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1.
Health Educ Behav ; 48(3): 371-375, 2021 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1269854

ABSTRACT

Anti-Asian racism and violence dramatically increased during the COVID-19 pandemic. As a result, recent studies and reports are showing that the health and well-being of Asian Americans are negatively affected. To address this urgent problem, the field of health education and public health must be equipped with the critical frameworks and concepts to analyze racism and White supremacy and how it affects the health and well-being of Asian Americans. We argue that using an ethnic studies lens in health education can help educators, researchers, and practitioners teach and train health educators to address racism experienced by Asian Americans during COVID-19 in relation to their health. We will discuss the elements of ethnic studies and demonstrate how to use it as a lens in understanding health disparities in the Asian American population influenced and exacerbated by the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
Asian Americans/education , COVID-19/ethnology , Cultural Competency , Health Education/organization & administration , Racism/psychology , Health Education/standards , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Social Determinants of Health/ethnology , United States
2.
Disaster Med Public Health Prep ; 14(6): 782-788, 2020 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1207111

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: The novel 2019 coronavirus outbreak that first appeared in Wuhan has quickly gained global attention, due to its high transmissibility and devastating clinical and economic outcomes. The aim of this study was to assess the possible roles of Jordanian pharmacists in minimizing the stage of community transmission. METHODS: A cross-sectional survey using Google forms targeting Jordanian pharmacists was conducted during March 2020 and distributed electronically by means of social media. Using the survey tool, we measured the pharmacists' knowledge, the educative activities they perform, and their perceptions regarding undertaking traditional and untraditional roles during the COVID-19 outbreak, as specified by the International Pharmaceutical Federation (FIP). Collected data were analyzed using SPSS version-19. RESULTS: Jordanian pharmacists (n = 449) reported performing various educative activities, and in general, they were knowledgeable about various aspects of the COVID-19 disease (median knowledge score: 20 [range, 13-25]), but certain gaps in knowledge were detected that must be addressed. Pharmacists had positive perceptions about both their traditional and untraditional roles specified by the FIP, the median perceptions score was 4 (range, 1-5). CONCLUSIONS: Jordanian pharmacists can be used to reduce community transmission of the outbreak. However, more actions are required to keep pharmacists knowledgeable with recent disease updates to enable them to perform their tasks effectively during times of crisis.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Health Education/standards , Pharmacists , Professional Role , Adult , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Humans , Jordan/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Perception , SARS-CoV-2 , Young Adult
4.
J Med Internet Res ; 22(10): e19791, 2020 10 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-892413

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The ongoing pandemic has placed an unprecedented strain on global society, health care, governments, and mass media. Public dissemination of government policies, medical interventions, and misinformation has been remarkably rapid and largely unregulated during the COVID-19 pandemic, resulting in increased misinterpretations, miscommunication, and public panic. Being the first full-scale global pandemic of the digital age, COVID-19 has presented novel challenges pertinent to government advice, the spread of news and misinformation, and the trade-off between the accessibility of science and the premature public use of unproven medical interventions. OBJECTIVE: This study aims to assess the use of internet search terms relating to COVID-19 information and misinformation during the global pandemic, identify which were most used in six affected countries, investigate any temporal trends and the likely propagators of key search terms, and determine any correlation between the per capita cases and deaths with the adoption of these search terms in each of the six countries. METHODS: This study uses relative search volume data extracted from Google Trends for search terms linked to the COVID-19 pandemic alongside per capita case and mortality data extracted from the European Open Data Portal to identify the temporal dynamics of the spread of news and misinformation during the global pandemic in six affected countries (Australia, Germany, Italy, Spain, the United Kingdom, and the United States). A correlation analysis was carried out to ascertain any correlation between the temporal trends of search term use and the rise of per capita mortality and disease cases. RESULTS: Of the selected search terms, most were searched immediately following promotion by governments, public figures, or viral circulation of information, but also in relation to the publication of scientific resources, which were sometimes misinterpreted before further dissemination. Strong correlations were identified between the volume of these COVID-19-related search terms (overall mean Spearman rho 0.753, SD 0.158), and per capita mortality (mean per capita deaths Spearman rho 0.690, SD 0.168) and cases (mean per capita cases Spearman rho 0.800, SD 0.112). CONCLUSIONS: These findings illustrate the increased rate and volume of the public consumption of novel information during a global health care crisis. The positive correlation between mortality and online searching, particularly in countries with lower COVID-19 testing rates, may demonstrate the imperative to safeguard official communications and dispel misinformation in these countries. Online news, government briefings, and social media provide a powerful tool for the dissemination of important information to the public during pandemics, but their misuse and the presentation of misrepresented medical information should be monitored, minimized, and addressed to safeguard public safety. Ultimately, governments, public health authorities, and scientists have a moral imperative to safeguard the truth and maintain an accessible discourse with the public to limit fear.


