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3.
Hepatology ; 74(6): 3316-3329, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1458999

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The surge in unhealthy alcohol use during the COVID-19 pandemic may have detrimental effects on the rising burden of alcohol-associated liver disease (ALD) on liver transplantation (LT) in the USA. We evaluated the effect of the pandemic on temporal trends for LT including ALD. APPROACH AND RESULTS: Using data from United Network for Organ Sharing, we analyzed wait-list outcomes in the USA through March 1, 2021. In a short-period analysis, patients listed or transplanted between June 1, 2019, and February 29, 2020, were defined as the "pre-COVID" era, and after April 1, 2020, were defined as the "COVID" era. Interrupted time-series analyses using monthly count data from 2016-2020 were constructed to evaluate the rate change for listing and LT before and during the COVID-19 pandemic. Rates for listings (P = 0.19) and LT (P = 0.14) were unchanged during the pandemic despite a significant reduction in the monthly listing rates for HCV (-21.69%, P < 0.001) and NASH (-13.18%; P < 0.001). There was a significant increase in ALD listing (+7.26%; P < 0.001) and LT (10.67%; P < 0.001) during the pandemic. In the COVID era, ALD (40.1%) accounted for more listings than those due to HCV (12.4%) and NASH (23.4%) combined. The greatest increase in ALD occurred in young adults (+33%) and patients with severe alcohol-associated hepatitis (+50%). Patients with ALD presented with a higher acuity of illness, with 30.8% of listings and 44.8% of LT having a Model for End-Stage Liver Disease-Sodium score ≥30. CONCLUSIONS: Since the start of COVID-19 pandemic, ALD has become the most common indication for listing and the fastest increasing cause for LT. Collective efforts are urgently needed to stem the rising tide of ALD on health care resources.


Subject(s)
Alcohol Drinking/adverse effects , COVID-19/complications , Liver Diseases, Alcoholic/etiology , Liver Transplantation/statistics & numerical data , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , Cost of Illness , End Stage Liver Disease/epidemiology , End Stage Liver Disease/etiology , Female , Health Care Rationing/statistics & numerical data , Health Care Rationing/trends , Hepatitis, Alcoholic/epidemiology , Hepatitis, Alcoholic/etiology , Humans , Interrupted Time Series Analysis/methods , Liver Diseases, Alcoholic/epidemiology , Liver Diseases, Alcoholic/surgery , Liver Transplantation/trends , Male , Middle Aged , Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease/epidemiology , Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease/etiology , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Severity of Illness Index , Time Factors , United States/epidemiology , Waiting Lists
4.
J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis ; 30(10): 106028, 2021 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1386120

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: The SARS-CoV-2 pandemic greatly influenced the overall quality of healthcare. The purpose of this study was to compare the time variables for acute stroke treatment and evaluate differences in the pre-hospital and in-hospital care before and during the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic, as well as between the first and second waves. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Observational and retrospective study from an Italian hospital, including patients who underwent thrombectomy between January 1st 2019 and December 31st 2020. RESULTS: Out of a total of 594 patients, 301 were treated in 2019 and 293 in 2020. The majority observed in 2019 came from spoke centers (67,1%), while in 2020 more than half (52%, p < 0.01) were evaluated at the hospital's emergency room directly (ER-NCGH). When compared to 2019, time metrics were globally increased in 2020, particularly in the ER-NCGH groups during the period of the first wave (N = 24 and N = 56, respectively): "Onset-to-door":50,5 vs 88,5, p < 0,01; "Arrival in Neuroradiology - groin":13 vs 25, p < 0,01; "Door-to-groin":118 vs 143,5, p = 0,02; "Onset-to-groin":180 vs 244,5, p < 0,01; "Groin-to-recanalization": 41 vs 49,5, p = 0,03. When comparing ER-NCGH groups between the first (N = 56) and second (N = 49) waves, there was an overall improvement in times, namely in the "Door-to-CT" (47,5 vs 37, p < 0,01), "Arrival in Neuroradiology - groin" (25 vs 20, p = 0,03) and "Onset-to-groin" (244,5 vs 227,5, p = 0,02). CONCLUSIONS: During the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic, treatment for stroke patients was delayed, particularly during the first wave. Reallocation of resources and the shutting down of spoke centers may have played a determinant role.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Delivery of Health Care, Integrated/trends , Endovascular Procedures/trends , Stroke/therapy , Thrombectomy/trends , Time-to-Treatment/trends , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Databases, Factual , Emergency Medical Services/trends , Female , Health Care Rationing/trends , Health Services Needs and Demand/trends , Humans , Italy , Male , Middle Aged , Patient Admission/trends , Retrospective Studies , Stroke/diagnosis , Time Factors , Treatment Outcome
5.
J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis ; 30(10): 106051, 2021 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1356332

