenarios, the demand on ICU beds would rapidly exceed capacity, showing the tight interconnection between the healthcare demand and physical distancing in the society. These findings have relevance for Swedish policy and response to the COVID-19 pandemic and illustrate the importance of maintaining the level of physical distancing for a longer period beyond the study period to suppress or mitigate the impacts from the pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Communicable Disease Control , Health Care Costs/trends , Health Services Needs and Demand , Mortality/trends , COVID-19/economics , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Communicable Disease Control/methods , Communicable Disease Control/statistics & numerical data , Epidemiological Monitoring , Health Services Needs and Demand/organization & administration , Health Services Needs and Demand/trends , Humans , Models, Theoretical , Patient Isolation , Physical Distancing , SARS-CoV-2 , Sweden/epidemiology
8.
Am J Trop Med Hyg ; 104(2): 436-440, 2020 Dec 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-955246

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has created an unprecedented health crisis and a substantial socioeconomic impact. It also affects tuberculosis (TB) control severely worldwide. Interruptions of many TB control programs because of the COVID-19 pandemic could result in significant setbacks. One of the targets that can be affected is the WHO's End TB Strategy goal to eliminate catastrophic costs of TB-affected households by 2030. Disruptions to TB programs and healthcare services due to COVID-19 could potentially prolong diagnostic delays and worsen TB treatment adherence and outcomes. The economic recession caused by the pandemic could significantly impact household financial capacity because of the reduction of income and the rise in unemployment rates. All of these factors increase the risk of TB incidence and the gravity of economic impact on TB-affected households, and hamper efforts to eliminate catastrophic costs and control TB. Therefore, efforts to eliminate the incidence of TB-affected households facing catastrophic costs will be very challenging. Because financial constraint plays a significant role in TB control, the improvement of health and social protection systems is critical. Even before the pandemic, many TB-high-burden countries (HBCs) lacked robust health and social protection systems. These challenges highlight the substantial need for a more robust engagement of patients and civil society organizations and international support in addressing the consequences of COVID-19 on the control of TB.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/economics , Health Care Costs/statistics & numerical data , Tuberculosis/economics , COVID-19/epidemiology , Family Characteristics , Health Care Costs/standards , Health Care Costs/trends , Humans , Incidence , Income , SARS-CoV-2 , Tuberculosis/epidemiology , Tuberculosis/prevention & control
9.
N C Med J ; 81(6): 381-385, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-903117

ABSTRACT

The Affordable Care Act played a major role in transitioning American health care away from fee-for-service payment. We explore the spread of payment reforms since the implementation of the ACA, both nationally and in North Carolina; the corresponding effects on health care costs and quality; and further steps needed to achieve greater transformation.


Subject(s)
Health Care Costs/trends , Health Care Reform/economics , Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act/economics , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections , Humans , North Carolina , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , SARS-CoV-2 , United States
10.
JNMA J Nepal Med Assoc ; 58(229): 677-680, 2020 Sep 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-875148

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: There is a global crisis which has been led by COVID-19. The patients undergoingdental procedures and dental professionals are at higher risk of contracting this disease owing toaerosols generated and a lot of face to face contact during the procedures. The aim of this study was to know the perceptions of dental students of COMS-TH regarding future of dentistry in Nepal amidCOVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: The present cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted at COMS-TH, Bharatpur by sending an online e-survey questionnaire to 146 dental students out of which 99 responded. The e-survey questionnaire consisted of three parts which consisted of questions about demographics, knowledge about COVID-19 and their perceptions about future of dentistry. RESULTS: The results of the study depicted that most of the students thought dentistry is good and noble profession and will recommend it to young medical aspirants. Most of them wanted to pursue post graduation courses in future giving preference to Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery. CONCLUSIONS: The study concluded that most of the dental students were satisfied with dentistry as their profession and wanted National Dental Association to fix the minimum charges of each dental procedure. Also there is a need to start more post graduation courses in existing institutions providing dental education as most of the students want to pursue it in future.


Subject(s)
Attitude of Health Personnel , Coronavirus Infections , Dentistry/trends , Economics, Dental/trends , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , Students, Dental , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Career Choice , Female , Forecasting , Health Care Costs/trends , Humans , Infection Control, Dental , Male , Nepal , Practice Patterns, Dentists'/trends , SARS-CoV-2 , Surgery, Oral , Surveys and Questionnaires
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