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1.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(24)2021 12 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1593389

ABSTRACT

Neglecting oral hygiene in adolescents negatively affects dental caries and periodontal diseases, in addition to social and emotional well-being. Thus, the TikTok platform (ByteDance, Beijing, China)as a social media could be a powerful channel to provide health-related information and educational content. This study aims to assess the quality of the TikTok videos corresponding to #oralhealtheducation. Sixty-nine videos were identified. Three oral health professionals (OHP), three health education professionals (HEP), and ten of TikTok's target audience watched and evaluated the videos from a qualitative questionnaire. OHP detected false or incorrect information in 11.6% (8/69) of the videos. At least two HEPs reported being unable to detect this type of content or whether the video met dental ethics standards in both the videos. Disagreement was observed among the professionals themselves. The evaluation indicated that TikTok's target audience was satisfied with the products viewed with an average score of >2.5, unlike the professionals, whose average score was <2.5 on a scale of 0 to 5. Users are advised to think critically and to consider the content of TikTok oral health videos with caution. The involvement of health professionals in the writing and validation of the videos could be an added value to positively respond to the needs of the adolescents.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Dental Caries , Social Media , Adolescent , Health Education , Health Education, Dental , Humans , Video Recording
2.
J Med Internet Res ; 23(2): e25734, 2021 02 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1575972

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: In a fast-evolving public health crisis such as the COVID-19 pandemic, multiple pieces of relevant information can be posted sequentially on a social media platform. The interval between subsequent posting times may have a different impact on the transmission and cross-propagation of the old and new information that results in a different peak value and a final size of forwarding users of the new information, depending on the content correlation and whether the new information is posted during the outbreak or quasi-steady-state phase of the old information. OBJECTIVE: This study aims to help in designing effective communication strategies to ensure information is delivered to the maximal number of users. METHODS: We developed and analyzed two classes of susceptible-forwarding-immune information propagation models with delay in transmission to describe the cross-propagation process of relevant information. A total of 28,661 retweets of typical information were posted frequently by each opinion leader related to COVID-19 with high influence (data acquisition up to February 19, 2020). The information was processed into discrete points with a frequency of 10 minutes, and the real data were fitted by the model numerical simulation. Furthermore, the influence of parameters on information dissemination and the design of a publishing strategy were analyzed. RESULTS: The current epidemic outbreak situation, epidemic prevention, and other related authoritative information cannot be timely and effectively browsed by the public. The ingenious use of information release intervals can effectively enhance the interaction between information and realize the effective diffusion of information. We parameterized our models using real data from Sina Microblog and used the parameterized models to define and evaluate mutual attractiveness indexes, and we used these indexes and parameter sensitivity analyses to inform optimal strategies for new information to be effectively propagated in the microblog. The results of the parameter analysis showed that using different attractiveness indexes as the key parameters can control the information transmission with different release intervals, so it is considered as a key link in the design of an information communication strategy. At the same time, the dynamic process of information was analyzed through index evaluation. CONCLUSIONS: Our model can carry out an accurate numerical simulation of information at different release intervals and achieve a dynamic evaluation of information transmission by constructing an indicator system so as to provide theoretical support and strategic suggestions for government decision making. This study optimizes information posting strategies to maximize communication efforts for delivering key public health messages to the public for better outcomes of public health emergency management.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Health Education , Information Dissemination , Public Health/statistics & numerical data , Public Opinion , Social Media/statistics & numerical data , Communication , Disease Outbreaks , Government , Humans , Pandemics , Time Factors
3.
J Med Internet Res ; 23(2): e26302, 2021 02 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1575865

