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2.
Public Health Rep ; 137(2): 352-361, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1622163

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: This study was conducted to assess an intervention that was created by a community-academic partnership to address COVID-19 health inequities. We evaluated a community-engaged bidirectional pandemic crisis and emergency risk communication (CERC) framework with immigrant and refugee populations during the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: A 17-year community-engaged research partnership adopted a CERC framework in March 2020 to address COVID-19 prevention, testing, and socioeconomic impacts with immigrant and refugee groups in southeast Minnesota. The partnership used bidirectional communication between communication leaders and their social networks to refine messages, leverage resources, and advise policy makers. We conducted a mixed-methods evaluation for intervention acceptability, feasibility, reach, adaptation, and sustainability through multisource data, including email communications, work group notes, semistructured interviews, and focus groups. RESULTS: The intervention reached at least 39 000 people in 9 months. It was implemented as intended and perceived efficacy was high. Frequent communication between community and academic partners allowed the team to respond rapidly to concerns and facilitated connection of community members to resources. Framework implementation also led to systems and policy changes to meet the needs of immigrant and refugee populations. CONCLUSIONS: Community-engaged CERC is feasible and sustainable and can reduce COVID-19 disparities through shared creation and dissemination of public health messages, enhanced connection to existing resources, and incorporation of community perspectives in regional pandemic mitigation policies.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/ethnology , Community Participation/methods , Community-Based Participatory Research/organization & administration , Emigrants and Immigrants , Health Communication/methods , Program Evaluation , Refugees , Humans , Minnesota , SARS-CoV-2
5.
PLoS One ; 16(3): e0248507, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1468152

ABSTRACT

Science communication has been increasingly viewed as a necessity and obligation of scientists in recent years. The rise of Web 2.0 technologies, such as social media, has made communication of science to the public more accessible as a whole. While one of the primary goals of science communication is to increase public engagement, there is very little research to show the type of communication that fosters the highest levels of engagement. Here we evaluate two social medial platforms, Instagram and TikTok, and assess the type of educational science content (ESC) that promotes user awareness and overall engagement. Specifically, we measured the level of engagement between static and dynamic posts on Instagram, and lecture-style and experimental videos on TikTok. User engagement is measured through the analysis of relative number of likes, comments, shares, saves, and views of each post in the various categories. We found that users interact with ESC significantly more (p<0.05) when the content is presented in dynamic ways with a component of experimentation. Together, we took the findings of this study and provided a series of suggestions for conducting science communication on social media, and the type of ESC that should be used to promote better user outcomes.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Health Communication/methods , Information Dissemination/methods , Internet-Based Intervention , Pandemics , Social Media , Awareness , COVID-19/psychology , Education, Distance , Humans
6.
Ghana Med J ; 54(4 Suppl): 86-96, 2020 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1436199

ABSTRACT

Since March 2020, Ghana's creative arts communities have tracked the complex facets of the COVID-19 pandemic through various art forms. This paper reports a study that analysed selected 'COVID art forms' through arts and health and critical health psychology frameworks. Art forms produced between March and July 2020, and available in the public sphere - traditional media, social media and public spaces - were collated. The data consisted of comedy, cartoons, songs, murals and textile designs. Three key functions emerged from analysis: health promotion (comedy, cartoons, songs); disease prevention (masks); and improving the aesthetics of the healthcare environment (murals). Textile designs performed broader socio-cultural functions of memorialising and political advocacy. Similar to earlier HIV/AIDS and Ebola arts interventions in other African countries, these Ghanaian COVID art forms translated public health information on COVID-19 in ways that connected emotionally, created social awareness and improved public understanding. However, some art forms had limitations: for example, songs that edutained using fear-based strategies or promoting conspiracy theories on the origins and treatment of COVID-19, and state-sponsored visual art that represented public health messaging decoupled from socio-economic barriers to health protection. These were likely to undermine the public health communication goals of behaviour modification. We outline concrete approaches to incorporate creative arts into COVID-19 public health interventions and post-pandemic health systems strengthening in Ghana. FUNDING: None declared.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Health Communication/methods , Health Promotion/methods , Medicine in the Arts , Public Health/methods , Behavior Therapy/methods , Creativity , Ghana , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
9.
JMIR Public Health Surveill ; 7(7): e29060, 2021 07 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1334876