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: An association has been reported between delays in the onset-to-door (O2D) time for mechanical thrombectomy (MT) and outbreaks of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). However, the association between other MT time courses or functional outcomes and COVID-19 outbreaks remains unclear. We compared the time courses of stroke pathways or functional outcomes in 2020 (the COVID-19 era) with those in 2019 (the pre-COVID-19 era) in Tokyo, Japan. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This retrospective observational study used data from the Tokyo-tama-REgistry of Acute endovascular Thrombectomy (TREAT), a multicenter registry of MT for acute large vessel occlusion in the Tokyo Metropolitan Area. Patients who had undergone acute MT from January 2019 to December 2020 were included. Patients were classified by the year they had undergone MT (2019 or 2020). RESULTS: In total, 477 patients were analyzed. O2D time was significantly longer in 2020 (146.0 min) than in 2019 (105.0 min; p = 0.034). No significant difference in door-to-puncture time (D2P) time or modified Rankin Scale (mRS) score 0-2 at 90 days was seen between 2019 and 2020. In the subgroup analysis, O2D time was significantly longer in the first half of 2020 compared with 2019. Multivariable logistic regression analysis revealed that the year 2020 was a independent predictor of longer O2D time, but not for mRS score 0-2 at 90 days. CONCLUSIONS: Although O2D time was significantly longer in the COVID-19 compared with the pre-COVID-19 era, D2P may not be significantly delayed and functional outcomes may not be different, despite the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Practice Patterns, Physicians'/trends , Stroke/therapy , Thrombectomy/trends , Time-to-Treatment/trends , Health Care Rationing/trends , Health Services Needs and Demand/trends , Humans , Registries , Retrospective Studies , Stroke/diagnosis , Time Factors , Tokyo , Treatment Outcome
6.
Arch Pathol Lab Med ; 145(7): 821-824, 2021 07 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1339693

ABSTRACT

CONTEXT.­: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) changed the dynamics of health care delivery, shifting patient priorities and deferring care perceived as less urgent. Delayed or eliminated care may place patients at risk for adverse outcomes. OBJECTIVE.­: To identify opportunities for laboratory test stewardship to close potential gaps in care created by the COVID-19 pandemic. DESIGN.­: The study was a retrospective time series design examining laboratory services received before and during the COVID-19 pandemic at a large metropolitan health system serving women and children. RESULTS.­: Laboratory test volumes displayed 3 distinct patterns: (1) a decrease during state lockdown, followed by near-complete or complete recovery; (2) no change; and (3) a persistent decrease. Tests that diagnose or monitor chronic illness recovered only partially. For example, hemoglobin A1c initially declined 80% (from 2232 for April 2019 to 452 for April 2020), and there was a sustained 16% drop (28-day daily average 117 at August 30, 2019, to 98 at August 30, 2020) 4 months later. Blood lead dropped 39% (from 2158 for April 2019 to 1314 for April 2020) and remained 23% lower after 4 months. CONCLUSIONS.­: The pandemic has taken a toll on patients, practitioners, and health systems. Laboratory professionals have access to data that can provide insight into clinical practice and identify pandemic-related gaps in care. During the pandemic, the biggest patient threat is underuse, particularly among tests to manage chronic diseases and for traditionally underserved communities and people of color. A laboratory stewardship program, focused on peri-pandemic care, positions pathologists and other laboratory professionals as health care leaders with a commitment to appropriate, equitable, and efficient care.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Clinical Laboratory Services/trends , Diagnostic Tests, Routine/trends , Health Care Rationing/trends , Health Services Accessibility/trends , COVID-19/diagnosis , Clinical Laboratory Services/organization & administration , Health Care Rationing/organization & administration , Health Policy , Health Services Accessibility/organization & administration , Humans , Retrospective Studies , Texas
9.
Cir Esp (Engl Ed) ; 99(6): 450-456, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1258347