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The emergence of SARS-CoV-2 (ie, COVID-19) has given rise to a global pandemic affecting 215 countries and over 40 million people as of October 2020. Meanwhile, we are also experiencing an infodemic induced by the overabundance of information, some accurate and some inaccurate, spreading rapidly across social media platforms. Social media has arguably shifted the information acquisition and dissemination of a considerably large population of internet users toward higher interactivities. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to investigate COVID-19-related health beliefs on one of the mainstream social media platforms, Twitter, as well as potential impacting factors associated with fluctuations in health beliefs on social media. METHODS: We used COVID-19-related posts from the mainstream social media platform Twitter to monitor health beliefs. A total of 92,687,660 tweets corresponding to 8,967,986 unique users from January 6 to June 21, 2020, were retrieved. To quantify health beliefs, we employed the health belief model (HBM) with four core constructs: perceived susceptibility, perceived severity, perceived benefits, and perceived barriers. We utilized natural language processing and machine learning techniques to automate the process of judging the conformity of each tweet with each of the four HBM constructs. A total of 5000 tweets were manually annotated for training the machine learning architectures. RESULTS: The machine learning classifiers yielded areas under the receiver operating characteristic curves over 0.86 for the classification of all four HBM constructs. Our analyses revealed a basic reproduction number R0 of 7.62 for trends in the number of Twitter users posting health belief-related content over the study period. The fluctuations in the number of health belief-related tweets could reflect dynamics in case and death statistics, systematic interventions, and public events. Specifically, we observed that scientific events, such as scientific publications, and nonscientific events, such as politicians' speeches, were comparable in their ability to influence health belief trends on social media through a Kruskal-Wallis test (P=.78 and P=.92 for perceived benefits and perceived barriers, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: As an analogy of the classic epidemiology model where an infection is considered to be spreading in a population with an R0 greater than 1, we found that the number of users tweeting about COVID-19 health beliefs was amplifying in an epidemic manner and could partially intensify the infodemic. It is "unhealthy" that both scientific and nonscientific events constitute no disparity in impacting the health belief trends on Twitter, since nonscientific events, such as politicians' speeches, might not be endorsed by substantial evidence and could sometimes be misleading.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/psychology , Data Analysis , Health Education/statistics & numerical data , Machine Learning , Natural Language Processing , Public Opinion , Social Media/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19/epidemiology , Humans , Pandemics
4.
J Med Internet Res ; 23(2): e25363, 2021 02 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1575084

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic has had a negative impact on both the physical and mental health of individuals worldwide. Evidence regarding the association between mental health problems and information exposure among Thai citizens during the COVID-19 outbreak is limited. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to explore the relationship between information exposure and mental health problems during the COVID-19 pandemic in Thailand. METHODS: Between April 21 and May 4, 2020, we conducted a cross-sectional, nationwide online survey of the general population in Thailand. We categorized the duration of exposure to COVID-19-related information as follows: <1 h/day (reference group), 1-2 h/day, and ≥3 h/day. Mental health outcomes were assessed using the Patient Health Questionnaire-9, the Generalized Anxiety Disorder-7 scale, the Perceived Stress Scale-10, and the Insomnia Severity Index for symptoms of depression, anxiety, perceived stress, and insomnia, respectively. Multivariable logistic regression models were used to evaluate the relationship between information exposure and the risk of developing the aforementioned symptoms. An ancillary analysis using multivariable multinomial logistic regression models was also conducted to assess the possible dose-response relationship across the severity strata of mental health problems. RESULTS: Of the 4322 eligible participants, 4004 (92.6%) completed the online survey. Of them, 1481 (37.0%), 1644 (41.1%), and 879 (22.0%) participants were exposed to COVID-19-related information for less than 1 hour per day, 1 to 2 hours per day, or 3 or more hours per day, respectively. The major source of information related to the COVID-19 pandemic was social media (95.3%), followed by traditional media (68.7%) and family members (34.9%). Those exposed to information for 3 or more hours per day had a higher risk of developing symptoms of depression (adjusted odds ratio [OR] 1.35, 95% CI 1.03-1.76; P=.03), anxiety (adjusted OR 1.88, 95% CI 1.43-2.46; P<.001), and insomnia (adjusted OR 1.52, 95% CI 1.17-1.97; P=.001) than people exposed to information for less than 1 hour per day. Meanwhile, people exposed to information for 1 to 2 hours per day were only at risk of developing symptoms of anxiety (adjusted OR 1.35, 95% CI 1.08-1.69; P=.008). However, no association was found between information exposure and the risk of perceived stress. In the ancillary analysis, a dose-response relationship was observed between information exposure of 3 or more hours per day and the severity of mental health problems. CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that social media is the main source of COVID-19-related information. Moreover, people who are exposed to information for 3 or more hours per day are more likely to develop psychological problems, including depression, anxiety, and insomnia. Longitudinal studies investigating the long-term effects of COVID-19-related information exposure on mental health are warranted.