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Innovative approaches to the dissemination of evidence-based COVID-19 health messages are urgently needed to counter social media misinformation about the pandemic. To this end, we designed a short, wordless, animated global health communication video (the CoVideo), which was rapidly distributed through social media channels to an international audience. OBJECTIVE: The objectives of this study were to (1) establish the CoVideo's effectiveness in improving COVID-19 prevention knowledge, and (2) establish the CoVideo's effectiveness in increasing behavioral intent toward COVID-19 prevention. METHODS: In May and June 2020, we enrolled 15,163 online participants from the United States, Mexico, the United Kingdom, Germany, and Spain. We randomized participants to (1) the CoVideo arm, (2) an attention placebo control (APC) arm, and (3) a do-nothing arm, and presented 18 knowledge questions about preventive COVID-19 behaviors, which was our first primary endpoint. To measure behavioral intent, our second primary endpoint, we randomized participants in each arm to five list experiments. RESULTS: Globally, the video intervention was viewed 1.2 million times within the first 10 days of its release and more than 15 million times within the first 4 months. Knowledge in the CoVideo arm was significantly higher (mean 16.95, 95% CI 16.91-16.99) than in the do-nothing (mean 16.86, 95% CI 16.83-16.90; P<.001) arm. We observed high baseline levels of behavioral intent to perform many of the preventive behaviors featured in the video intervention. We were only able to detect a statistically significant impact of the CoVideo on one of the five preventive behaviors. CONCLUSIONS: Despite high baseline levels, the intervention was effective at boosting knowledge of COVID-19 prevention. We were only able to capture a measurable change in behavioral intent toward one of the five COVID-19 preventive behaviors examined in this study. The global reach of this health communication intervention and the high voluntary engagement of trial participants highlight several innovative features that could inform the design and dissemination of public health messages. Short, wordless, animated videos, distributed by health authorities via social media, may be an effective pathway for rapid global health communication during health crises. TRIAL REGISTRATION: German Clinical Trials Register DRKS00021582; https://tinyurl.com/6r4zkbbn. INTERNATIONAL REGISTERED REPORT IDENTIFIER (IRRID): RR2-10.1186/s13063-020-04942-7.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Health Communication/methods , Internet-Based Intervention , Social Media , Video Recording , COVID-19/epidemiology , Global Health , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Humans , Intention
10.
J Racial Ethn Health Disparities ; 8(4): 809-820, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1275022

ABSTRACT

Established in 2019, the Roundtable on Black Men and Black Women in STEM convenes a broad array of stakeholders that focus on the barriers and opportunities encountered by Black men and Black women as they navigate the pathways from K-12 and postsecondary education to careers in science, engineering, and medicine. Through meetings, public workshops, and publications, the Roundtable advances discussions that raise awareness and/or highlight promising practices for increasing the representation, retention, and inclusiveness of Black men and Black women in STEM. In keeping with the charge of the Roundtable, Roundtable leadership and leaders of the COVID-19 action group conducted an informational video in January 2021 to provide an in-depth discussion around common, justified questions in the Black community pertaining to the COVID-19 vaccine. The manuscript addresses selected questions and answers relating to the different types of COVID-19 vaccines and their development, administration, and effectiveness. Discussion focuses on addressing vaccine misconceptions, misinformation, mistrust, and hesitancy; challenges in prioritizing vaccinations in diverse populations and communities; dealing with racism in medicine and public health; optimizing communication and health education; and offering practical strategies and recommendations for improving vaccine acceptance by clinicians, health care workers, and the Black community. This manuscript summarizes the content in the YouTube video ( https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=wdEC9c48A_k ).


Subject(s)
African Americans/psychology , COVID-19 Vaccines , Health Communication/methods , COVID-19/ethnology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Humans
11.
Lancet Public Health ; 6(6): e416-e427, 2021 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1272814