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The COVID-19 pandemic has had a significant impact on Spanish hospitals, which have had to allocate all available resources to treat these patients, reducing the ability to attend other common pathologies. The aim of this study is to analyze how the treatment of acute appendicitis has been affected. METHOD: A national descriptive study was carried out by an online voluntary specific questionnaire with Google Drive™ distributed by email by the Spanish Association of Surgeons (AEC) to all affiliated surgeons currently working in Spain (5203), opened from April 14th to April 24th. RESULTS: We received 337 responses from 170 centers. During the first month of the pandemic, the incidence of acute appendicitis decreased. Although conservative management increased, the surgical option has been the most used in both simple and complicated appendicitis. Despite the fact that the laparoscopic approach continues to be the most widely used in our services, the open approach has increased during this pandemic period. CONCLUSION: Highlight the contribution of this study in terms of knowledge of the status of the treatment of acute appendicitis during this first month of the pandemic, being able to serve for a better possible organization in future waves of the pandemic and a reorganization of current protocols and management of acute appendicitis in a pandemic situation.


Subject(s)
Appendectomy/trends , Appendicitis/therapy , COVID-19/therapy , Conservative Treatment/trends , Health Care Rationing/trends , Infection Control/trends , Practice Patterns, Physicians'/trends , Acute Disease , Appendectomy/methods , Appendicitis/complications , Appendicitis/diagnosis , Appendicitis/epidemiology , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , Health Care Surveys , Humans , Incidence , Infection Control/methods , Laparoscopy/trends , Pandemics , Spain/epidemiology
11.
Am J Obstet Gynecol MFM ; 2(3): 100127, 2020 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1064732

ABSTRACT

Background: The ongoing coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic has severely affected the United States. During infectious disease outbreaks, forecasting models are often developed to inform resource utilization. Pregnancy and delivery pose unique challenges, given the altered maternal immune system and the fact that most American women choose to deliver in the hospital setting. Objective: This study aimed to forecast the first pandemic wave of coronavirus disease 2019 in the general population and the incidence of severe, critical, and fatal coronavirus disease 2019 cases during delivery hospitalization in the United States. Study Design: We used a phenomenological model to forecast the incidence of the first wave of coronavirus disease 2019 in the United States. Incidence data from March 1, 2020, to April 14, 2020, were used to calibrate the generalized logistic growth model. Subsequently, Monte Carlo simulation was performed for each week from March 1, 2020, to estimate the incidence of coronavirus disease 2019 for delivery hospitalizations during the first pandemic wave using the available data estimate. Results: From March 1, 2020, our model forecasted a total of 860,475 cases of coronavirus disease 2019 in the general population across the United States for the first pandemic wave. The cumulative incidence of coronavirus disease 2019 during delivery hospitalization is anticipated to be 16,601 (95% confidence interval, 9711-23,491) cases, 3308 (95% confidence interval, 1755-4861) cases of which are expected to be severe, 681 (95% confidence interval, 1324-1038) critical, and 52 (95% confidence interval, 23-81) fatal. Assuming similar baseline maternal mortality rate as the year 2018, we projected an increase in maternal mortality rate in the United States to at least 18.7 (95% confidence interval, 18.0-19.5) deaths per 100,000 live births as a direct result of coronavirus disease 2019. Conclusion: Coronavirus disease 2019 in pregnant women is expected to severely affect obstetrical care. From March 1, 2020, we forecast 3308 severe and 681 critical cases with about 52 coronavirus disease 2019-related maternal mortalities during delivery hospitalization for the first pandemic wave in the United States. These results are significant for informing counseling and resource allocation.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Delivery, Obstetric , Health Care Rationing , Hospitalization , Obstetrics , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious , Resource Allocation , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Delivery, Obstetric/methods , Delivery, Obstetric/statistics & numerical data , Delivery, Obstetric/trends , Female , Forecasting , Health Care Rationing/methods , Health Care Rationing/trends , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Hospitalization/trends , Humans , Incidence , Maternal Mortality/trends , Monte Carlo Method , Obstetrics/organization & administration , Obstetrics/statistics & numerical data , Obstetrics/trends , Patient Acceptance of Health Care , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/epidemiology , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/prevention & control , Resource Allocation/methods , Resource Allocation/trends , SARS-CoV-2 , United States/epidemiology
12.
Eur J Cardiothorac Surg ; 58(6): 1254-1260, 2020 12 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1060127