Subject(s)
Anxiety/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Depression/epidemiology , Health Education/statistics & numerical data , Internet Use/statistics & numerical data , Mental Health/statistics & numerical data , Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders/epidemiology , Stress, Psychological/epidemiology , Adult , Cross-Sectional Studies , Disease Outbreaks , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Social Media/supply & distribution , Surveys and Questionnaires , Thailand/epidemiology
5.
J Med Internet Res ; 23(2): e26570, 2021 02 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1574329

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COVID-19-related information on social media is overabundant and sometimes questionable, resulting in an "infodemic" during the pandemic. While previous studies suggest social media usage increases the risk of developing anxiety symptoms, how induced anxiety affects attitudes and behaviors is less discussed, let alone during a global pandemic. Little is known about the relationship between older adults using social media during a pandemic and their anxiety, their attitudes toward social trust in information, and behaviors to avoid contracting COVID-19. OBJECTIVE: The goal of this study was to investigate the associations between using social media for COVID-19-related information and anxiety symptoms as well as the mediation effect of anxiety symptoms on social trust in information and COVID-safe behaviors among older adults. METHODS: A cross-sectional telephone survey was conducted in Hong Kong between May and August 2020. A rapid warm-call protocol was developed to train social workers and volunteers from participant nongovernmental organizations to conduct the telephone surveys. Questions related to COVID-safe behaviors, social trust in information, social media use, anxiety and depressive symptoms, and sociodemographic information were asked. The number of confirmed COVID-19 cases at the community level was used to account for the risk of contracting COVID-19. Ordinary least squares regressions examined the associations between social media use and anxiety symptoms, and how they were associated with social trust in information and COVID-safe behaviors. Structural equation modeling further mapped out these relationships to identify the mediation effects of anxiety symptoms. RESULTS: This study collected information regarding 3421 adults aged 60 years and older. Use of social media for COVID-19-related information was associated with more anxiety symptoms and lower social trust in information but had no significant relationship with COVID-safe behaviors. Anxiety symptoms predicted lower social trust in information and higher COVID-safe behaviors. Lower social trust in information was predicted by using social media for COVID-19 information, mediated by anxiety symptoms, while no mediation effect was found for COVID-safe behaviors. CONCLUSIONS: Older adults who rely on social media for COVID-19-related information exhibited more anxiety symptoms, while showing mixed effects on attitudes and behaviors. Social trust in information may be challenged by unverified and contradictory information online. The negligible impact on COVID-safe behaviors suggested that social media may have caused more confusion than consolidating a consistent effort against the pandemic. Media literacy education is recommended to promote critical evaluation of COVID-19-related information and responsible sharing among older adults.


Subject(s)
Anxiety/epidemiology , Attitude to Health , COVID-19/epidemiology , Health Behavior , Health Education , Social Media/statistics & numerical data , Surveys and Questionnaires , Telephone , Trust , Aged , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depression/epidemiology , Female , Hong Kong/epidemiology , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics
6.
JAMA Netw Open ; 4(12): e2137189, 2021 12 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1567892

ABSTRACT

Importance: COVID-19 posed an unprecedented threat to residential colleges in the fall of 2020. While there were mathematical models of COVID-19 transmission, there were no established or tested protocols of COVID-19 testing or mitigation for school administrators to follow. Objective: To investigate the association of a multifaceted COVID-19 mitigation strategy using social, behavioral, and educational interventions and a program of frequent testing with prevalence of disease spread. Design, Setting, and Participants: This cohort study was conducted as a retrospective review of COVID-19 positivity from August 16, 2020, to April 30, 2021, at Delaware State University, a publicly funded historically Black university. Participants included all students, faculty, and staff members with a campus presence. Positivity rates after use of mitigation strategies and testing on campus were compared with those of the surrounding community. Data were analyzed from July through September 2021. Exposures: Mitigation strategies included education and outreach about social distancing, masking, and handwashing, and a COVID-19 testing plan consisted of twice-weekly polymerase chain reaction (PCR) screening using anterior nasal samples (fall and early spring semester) and then saliva-based samples (middle to late spring semester). Main Outcomes and Measures: Cumulative tests, infections, daily quarantine, and isolation residence hall occupancy were measured, and comparisons were made with statewide COVID-19 positivity rates. Results: The campus cohort included 2320 individuals (1575 resident students, 415 nonresident students, and 330 faculty or staff members). There were 1488 (64.1%) women and 832 (35.9%) men; mean (SD) age was 27.5 (12.9) years. During the fall semester, 36 500 COVID-19 PCR tests were performed. Weekly positivity rates ranged from 0 of 372 tests to 16 of 869 tests (1.8%) (mean [SD] positivity rate, 0.5% [0.5%]; 168 positive results and 36 312 negative results). During the same period, statewide positivity ranged from 589 of 25 120 tests (2.3%) to 5405 of 54 596 tests (9.9%) (mean [SD] positivity rate, 4.8% [2.6%]). In the spring semester, 39 045 PCR tests were performed. Weekly positivity rates ranged from 4 of 2028 tests (0.2%) to 36 of 900 tests (4.0%) (mean [SD] positivity rate, 0.8% [0.9%]; 267 positive results and 38 767 negative results). During the same period, statewide positivity ranged from 1336 of 37 254 tests (3.6%) to 3630 of 42 458 tests (8.5%) (mean [SD] positivity rate, 5.1% [1.3%]). Compared with statewide rates, campus positivity rates were mean (SD) 4.4 (2.6) percentage points lower during the fall semester (P < .001) and mean (SD) 5.6 (1.6) percentage points lower during the spring semester (P < .001). Total daily quarantine and isolation residence hall occupancy ranged from 0 to 43 students in the fall and 1 to 47 students during the spring. Conclusions and Relevance: This study found that the combination of campuswide mitigation policies and twice-weekly COVID-19 PCR screening was associated with a significant decrease in COVID-19 positivity at a residential historically Black university campus compared with the surrounding community. Given the socioeconomic demographics of many students at historically Black colleges and universities, keeping these resident campuses open is critical not only to ensure access to educational resources, but also to provide housing and food security.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Testing , COVID-19/prevention & control , Communicable Disease Control/methods , Health Education , Mass Screening/methods , Students , Universities , Adolescent , Adult , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/transmission , Delaware/epidemiology , Female , Housing , Humans , Male , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Prevalence , Residence Characteristics , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Young Adult
8.
J Med Ethics ; 47(8): 547-548, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1537986