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The effectiveness of the COVID-19 vaccination programme depends on mass participation: the greater the number of people vaccinated, the less risk to the population. Concise, persuasive messaging is crucial, particularly given substantial levels of vaccine hesitancy in the UK. Our aim was to test which types of written information about COVID-19 vaccination, in addition to a statement of efficacy and safety, might increase vaccine acceptance. METHODS: For this single-blind, parallel-group, randomised controlled trial, we aimed to recruit 15 000 adults in the UK, who were quota sampled to be representative. Participants were randomly assigned equally across ten information conditions stratified by level of vaccine acceptance (willing, doubtful, or strongly hesitant). The control information condition comprised the safety and effectiveness statement taken from the UK National Health Service website; the remaining conditions addressed collective benefit, personal benefit, seriousness of the pandemic, and safety concerns. After online provision of vaccination information, participants completed the Oxford COVID-19 Vaccine Hesitancy Scale (outcome measure; score range 7-35) and the Oxford Vaccine Confidence and Complacency Scale (mediation measure). The primary outcome was willingness to be vaccinated. Participants were analysed in the groups they were allocated. p values were adjusted for multiple comparisons. The study was registered with ISRCTN, ISRCTN37254291. FINDINGS: From Jan 19 to Feb 5, 2021, 15 014 adults were recruited. Vaccine hesitancy had reduced from 26·9% the previous year to 16·9%, so recruitment was extended to Feb 18 to recruit 3841 additional vaccine-hesitant adults. 12 463 (66·1%) participants were classified as willing, 2932 (15·6%) as doubtful, and 3460 (18·4%) as strongly hesitant (ie, report that they will avoid being vaccinated for as long as possible or will never get vaccinated). Information conditions did not alter COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy in those willing or doubtful (adjusted p values >0·70). In those strongly hesitant, COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy was reduced, in comparison to the control condition, by personal benefit information (mean difference -1·49, 95% CI -2·16 to -0·82; adjusted p=0·0015), directly addressing safety concerns about speed of development (-0·91, -1·58 to -0·23; adjusted p=0·0261), and a combination of all information (-0·86, -1·53 to -0·18; adjusted p=0·0313). In those strongly hesitant, provision of personal benefit information reduced hesitancy to a greater extent than provision of information on the collective benefit of not personally getting ill (-0·97, 95% CI -1·64 to -0·30; adjusted p=0·0165) or the collective benefit of not transmitting the virus (-1·01, -1·68 to -0·35; adjusted p=0·0150). Ethnicity and gender were found to moderate information condition outcomes. INTERPRETATION: In the approximately 10% of the population who are strongly hesitant about COVID-19 vaccines, provision of information on personal benefit reduces hesitancy to a greater extent than information on collective benefits. Where perception of risk from vaccines is most salient, decision making becomes centred on the personal. As such, messaging that stresses the counterbalancing personal benefits is likely to prove most effective. The messaging from this study could be used in public health communications. Going forwards, the study highlights the need for future health campaigns to engage with the public on the terrain that is most salient to them. FUNDING: National Institute for Health Research (NIHR) Oxford Biomedical Research Centre and NIHR Oxford Health Biomedical Research Centre.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , Health Communication/methods , Persuasive Communication , Vaccination/psychology , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Single-Blind Method , United Kingdom , Young Adult
12.
JMIR Public Health Surveill ; 7(7): e27942, 2021 07 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1266626

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: During a public health crisis such as the current COVID-19 pandemic, governments and health authorities need quick and accurate methods of communicating with the public. While social media can serve as a useful tool for effective communication during disease outbreaks, few studies have elucidated how these platforms are used by the Ministry of Health (MOH) during disease outbreaks in Saudi Arabia. OBJECTIVE: Guided by the Crisis and Emergency Risk Communication model, this study aimed to explore the MOH's use of Twitter and the public's engagement during different stages of the COVID-19 pandemic in Saudi Arabia. METHODS: Tweets and corresponding likes and retweets were extracted from the official Twitter account of the MOH in Saudi Arabia for the period of January 1 through August 31, 2020. Tweets related to COVID-19 were identified; subsequently, content analysis was performed, in which tweets were coded for the following message types: risk messages, warnings, preparations, uncertainty reduction, efficacy, reassurance, and digital health responses. Public engagement was measured by examining the numbers of likes and retweets. The association between outbreak stages and types of messages was assessed, as well as the effect of these messages on public engagement. RESULTS: The MOH posted a total of 1393 original tweets during the study period. Of the total tweets, 1293 (92.82%) were related to COVID-19, and 1217 were ultimately included in the analysis. The MOH posted the majority of its tweets (65.89%) during the initial stage of the outbreak. Accordingly, the public showed the highest level of engagement (as indicated by numbers of likes and retweets) during the initial stage. The types of messages sent by the MOH significantly differed across outbreak stages, with messages related to uncertainty reduction, reassurance, and efficacy being prevalent among all stages. Tweet content, media type, and crisis stage influenced the level of public engagement. Engagement was negatively associated with the inclusion of hyperlinks and multimedia files, while higher level of public engagement was associated with the use of hashtags. Tweets related to warnings, uncertainty reduction, and reassurance received high levels of public engagement. CONCLUSIONS: This study provides insights into the Saudi MOH's communication strategy during the COVID-19 pandemic. Our results have implications for researchers, governments, health organizations, and practitioners with regard to their communication practices during outbreaks. To increase public engagement, governments and health authorities should consider the public's need for information. This, in turn, could raise public awareness regarding disease outbreaks.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Community Participation/statistics & numerical data , Health Communication/methods , Pandemics/prevention & control , Public Health , Social Media/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19/epidemiology , Humans , Saudi Arabia/epidemiology
13.
J Health Commun ; 25(10): 827-830, 2020 Oct 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1236160