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Italy has been one of the countries most severely affected by the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). The Italian government was forced to introduce quarantine measures quickly, and all elective health services were stopped or postponed. This emergency has dramatically changed the management of paediatric and adult patients with congenital heart disease. We analysed data from 14 Italian congenital cardiac surgery centres during lockdown, focusing on the impact of the pandemic on surgical activity, patients and healthcare providers and resource allocation. METHODS: Fourteen centres participated in this study. The period analysed was from 9 March to 4 May. We collected data on the involvement of the hospitals in the treatment of patients with COVID-19 and on limitations on regular activity and on the contagion among patients and healthcare providers. RESULTS: Four hospitals (29%) remained COVID-19 free, whereas 10 had a 39% reduction in the number of beds for surgical patients, especially in the northern area. Two hundred sixty-three surgical procedures were performed: 20% elective, 62% urgent, 10% emergency and 3% life-saving. Hospital mortality was 0.4%. Compared to 2019, the reduction in surgical activity was 52%. No patients operated on had positive test results before surgery for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2, the virus responsible for COVID-19. Three patients were infected during the postoperative period. Twenty-nine nurses and 12 doctors were infected. Overall, 80% of our infected healthcare providers were in northern centres. CONCLUSIONS: Our study shows that the pandemic had a different impact on the various Italian congenital cardiac surgery centres based on the different patterns of spread of the virus across the country. During the lockdown, the system was able to satisfy all emergency clinical needs with excellent results.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Cardiac Surgical Procedures/trends , Health Care Rationing/trends , Health Services Accessibility/trends , Heart Defects, Congenital/surgery , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cross Infection/epidemiology , Cross Infection/prevention & control , Elective Surgical Procedures/trends , Emergencies , Health Care Rationing/methods , Health Care Rationing/organization & administration , Health Care Surveys , Health Policy , Health Services Accessibility/organization & administration , Humans , Infection Control/methods , Italy/epidemiology , Occupational Diseases/epidemiology , Occupational Diseases/prevention & control , Pandemics , Postoperative Complications/epidemiology , Postoperative Complications/prevention & control , Quarantine
17.
J Appl Lab Med ; 6(1): 264-273, 2021 01 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-947659

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Rates of sexually transmitted infections (STI) have risen steadily in recent years, and racial and ethnic minorities have borne the disproportionate burden of STI increases in the United States. Historical inequities and social determinants of health are significant contributors to observed disparities and affect access to diagnostic testing for STI. CONTENT: Public health systems rely heavily on laboratory medicine professionals for diagnosis and reporting of STI. Therefore, it is imperative that clinicians and laboratory professionals be familiar with issues underlying disparities in STI incidence and barriers to reliable diagnostic testing. In this mini-review, we will summarize contributors to racial/ethnic disparity in STI, highlight current epidemiologic trends for gonorrhea, chlamydia, and syphilis, discuss policy issues that affect laboratory and public health funding, and identify specific analytic challenges for diagnostic laboratories. SUMMARY: Racial and ethnic disparities in STI in the US are striking and are due to complex interactions of myriad social determinants of health. Budgetary cuts for laboratory and public health services and competition for resources during the COVID-19 pandemic are major challenges. Laboratory professionals must be aware of these underlying issues and work to maximize efforts to ensure equitable access to diagnostic STI testing for all persons, particularly those most disproportionately burdened by STI.