Subject(s)
Communication , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Health Education/statistics & numerical data , Internationality , Internet , Mass Media/statistics & numerical data , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , COVID-19 Testing , Clinical Laboratory Techniques , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Global Health , Health Education/standards , Humans , Pandemics , Public Health , SARS-CoV-2 , Social Media
7.
Hosp Top ; 99(1): 22-28, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-817284

ABSTRACT

This study aims to describe the impact of COVID-19 on internship activities at health organizations in Saudi Arabia. The study is a secondary analysis of data set that was collected from 101 health science interns from different health organizations. The majority of interns were trained or started their internships at public health organizations (64.29%), while 6.12% and 29.59% were at private and other health organizations, respectively. During the COVID-19 pandemic, most health organizations chose to continue the internships (76.53%), while others (23.47%) decided to suspend trainings. Health organizations have taken different actions to overcome the internship issues during the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Internship and Residency/trends , Organizations/statistics & numerical data , Health Education/standards , Health Education/trends , Humans , Internship and Residency/standards , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pandemics/statistics & numerical data , Personal Satisfaction , Saudi Arabia , Surveys and Questionnaires
8.
ScientificWorldJournal ; 2020: 1562028, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-721220

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) has spread globally from its epicenter in Hubei, China, and was declared a pandemic by the World Health Organization (WHO) on March 11, 2020. The most popular search engine worldwide is Google, and since March 2020, COVID-19 has been a global trending search term. Misinformation related to COVID-19 from these searches is a problem, and hence, it is of high importance to assess the quality of health information over the internet related to COVID-19. The objective of our study is to examine the quality of COVID-19 related health information over the internet using the DISCERN tool. METHODS: The keywords included in assessment of COVID-19 related information using Google's search engine were "Coronavirus," "Coronavirus causes," "Coronavirus diagnosis," "Coronavirus prevention," and "Coronavirus management". The first 20 websites from each search term were gathered to generate a list of 100 URLs. Duplicate sites were excluded from this search, allowing analysis of unique sites only. Additional exclusion criteria included scientific journals, nonoperational links, nonfunctional websites (where the page was not loading, was not found, or was inactive), and websites in languages other than English. This resulted in a unique list of 48 websites. Four independent raters evaluated the websites using a 16-item DISCERN tool to assess the quality of novel coronavirus related information available on the internet. The interrater reliability agreement was calculated using the intracluster correlation coefficient. RESULTS: Results showed variation in how the raters assigned scores to different website categories. The .com websites received the lowest scores. Results showed that .edu and .org website category sites were excellent in communicating coronavirus related health information; however, they received lower scores for treatment effect and treatment choices. CONCLUSION: This study highlights the gaps in the quality of information that is available on the websites related to COVID-19 and study emphasizes the need for verified websites that provide evidence-based health information related to the novel coronavirus pandemic.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections , Health Education/standards , Internet , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Education, Distance , Humans , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Search Engine
9.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 17(13)2020 06 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-622384