ABSTRACT

In an era of Freddie Gray and Black Lives Matter, a long history of structural racism, combined with disproportionate rates of COVID-19, the African American community has seen a lot of reasons to demand social justice, equal treatment and immediate access to solutions to health disparities. Despite the promise of COVID-19 vaccines, the community is highly distrustful of the vaccine and institutions given a history of mistreatment and many other current concerns. Trusted messengers such as Black pastors are crucial to protecting the community that faces a disproportionate amount of disease. We present a framework to build trust and acceptance including understanding history and context; listening and empathy; engaging pastors as trusted messengers; creating partnerships with shared responsibility and power; and co-creation of solutions with faith leaders and their community, governments and institutions to create sustainable, long-term change. Efforts to support vaccine acceptance must be customized to the variety of needs and realities of the African American community, not just the topic of concern to the institution. Evaluations are needed to help ensure the community is engaged and feeling heard. Pastors and other religious leaders can work with government and institutions to bring information, facilitate discussion, build trust and develop measurable improvement efforts. Although acceptance of COVID-19 vaccines may not be achieved overnight, the process of focusing on issues that are important to the community is an important step in laying the foundation for both COVID-19 vaccines and future interventions.


Subject(s)
African Americans/psychology , COVID-19 Vaccines/therapeutic use , Clergy , Community Participation/methods , Health Status Disparities , Patient Acceptance of Health Care/ethnology , African Americans/education , African Americans/statistics & numerical data , Health Communication/methods , Humans , Patient Acceptance of Health Care/psychology , Patient Acceptance of Health Care/statistics & numerical data , Racism , Trust
14.
J Health Commun ; 25(10): 753-756, 2020 Oct 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1236157

ABSTRACT

Students at schools and programs of public health will enter a workforce during the greatest public health crisis in the past century. The potential COVID-19 vaccine-one of the most promising tools to return to a new 'normal'-is held in doubt by many Americans. Vaccine literacy in the United States is a pressing issue that students of public health need to consider. We describe how a long-standing public health student crisis response team at Emory University is helping to address this challenge, and describe key principles we identify as worthy of study and focus for current public health students today. Schools and programs of public health have a timely opportunity to adapt their curricula to meet training needs of emerging public health students to equip them to address vaccine literacy while maintaining accreditation standards.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/therapeutic use , COVID-19/prevention & control , Education, Public Health Professional , Health Literacy/methods , Students, Public Health , Community Participation , Health Communication/methods , Humans , Leadership , Trust
15.
J Health Commun ; 25(10): 790-798, 2020 10 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1236156

ABSTRACT

This research examined the underlying beliefs and psychological determinants of COVID-19 vaccination intention in order to inform effective health promotion efforts. We utilized the reasoned action framework in a mixed-methods, two-study approach. Study 1, an open-ended belief elicitation survey (N = 197), explored the underlying beliefs associated with intention to get vaccinated against COVID-19 once a vaccine becomes available. In a quantitative survey with a representative sample of U.S. adults, study 2 (N = 1656) tested the psychological determinants of intention to get vaccinated. Results revealed (1) the most common attitudinal, normative, and control beliefs about COVID-19 vaccination; (2) instrumental attitude as the strongest determinant of COVID-19 vaccination intention; and (3) 'achieving peace of mind' as an effective target for health promotion efforts. Further implications and directions are discussed.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/therapeutic use , COVID-19/prevention & control , Health Communication/methods , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Patient Acceptance of Health Care/psychology , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/psychology , Female , Humans , Intention , Male , Middle Aged , Surveys and Questionnaires , United States , Young Adult
16.
J Health Commun ; 25(10): 780-789, 2020 10 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1236153