Subject(s)
Health Services Accessibility/statistics & numerical data , Health Status Disparities , Healthcare Disparities/statistics & numerical data , Laboratories/statistics & numerical data , Sexually Transmitted Diseases/diagnosis , COVID-19/economics , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Testing/economics , COVID-19 Testing/statistics & numerical data , Cost of Illness , Health Care Rationing/trends , Health Services Accessibility/economics , Healthcare Disparities/economics , Humans , Incidence , Laboratories/economics , Laboratories/trends , Minority Groups/statistics & numerical data , Pandemics/economics , Pandemics/prevention & control , Sexually Transmitted Diseases/epidemiology , Social Determinants of Health/economics , Social Determinants of Health/statistics & numerical data , United States/epidemiology
19.
Oncologist ; 26(1): e66-e77, 2021 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-845840

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The rapid spread of COVID-19 across the globe is forcing surgical oncologists to change their daily practice. We sought to evaluate how breast surgeons are adapting their surgical activity to limit viral spread and spare hospital resources. METHODS: A panel of 12 breast surgeons from the most affected regions of the world convened a virtual meeting on April 7, 2020, to discuss the changes in their local surgical practice during the COVID-19 pandemic. Similarly, a Web-based poll based was created to evaluate changes in surgical practice among breast surgeons from several countries. RESULTS: The virtual meeting showed that distinct countries and regions were experiencing different phases of the pandemic. Surgical priority was given to patients with aggressive disease not candidate for primary systemic therapy, those with progressive disease under neoadjuvant systemic therapy, and patients who have finished neoadjuvant therapy. One hundred breast surgeons filled out the poll. The trend showed reductions in operating room schedules, indications for surgery, and consultations, with an increasingly restrictive approach to elective surgery with worsening of the pandemic. CONCLUSION: The COVID-19 emergency should not compromise treatment of a potentially lethal disease such as breast cancer. Our results reveal that physicians are instinctively reluctant to abandon conventional standards of care when possible. However, as the situation deteriorates, alternative strategies of de-escalation are being adopted. IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE: This study aimed to characterize how the COVID-19 pandemic is affecting breast cancer surgery and which strategies are being adopted to cope with the situation.


Subject(s)
Breast Neoplasms/therapy , COVID-19/prevention & control , Mastectomy/trends , Pandemics/prevention & control , Practice Patterns, Physicians'/trends , Appointments and Schedules , Breast Neoplasms/pathology , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/transmission , COVID-19/virology , Communicable Disease Control/organization & administration , Communicable Disease Control/standards , Disease Progression , Elective Surgical Procedures/standards , Elective Surgical Procedures/statistics & numerical data , Elective Surgical Procedures/trends , Female , Global Burden of Disease , Health Care Rationing/standards , Health Care Rationing/statistics & numerical data , Health Care Rationing/trends , Humans , Mastectomy/economics , Mastectomy/standards , Mastectomy/statistics & numerical data , Neoadjuvant Therapy/statistics & numerical data , Operating Rooms/economics , Operating Rooms/statistics & numerical data , Operating Rooms/trends , Patient Selection , Personnel Staffing and Scheduling/economics , Personnel Staffing and Scheduling/statistics & numerical data , Personnel Staffing and Scheduling/trends , Practice Patterns, Physicians'/economics , Practice Patterns, Physicians'/organization & administration , Practice Patterns, Physicians'/statistics & numerical data , Referral and Consultation/statistics & numerical data , Referral and Consultation/trends , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Surgeons/statistics & numerical data , Surveys and Questionnaires/statistics & numerical data , Time-to-Treatment
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