ABSTRACT

Rapid, large-scale uptake of new vaccines against COVID-19 will be crucial to decrease infections and end the pandemic. In a recent article in this journal, Julian Savulescu argued in favour of monetary incentives to convince more people to be vaccinated once the vaccine becomes available. To evaluate the potential of his suggestion, we conducted an experiment investigating the impact of payments and the communication of individual and prosocial benefits of high vaccination rates on vaccination intentions. Our results revealed that none of these interventions or their combinations increased willingness to be vaccinated shortly after a vaccine becomes available. Consequently, decision makers should be cautious about introducing monetary incentives and instead focus on interventions that increase confidence in vaccine safety first, as this has shown to be an especially important factor regarding the demand for the new COVID-19 vaccines.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , COVID-19 Vaccines/economics , COVID-19 , Motivation , Patient Acceptance of Health Care/psychology , Vaccination/economics , Vaccination/psychology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Female , Health Education , Humans , Male , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
10.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(21)2021 11 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1512311

ABSTRACT

This study investigated the effect of oral health education using a mobile app (OHEMA) on the oral health and swallowing-related quality of life (SWAL-QoL) of the elderly population in a community-based integrated care project (CICP). Forty elderly individuals in the CICP were randomized into intervention and control groups. OHEMA provided information on customized oral health care management, oral exercises, and intraoral and extraoral massage methods for 50 min/session, once a week, for 6 weeks. Pre- and post-intervention surveys assessed the unstimulated salivary flow rate, subjective oral dryness, tongue pressure, and SWAL-QoL, which were analyzed using ANCOVA and repeated measures ANOVA. In the intervention group, tongue pressure increased significantly from pre- (17.75) to post-intervention (27.24) (p < 0.001), and subjective oral dryness decreased from pre- (30.75) to post-intervention (18.50). The unstimulated salivary flow rate had a higher mean score in the intervention group (7.19) than in the control group (5.04) (p < 0.001). The SWAL-QoL significantly improved from pre- (152.10) to post-intervention (171.50) in the intervention group (p < 0.001) but did not change significantly in the control group (p > 0.05). OHEMA appears to be a useful tool for oral health education for the elderly as it improved the SWAL-QoL, with increased tongue pressure and reduced oral dryness.


Subject(s)
Delivery of Health Care, Integrated , Mobile Applications , Aged , Deglutition , Health Education , Humans , Oral Health , Pressure , Quality of Life , Tongue
11.
BMJ Glob Health ; 6(9)2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1476511