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has magnified the importance of clinical trials for finding a safe and effective vaccine to protect against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), the virus that causes COVID-19. Although communication about vaccines and vaccine hesitancy were challenges long before COVID-19, the twin facts of a pandemic and an "infodemic" of health information, misinformation, and disinformation have raised new challenges for vaccine-related communication and decision-making. The goal of this commentary is to highlight strategies to improve communication and decision-making for adults considering participation in COVID-19 vaccine clinical trials. First, I present a general conceptual model for clinical trial participation that can be applied to various vaccine and other clinical trial contexts. Next, I introduce the ASK (Assume, Seek, Know) approach for enhancing clinical trial participation: (1) assume that all patients will want to know their options, (2) seek the counsel of stakeholders, and (3) know your numbers. The ideas presented in this commentary are intended to enhance vaccine-specific clinical trial communication, decision-making, and literacy, while dually offering strategies and resources that may help reduce vaccine hesitancy and increase vaccine uptake over time.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/therapeutic use , COVID-19/prevention & control , Decision Making , Health Communication/methods , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , Research Subjects/psychology , Adult , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Health Literacy , Humans , Intention , Patient Selection , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic/methods , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic/psychology
17.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 118(21)2021 05 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1225544

ABSTRACT

Public health experts have advocated for wearing protective face masks to combat the COVID-19 pandemic, yet some populations are resistant. Can certain messages shift attitudes toward masks? We investigate the effect of value-consistent messages within a mask-skeptical population: White evangelicals in the United States. An experiment within a national survey of White evangelicals (n = 1,212) assigned respondents to one of three conditions: One group was given a religious message equating mask use with loving your neighbor, another was given a message by Donald Trump saying mask use is patriotic, and a control group received no message. Those exposed to the religious message were more likely to see mask use as important and were more supportive of mask mandates. Republican evangelicals exposed to the patriotism message had similar responses. These findings show that messages that align with individuals' core values-in this case, religious tenets and patriotism-can shift certain views on mask use and government mask policies to combat COVID-19, even among a comparatively mask-resistant group.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Health Communication/methods , Masks , Protestantism , Attitude to Health , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/psychology , Humans , Protestantism/psychology , Public Opinion , SARS-CoV-2 , Surveys and Questionnaires , United States/epidemiology
18.
Nat Hum Behav ; 5(6): 706-715, 2021 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1207141

ABSTRACT

Anti-intellectualism (the generalized distrust of experts and intellectuals) is an important concept in explaining the public's engagement with advice from scientists and experts. We ask whether it has shaped the mass public's response to coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). We provide evidence of a consistent connection between anti-intellectualism and COVID-19 risk perceptions, social distancing, mask usage, misperceptions and information acquisition using a representative survey of 27,615 Canadians conducted from March to July 2020. We exploit a panel component of our design (N = 4,910) to strongly link anti-intellectualism and within-respondent change in mask usage. Finally, we provide experimental evidence of anti-intellectualism's importance in information search behaviour with two conjoint studies (N ~ 2,500) that show that preferences for COVID-19 news and COVID-19 information from experts dissipate among respondents with higher levels of anti-intellectual sentiment. Anti-intellectualism poses a fundamental challenge in maintaining and increasing public compliance with expert-guided COVID-19 health directives.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Communicable Disease Control , Health Communication , Masks/statistics & numerical data , Social Perception , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/psychology , Canada/epidemiology , Communicable Disease Control/methods , Communicable Disease Control/organization & administration , Health Communication/methods , Health Communication/standards , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Humans , Information Seeking Behavior/ethics , Mass Behavior , Public Health/methods , Public Opinion , SARS-CoV-2 , Social Media/ethics , Social Participation , Social Perception/ethics , Social Perception/psychology , Trust
19.
Public Underst Sci ; 30(5): 515-534, 2021 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1201537

ABSTRACT

As an unprecedented global disease outbreak, the COVID-19 pandemic is also accompanied by an infodemic. To better cope with the pandemic, laypeople need to process information in ways that help guide informed judgments and decisions. Such information processing likely involves the reliance on various evidence types. Extending the Risk Information Seeking and Processing model via a two-wave survey (N = 1284), we examined the predictors and consequences of US-dwelling Chinese's reliance on four evidence types (i.e. scientific, statistical, experiential, and expert) regarding COVID-19 information. Overall, Risk Information Seeking and Processing variables such as information insufficiency and perceived information gathering capacity predicted the use of all four evidence types. However, other Risk Information Seeking and Processing variables (e.g. informational subjective norms) did not emerge as important predictors. In addition, different evidence types had different associations with subsequent disease prevention behaviors and satisfaction with the US government's action to address the pandemic. Finally, discrete emotions varied in their influences on the use of evidence types, behaviors, and satisfaction. The findings provide potentially valuable contributions to science and health communication theory and practice.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Health Communication/methods , Information Seeking Behavior , Science , Statistics as Topic , Emotions , Health Communication/standards , Humans , Models, Psychological , Pandemics , Risk Assessment , SARS-CoV-2 , Social Media
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