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To analyze the characteristics of YouTube videos in Spanish on the basic measures to prevent coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). METHODS: On 18 March 2020, a search was conducted on YouTube using the terms "Prevencion Coronavirus" and "Prevencion COVID-19". We studied the associations between the type of authorship and the country of publication with other variables (such as the number of likes and basic measures to prevent COVID-19 according to the World Health Organization, among others) with univariate analysis and a multiple logistic regression model. RESULTS: A total of 129 videos were evaluated; 37.2% were produced in Mexico (25.6%) and Spain (11.6%), and 56.6% were produced by mass media, including television and newspapers. The most frequently reported basic preventive measure was hand washing (71.3%), and the least frequent was not touching the eyes, nose, and mouth (24.0%). Hoaxes (such as eating garlic or citrus to prevent COVID-19) were detected in 15 videos (10.9%). In terms of authorship, papers produced by health professionals had a higher probability of reporting hand hygiene (OR (95% CI) = 4.20 (1.17-15.09)) and respiratory hygiene (OR (95% CI) = 3.05 (1.22-7.62)) as preventive measures. CONCLUSION: Information from YouTube in Spanish on basic measures to prevent COVID-19 is usually not very complete and differs according to the type of authorship. Our findings make it possible to guide Spanish-speaking users on the characteristics of the videos to be viewed in order to obtain reliable information.


Subject(s)
Communicable Disease Control/methods , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Health Education/standards , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Social Media , Video Recording , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Cross-Sectional Studies , Deception , Hand Hygiene , Humans , Language , Mass Media , Mexico , SARS-CoV-2 , Spain
10.
J Med Internet Res ; 22(6): e21820, 2020 06 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-616134

ABSTRACT

In this issue of the Journal of Medical Internet Research, the World Health Organization (WHO) is presenting a framework for managing the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) infodemic. Infodemiology is now acknowledged by public health organizations and the WHO as an important emerging scientific field and critical area of practice during a pandemic. From the perspective of being the first "infodemiologist" who originally coined the term almost two decades ago, I am positing four pillars of infodemic management: (1) information monitoring (infoveillance); (2) building eHealth Literacy and science literacy capacity; (3) encouraging knowledge refinement and quality improvement processes such as fact checking and peer-review; and (4) accurate and timely knowledge translation, minimizing distorting factors such as political or commercial influences. In the current COVID-19 pandemic, the United Nations has advocated that facts and science should be promoted and that these constitute the antidote to the current infodemic. This is in stark contrast to the realities of infodemic mismanagement and misguided upstream filtering, where social media platforms such as Twitter have advertising policies that sideline science organizations and science publishers, treating peer-reviewed science as "inappropriate content."


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections , Health Education/methods , Health Education/organization & administration , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , Public Health/methods , Social Media/organization & administration , Social Media/standards , World Health Organization/organization & administration , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/economics , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Health Education/standards , Health Literacy , Humans , Pandemics/economics , Pneumonia, Viral/economics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Politics , Public Health/education , Public Health/standards , SARS-CoV-2 , Social Media/supply & distribution
11.
J Med Internet Res ; 22(6): e19659, 2020 06 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-607410