ABSTRACT

There are contrasting opinions of what global health (GH) curricula should contain and limited discussion on whose voices should shape it. In GH education, those with first-hand expertise of living and working in the contexts discussed in GH classrooms are often absent when designing curricula. To address this, we developed a new model of curriculum codesign called Virtual Roundtable for Collaborative Education Design (ViRCoED). This paper describes the rationale and outputs of the ViRCoED approach in designing a new section of the Global Health Bachelor of Science (BSc) curriculum at Imperial College London, with a focus on healthcare in the Syrian conflict. The team, importantly, involved partners with lived and/or professional experience of the conflict as well as alumni of the course and educators in all stages of design and delivery through to marking and project evaluation. The project experimented with disrupting power dynamics and extending ownership of the curriculum beyond traditional faculty by codesigning and codelivering module contents together with colleagues with direct expertise and experience of the Syrian context. An authentic approach was applied to assessment design using real-time syndromic healthcare data from the Aleppo and Idlib Governorates. We discuss the challenges involved in our collaborative partnership and describe how it may have enhanced the validity of our curriculum with students engaging in a richer representation of key health issues in the conflict. We observed an enhanced self-reflexivity in the students' approach to quantitative data and its complex interpretation. The dialogic nature of this collaborative design was also a formative process for partners and an opportunity for GH educators to reflect on their own positionality. The project aims to challenge current standards and structures in GH curriculum development and gesture towards a GH education sector eventually led by those with lived experience and expertise to significantly enhance the validity of GH education.


Subject(s)
Curriculum , Global Health , Delivery of Health Care , Health Education , Humans
12.
J Med Libr Assoc ; 109(3): 422-431, 2021 Jul 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1463960

ABSTRACT

Objective: The COVID-19 pandemic highlights the public's need for quality health information that is understandable. This study aimed to identify (1) the extent to which COVID-19 messaging by state public health departments is understandable, actionable, and clear; (2) whether materials produced by public health departments are easily readable; (3) relationships between material type and understandability, actionability, clarity, and reading grade level; and (4) potential strategies to improve public health messaging around COVID-19. Methods: Based on US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention statistics from June 30, 2020, we identified the ten states with the most COVID-19 cases and selected forty-two materials (i.e., webpages, infographics, and videos) related to COVID-19 prevention according to predefined eligibility criteria. We applied three validated health literacy tools (i.e., Patient Education Materials Assessment Tool, CDC Clear Communication Index, and Flesch-Kincaid Grade Level) to assess material understandability, actionability, clarity, and readability. We also analyzed correlations between scores on the three health literacy tools and material types. Results: Overall, COVID-19 materials had high understandability and actionability but could be improved in terms of clarity and readability. Material type was significantly correlated with understandability, actionability, and clarity. Infographics and videos received higher scores on all tools. Conclusions: Based on our findings, we recommend public health entities apply a combination of these tools when developing health information materials to improve their understandability, actionability, and clarity. We also recommend using infographics and videos when possible, taking a human-centered approach to information design, and providing multiple modes and platforms for information delivery.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Health Education/methods , Health Literacy , Health Promotion/methods , Information Dissemination/methods , Public Health/education , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , State Government , United States
13.
Glob Health Res Policy ; 6(1): 37, 2021 09 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1448492

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 has seriously affected people's mental health and changed their behaviors. Previous studies for mental state and behavior promotion only targeted limited people or were not suitable for daily activity restrictions. Therefore, we decided to explore the effect of health education videos on people's mental state and health-related behaviors. METHODS: Based on WeChat, QQ, and other social media, we conducted an online survey by snowball sampling. Spearman's non-parametric method was used to analyze the correlation related to mental health problems and health-related behaviors. Besides, we used binary logistic regression analyses to examine mental health problems and health-related behaviors' predictors. We performed SPSS macro PROCESS (model 4 and model 6) to analyze mediation relationships between exposure to health education videos and depression/anxiety/health-related behaviors. These models were regarded as exploratory. RESULTS: Binary logistic regression analyses indicated that people who watched the health education videos were more likely to wear masks (OR 1.15, p < 0.001), disinfect (OR 1.26, p < 0.001), and take temperature (OR 1.37, p < 0.001). With higher level of posttraumatic growth (PTG) or perceived social support (PSS), people had lower percentage of depression (For PSS, OR 0.98, p < 0.001; For PTG, OR 0.98, p < 0.01) and anxiety (For PSS, OR 0.98, p < 0.001; For PTG, OR 0.98, p = 0.01) and better health behaviors. The serial multiple-mediation model supported the positive indirect effects of exposure to health education videos on the depression and three health-related behaviors through PSS and PTG (Depression: B[SE] = - 0.0046 [0.0021], 95% CI - 0.0098, - 0.0012; Mask-wearing: B[SE] = 0.0051 [0.0023], 95% CI 0.0015, 0.0010; Disinfection: B[SE] = 0.0059 [0.0024], 95% CI 0.0024, 0.0012; Temperature-taking: B[SE] = 0.0067 [0.0026], 95% CI 0.0023, 0.0013). CONCLUSION: Exposure to health education videos can improve people's self-perceived social support and inner growth and help them cope with the adverse impact of public health emergencies with better mental health and health-related behaviors.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/psychology , Health Behavior , Health Education/statistics & numerical data , Mental Health/statistics & numerical data , Public Health/statistics & numerical data , Adult , Aged , China , Female , Health Education/methods , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Social Support , Young Adult
14.
Rev. gaúch. enferm ; 42(spe): e20200209, 2021. graf
Article in English | LILACS (Americas) | ID: covidwho-1443889

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective To reflect on cross-cultural care for the population based on the theoretical assumptions and concepts of Leininger's Transcultural Theory, related to the recommendations for combating the Covid-19 pandemic. Method Reflective theoretical study based on culturally competent care, related to the Brazilian reality, using the conceptual attributes of care, culture, and worldview. Critically articulated the reasonings about the guidelines for preserving, accommodating, and repatterning actions for the care of people. Results The nurse must know cross-cultural care in order to consider individual and/or collective treatment and respect the existing differences in beliefs and values. This premise corroborates the adherence to Covid-19 prevention and treatment recommendations. The lack of knowledge about the transmissibility and invisibility of the virus and the risk factors, combined with the cultural diversity of the population, can make it difficult to adhere to health recommendations. Final considerations Cross-cultural care favors the practice of health education and can provide conditions for greater adherence of the population to nursing actions.


RESUMEN Objetivo Reflexionar sobre la atención intercultural para la población a partir de los supuestos y conceptos teóricos de la teoría transcultural de Leininger, relacionados con las recomendaciones para combatir la pandemia de Covid-19. Método Estudio teórico reflexivo basado en el cuidado culturalmente competente, relacionado con la realidad brasileña, utilizando los atributos conceptuales del cuidado, la cultura y la cosmovisión. Se articuló críticamente el razonamiento sobre las directrices para preservar, acomodar y repotenciar las acciones de atención a las personas. Resultados La enfermera debe conocer los cuidados interculturales para considerar el tratamiento individual y/o colectivo y respetar las diferencias existentes en cuanto a creencias y valores. Esta premisa apoya la adhesión a las recomendaciones de prevención y tratamiento de Covid-19. El desconocimiento de la transmisibilidad y la invisibilidad del virus y de los factores de riesgo, junto con la diversidad cultural de la población, pueden dificultar el cumplimiento de las recomendaciones sanitarias. Consideraciones finales La atención transcultural favorece la práctica de la educación para la salud y puede proporcionar condiciones para una mayor adhesión de la población a las acciones de enfermería.


RESUMO Objetivo Refletir sobre o cuidado transcultural à população a partir dos pressupostos teóricos e conceitos da Teoria Transcultural de Leininger, relacionados às recomendações para o combate da pandemia da Covid-19. Método Estudo teórico reflexivo baseado no cuidado cultural competente, relacionado à realidade brasileira, utilizando-se os atributos conceituais de cuidado, cultura e visão de mundo. Articularam-se de modo crítico os raciocínios sobre a orientações de preservar, acomodar e repadronizar ações para o cuidado das pessoas. Resultados O enfermeiro deve conhecer o cuidado transcultural para considerar o tratamento individual e ou coletivo e respeitar as diferenças existentes sobre as crenças e valores. Essa premissa corrobora para a adesão às recomendações de prevenção e tratamento da Covid-19. O desconhecimento sobre a transmissibilidade e invisibilidade do vírus e dos fatores de risco, aliados à diversidade cultural da população, podem dificultar a adesão às recomendações sanitárias. Considerações finais: O cuidado transcultural favorece a prática da educação em saúde e pode proporcionar condições para maior adesão da população às ações de enfermagem.


Subject(s)
Humans , Transcultural Nursing , Cultural Diversity , Pandemics/prevention & control , Culturally Competent Care , COVID-19/prevention & control , Nursing Theory , Health Education , Models, Theoretical , Nursing Care
15.
JAMA Netw Open ; 4(9): e2126635, 2021 09 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1441916