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: An infodemic is an overabundance of information-some accurate and some not-that occurs during an epidemic. In a similar manner to an epidemic, it spreads between humans via digital and physical information systems. It makes it hard for people to find trustworthy sources and reliable guidance when they need it. OBJECTIVE: A World Health Organization (WHO) technical consultation on responding to the infodemic related to the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic was held, entirely online, to crowdsource suggested actions for a framework for infodemic management. METHODS: A group of policy makers, public health professionals, researchers, students, and other concerned stakeholders was joined by representatives of the media, social media platforms, various private sector organizations, and civil society to suggest and discuss actions for all parts of society, and multiple related professional and scientific disciplines, methods, and technologies. A total of 594 ideas for actions were crowdsourced online during the discussions and consolidated into suggestions for an infodemic management framework. RESULTS: The analysis team distilled the suggestions into a set of 50 proposed actions for a framework for managing infodemics in health emergencies. The consultation revealed six policy implications to consider. First, interventions and messages must be based on science and evidence, and must reach citizens and enable them to make informed decisions on how to protect themselves and their communities in a health emergency. Second, knowledge should be translated into actionable behavior-change messages, presented in ways that are understood by and accessible to all individuals in all parts of all societies. Third, governments should reach out to key communities to ensure their concerns and information needs are understood, tailoring advice and messages to address the audiences they represent. Fourth, to strengthen the analysis and amplification of information impact, strategic partnerships should be formed across all sectors, including but not limited to the social media and technology sectors, academia, and civil society. Fifth, health authorities should ensure that these actions are informed by reliable information that helps them understand the circulating narratives and changes in the flow of information, questions, and misinformation in communities. Sixth, following experiences to date in responding to the COVID-19 infodemic and the lessons from other disease outbreaks, infodemic management approaches should be further developed to support preparedness and response, and to inform risk mitigation, and be enhanced through data science and sociobehavioral and other research. CONCLUSIONS: The first version of this framework proposes five action areas in which WHO Member States and actors within society can apply, according to their mandate, an infodemic management approach adapted to national contexts and practices. Responses to the COVID-19 pandemic and the related infodemic require swift, regular, systematic, and coordinated action from multiple sectors of society and government. It remains crucial that we promote trusted information and fight misinformation, thereby helping save lives.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections , Crowdsourcing , Health Education/methods , Health Education/standards , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , Social Media/organization & administration , Social Media/standards , World Health Organization , Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Disease Outbreaks , Health Education/organization & administration , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Public Health/methods , Public Health/standards , SARS-CoV-2 , Social Media/supply & distribution
12.
Monaldi Arch Chest Dis ; 90(2)2020 Jun 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-545837

ABSTRACT

In this ongoing SARS-CoV2 Corona virus pandemic, we are witnessing an uninhibited spread of mis-information on various social media platforms. This spread of mis-information or "mis-infodemic" is playing a negative role in our fight against the virus with far reaching consequences. International organizations like the WHO and other governmental organizations have geared up to the occasion to limit the spread of these and bring clarity in this context. In this time of crisis, risk communication is vital in the communication between organizations/government and the people. But apart from the organizations, the onus is on the people and media to realise the importance and verify the authenticity of information being circulated. It is imperative that information, being a double edged sword, is handled with caution and effective communication strategies are devised for the dissemination of accurate and scientific health related information. Social media can be used in a constructive way in mitigating the effects of this pandemic for the betterment of the society.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Health Education/standards , Information Dissemination/methods , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Social Media/standards , COVID-19 , Communication , Humans , India , Pandemics
13.
Am J Trop Med Hyg ; 103(2): 587-589, 2020 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-545293

ABSTRACT

Adherence of the population to COVID-19 prevention recommendations is crucial to control the epidemic. However, a study of communication messages around COVID-19 in 15 West African countries showed a number of unfounded messages, as well as a lack of communication on critical information to understand the prevention measures being promoted. Incidents of violence that have taken place recently suggest that general mistrust and hostility could grow, similar to the events that occurred during the previous Ebola epidemics. It is therefore urgent to review and revise the COVID-19 communication messages currently used in sub-Saharan Africa.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Health Communication/standards , Health Education/standards , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Africa , Animals , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Health Literacy , Humans , Pandemics , Public Health , SARS-CoV-2 , Trust
14.
Am J Trop Med Hyg ; 103(2): 583-586, 2020 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-533094

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 epidemic has spawned an "infodemic," with excessive and unfounded information that hinders an appropriate public health response. This perspective describes a selection of COVID-19 fake news that originated in Peru and the government's response to this information. Unlike other countries, Peru was relatively successful in controlling the infodemic possibly because of the implementation of prison sentences for persons who created and shared fake news. We believe that similar actions by other countries in collaboration with social media companies may offer a solution to the infodemic problem.


Subject(s)
Communication , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Health Communication/standards , Health Education/standards , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Deception , Government Regulation , Health Literacy , Humans , Pandemics , Peru , SARS-CoV-2 , Social Media
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