ABSTRACT

Importance: Ensuring widespread uptake of available COVID-19 vaccinations, each with different safety and efficacy profiles, is essential to combating the unfolding pandemic. Objective: To test communication interventions that may encourage the uptake of less-preferred vaccines. Design, Setting, and Participants: This online survey was conducted from March 24 to 30, 2021, using a nonprobability convenience sample of Canadian citizens aged 18 years or older, with quota sampling to match 2016 Canadian Census benchmarks on age, gender, region, and language. Respondents completed a 2-by-2-by-2 factorial experiment with random assignment of brand (AstraZeneca or Johnson & Johnson), information about the vaccine's effectiveness against symptomatic infection (yes or no), and information about the vaccine's effectiveness at preventing death from COVID-19 (yes or no) before being asked about their willingness to receive their assigned vaccine and their beliefs about its effectiveness. Exposures: Respondents were randomly assigned a vaccine brand (AstraZeneca or Johnson & Johnson) and information about the vaccine's effectiveness against symptomatic COVID-19 infection (yes or no) and at preventing death from COVID-19 (yes or no). Main Outcomes and Measures: Respondents' self-reported likelihood of taking their assigned vaccine if offered (response categories: very likely, somewhat likely, not very likely, or not at all likely, scaled 0-1) and their beliefs about their assigned vaccine's effectiveness (response categories: very effective, somewhat effective, not very effective, or not at all effective, scaled 0-1) were measured. Results: A total of 2556 Canadian adults responded to the survey (median [IQR] age, 50 [34-63] years; 1339 women [52%]). The self-reported likelihood of taking an assigned AstraZeneca or Johnson & Johnson vaccine was higher for respondents given information about their assigned vaccine's effectiveness at preventing death from COVID-19 (b, 0.04; 95% CI, 0.01 to 0.06) and lower among those given information about its overall effectiveness at preventing symptomatic transmission (b, -0.03; 95% CI, -0.05 to 0.00), compared with those who were not given the information. Perceived effectiveness was also higher among those given information about their assigned vaccine's effectiveness at preventing death from COVID-19 (b, 0.03; 95% CI, 0.01 to 0.05) and lower among those given information about their assigned vaccine's overall efficacy at preventing symptomatic infection (b, -0.05; 95% CI, -0.08 to -0.03), compared with those who were not given this information. The interaction between these treatments was neither substantively nor statistically significant. Conclusions and Relevance: These findings suggest that providing information on the effectiveness of less-preferred vaccines at preventing death from COVID-19 is associated with more confidence in their effectiveness and less vaccine-specific hesitancy. These results can inform public health communication strategies to reduce hesitancy toward specific COVID-19 vaccines.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/therapeutic use , COVID-19/prevention & control , Health Education/methods , Patient Acceptance of Health Care/psychology , Treatment Refusal/psychology , Vaccination/psychology , Adult , COVID-19/psychology , Canada , Female , Humans , Middle Aged , Patient Acceptance of Health Care/statistics & numerical data , Persuasive Communication , Self Report , Treatment Refusal/statistics & numerical data , Vaccination/statistics & numerical data
16.
PLoS One ; 16(9): e0257252, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1435608

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Teaching work is stressful, moreover during the pandemic teachers' stress might have been intensified by distance education as well as by limited access to social support, which functions as a buffer in experiencing stress. The aim of the research was to investigate the relation between distance education and teachers' well-being, and their close relations and other social relations during the first two waves of the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: The research was conducted in two stages on 285 Polish primary and secondary school teachers who were recruited by means of the chain referral method. The following measures were used: The Depression Anxiety & Stress Scales-21, Berlin Social Support Scales, The Relationship Satisfaction Scale and The Injustice Experience Questionnaire. RESULTS: The teachers experienced at least mild levels of stress, anxiety and depression, both during the first as well as the second waves of the COVID-19 pandemic in Poland. It has been confirmed that there is a negative relation between relationship quality change and social relations quality change, and stress, anxiety and depression. The variables taken into consideration in the research have provided the explanation for the variation of stress-from 6% in the first stage of the research to 47% in the second stage; for the variation of anxiety-from 21% to 31%; and for the variation of depression-from 12% to 46%, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: The research results show that due to distance work the distinction between professional work and family life might have been blurred, and as a consequence teachers' well-being could have been worsened. The isolation put on to stop the spreading of the virus might have contributed to changes in social relations, in close relations in particular, and at the same time negatively influenced teachers' abilities to effectively cope with the crisis situations.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Pandemics/prevention & control , School Teachers/psychology , Adaptation, Psychological/physiology , Adult , Anxiety/psychology , Education, Distance/methods , Female , Health Education/methods , Humans , Interpersonal Relations , Male , Mental Health , Personal Satisfaction , Poland , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Social Support , Students/psychology , Surveys and Questionnaires
18.
PLoS One ; 16(9): e0257552, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1430539

ABSTRACT

Countermeasures against the spread of COVID-19 have become an urgent issue in educational settings, where many group activities are necessary. Educators are key to preventing the spread of COVID-19 in educational settings. Infection prevention behavior requires comprehensive and complex measures such as self-restraint. disinfection care, hand washing, wearing masks and recommendation and implementation of vaccination. Improvement in the knowledge, skills, and preventive actions of educators vis-à-vis COVID-19 could allow for the continued provision of educational services while ensuring safety in educational settings. Therefore, the objective of this study was to explore the knowledge and preventive actions of educators regarding COVID-19 and vaccination awareness to provide appropriate support for educators. The study used data collected from 1,000 Japanese educators in January 2021 when the third wave of viral infections spread. Online surveys and multivariate linear regression analysis were used to determine age and whether respondents were being cared for by a doctor. We investigated the effects of factors on educators' willingness to be vaccinated and changes in their behavior. This study found that factors such as age, gender, whether a respondent was under a physician's care, and health literacy, affected the willingness of educators to receive vaccinations and engage in preventive actions. The study also suggests that the reliability of national government public relations efforts is lower than the reliability of local government public relations and that of information from family physicians, pharmacies, and mass media. It is therefore necessary to reexamine how information is disseminated by the national government and to increase the degree of trust in that information among the public. The findings of the study also revealed the importance of improving the provision of appropriate information and health literacy for the behavior of educators, not only during the initial outbreak, but also during the subsequent period of pandemic life.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Health Education , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Health Literacy , Internet , Surveys and Questionnaires , Vaccination , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , Female , Humans , Japan , Linear Models , Male , Middle Aged , Multivariate Analysis , Pandemics/prevention & control , Reproducibility of Results , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Young Adult
19.
PLoS One ; 16(9): e0256103, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1405339

ABSTRACT

How do people balance concerns for general health and economic outcomes during a pandemic? And, how does the communication of this trade-off affect individual preferences? We address these questions using a field experiment involving around 2000 students enrolled in a large university in Italy. We design four treatments where the trade-off is communicated using different combinations of a positive framing that focuses on protective strategies and a negative framing which refers to potential costs. We find that positive framing on the health side induces students to give greater relevance to the health dimension. The effect is sizeable and highly effective among many different audiences, especially females. Importantly, this triggers a higher level of intention to adhere to social distancing and precautionary behaviors. Moreover, irrespective of the framing, we find a large heterogeneity in students' preferences over the trade-off. Economics students and students who have directly experienced the economic impact of the pandemic are found to give greater value to economic outcomes.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/psychology , Communicable Disease Control/economics , Costs and Cost Analysis , Persuasive Communication , Attitude , COVID-19/economics , COVID-19/prevention & control , Decision Making , Health Education/methods , Humans
20.
Exp Clin Transplant ; 18(Suppl 2): 31-42, 2020 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1405517

ABSTRACT

Tamil Nadu, Gujarat, Telangana, Maharashtra, Kerala, Chandigarh, Karnataka, National Capital Territory of Delhi, and Rajasthan are states and union territories having active deceased-donor organ transplant programs in India. Transplant data (2013-2018) have been collected by the National Organ and Tissue Transplant Organization from all states and union territories of India and submitted to the Global Observatory on Donation and Transplantation. From 2013 to 2018, 49155 transplants were reported in India, including 39000 living-donor organ recipients and 10 155 deceased-donor organ recipients. These transplants were for kidney (living donor = 32584, deceased donor = 5748), liver (living donor = 6416, deceased donor = 2967), heart (deceased donor = 895), lung (deceased donor = 459), pancreas (deceased donor = 78), and small bowel (deceased donor = 8). According to 2018 data, India was the second largest transplanting country in the world in terms of the absolute number of transplants. Here, we discuss the status, progress, challenges, and solutions for deceaseddonor organ transplantation. The plan to increase rates of organ donation in India include the following points: teamwork and focus by intensive care unit doctors; public education on organ donation using social media; professional education and family donation conversation programs for brain death declaration and donor management; organ procurement organizations; international collaboration and regular meetings and updates for organizations working in the field of organ transplantation; grief counseling and reporting of potential donation for families of recently deceased people; nonfinancial incentivization to families of potential organ donors; expert committees and standard operating protocols for use of marginal donor organs, donation after circulatory death programs, and machine perfusion; maintenance of transparency and ethics in organ donation, allocation, and transplantation as directed by governmental, nongovernmental, and intergovernmental entities; and regular audit of progress and registry data.


Subject(s)
Brain Death , Organ Transplantation , Tissue Donors/supply & distribution , Tissue and Organ Procurement , Attitude to Death , COVID-19 , Health Education , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Health Services Needs and Demand , Humans , India , Religion and Medicine , Time Factors
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