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1.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(7)2022 Apr 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1785654

ABSTRACT

Volume-based drug purchasing by China's health insurance system currently represents the largest group purchasing organization worldwide. After exchanging the market that accounted for nearly half of the volume of the healthcare system for the ultra-low-price supply of limited drugs, what are the effects on patient and funding burdens, drug accessibility, and clinical efficacy? We aimed to verify the effectiveness of the policy, explore the reasons behind the problem and identify regulatory priorities and collaborative measures. We used literature and reported data from 2019 to 2021 to conduct a stakeholder analysis and health impact assessment, presenting the benefit and risk share for various dimensions. The analysis method was a multidimensional scaling model, which visualized problematic associations. Seventy-nine papers (61 publications and 18 other resources) were included in the study, with 22 effects and 36 problems identified. The results indicated favorable affordability and poor accessibility of drugs, as well as high risk of reduced drug quality and drug-use rationality. The drug-use demand of patients was guaranteed; the prescription rights of doctors regarding clinical drug use were limited; unreasonable evaluation indicators limited the transformation of public hospitals to value- and service-oriented organizations; the sustainability of health insurance funds and policy promotion were at risk; and innovation by pharmaceutical companies was accelerated. The problems associated with high co-occurrence frequencies were divided into the following clusters: cost control, drug accessibility, system rationality, policy fairness, drug quality, and moral hazards. These findings suggested that China has achieved short-term success in reducing the burden on patients and reducing fund expenditure. However, there were still deficiencies in guaranteed supply, quality control, and efficacy tracking. The study offers critical lessons for China and other low- and middle-income countries.


Subject(s)
Consumer Behavior , Health Expenditures , China , Cost Control , Humans , Insurance, Health
2.
Front Public Health ; 10: 780704, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1775986

ABSTRACT

Background: Liver cirrhosis is a major global health and economic challenge, placing a heavy economic burden on patients, families, and society. This study aimed to investigate medical expenditure trends in patients with liver cirrhosis and assess the drivers for such medical expenditure among patients with liver cirrhosis. Methods: Medical expenditure data concerning patients with liver cirrhosis was collected in six tertiary hospitals in Chongqing, China, from 2012 to 2020. Trends in medical expenses over time and trends according to subgroups were described, and medical expenditure compositions were analyzed. A multiple linear regression model was constructed to evaluate the factors influencing medical expenditure. All expenditure data were reported in Chinese Yuan (CNY), based on the 2020 value, and adjusted using the year-specific health care consumer price index for Chongqing. Results: Medical expenditure for 7,095 patients was assessed. The average medical expenditure per patient was 16,177 CNY. An upward trend in medical expenditure was observed in almost all patient subgroups. Drug expenses were the largest contributor to medical expenditure in 2020. A multiple linear regression model showed that insurance type, sex, age at diagnosis, marital status, length of stay, smoking status, drinking status, number of complications, autoimmune liver disease, and the age-adjusted Charlson comorbidity index score were significantly related to medical expenditure. Conclusion: Conservative estimates suggest that the medical expenditure of patients with liver cirrhosis increased significantly from 2012 to 2020. Therefore, it is necessary to formulate targeted measures to reduce the personal burden on patients with liver cirrhosis.


Subject(s)
Health Expenditures , Liver Cirrhosis , China , Hospitals , Humans , Liver Cirrhosis/economics , Retrospective Studies
3.
Front Public Health ; 9: 711222, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1775827

ABSTRACT

Background: Myocardial infarction (MI) occurs frequently and requires considerable health care resources. It is important to ensure that the treatments which are provided are both clinically effective and economically justifiable. Based on recent new evidence, routine oxygen therapy is no longer recommended in MI patients without hypoxemia. By using data from a nationwide randomized clinical trial, we estimated oxygen therapy related cost savings in this important clinical setting. Methods: The DETermination of the role of Oxygen in suspected Acute Myocardial Infarction (DETO2X-AMI) trial randomized 6,629 patients from 35 hospitals across Sweden to oxygen at 6 L/min for 6-12 h or ambient air. Costs for drug and medical supplies, and labor were calculated per patient, for the whole study population, and for the total annual care episodes for MI in Sweden (N = 16,100) with 10 million inhabitants. Results: Per patient, costs were estimated to 36 USD, summing up to a total cost of 119,832 USD for the whole study population allocated to oxygen treatment. Applied to the annual care episodes for MI in Sweden, costs sum up to between 514,060 and 604,777 USD. In the trial, 62 (2%) patients assigned to oxygen and 254 (8%) patients assigned to ambient air developed hypoxemia. A threshold analysis suggested that up to a cut-off of 624 USD spent for hypoxemia treatment related costs per patient, avoiding routine oxygen therapy remains cost saving. Conclusions: Avoiding routine oxygen therapy in patients with suspected or confirmed MI without hypoxemia at baseline saves significant expenditure for the health care system both with regards to medical and human resources. Clinical Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov, identifier: NCT01787110.


Subject(s)
Myocardial Infarction , Health Expenditures , Humans , Myocardial Infarction/therapy , Oxygen , Treatment Outcome
4.
Pan Afr Med J ; 41: 40, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1771775

ABSTRACT

The inequality in access to oral health care in Nigeria is driven by the low numbers of trained health care workers, disproportionate distribution of oral health facilities, low level of oral health awareness, and the challenge associated with out-of-pocket expenditures. The COVID-19 pandemic disrupted oral health care delivery, access to oral health care services, thereby further entrenched inequality by increasing the out-of-pocket expenditure for health due to COVID-19 associated increased cost of medical services; high risk of worsening oral health care needs by patients who have routine and special oral health care needs; increased risk for oral health care needs by persons worse affected by COVID-19; and the high risk for general health problems by those whose access to routine and special health care needs were disrupted by the pandemic. The pandemic has however, also created opportunities to reduce the inequalities in the oral health care sector through adoption of teledentistry; integrated oral and general health care; improving oral health insurance coverage for the informal sector; and increasing public financing for health.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , COVID-19/epidemiology , Health Expenditures , Health Status Disparities , Humans , Nigeria/epidemiology , Oral Health , Pandemics
5.
Health Aff (Millwood) ; 41(4): 474-486, 2022 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1765548

ABSTRACT

Although considerable uncertainty remains, the COVID-19 pandemic and public health emergency are expected to continue to influence the near-term outlook for national health spending and enrollment. National health spending growth is expected to have decelerated from 9.7 percent in 2020 to 4.2 percent in 2021 as federal supplemental funding was expected to decline substantially relative to 2020. Through 2024 health care use is expected to normalize after the declines observed in 2020, health insurance enrollments are assumed to evolve toward their prepandemic distributions, and the remaining federal supplemental funding is expected to wane. Economic growth is expected to outpace health spending growth for much of this period, leading the projected health share of gross domestic product (GDP) to decline from 19.7 percent in 2020 to just over 18 percent over the course of 2022-24. For 2025-30, factors that typically drive changes in health spending and enrollment, such as economic, demographic, and health-specific factors, are again expected to primarily influence trends in the health sector. By 2030 the health spending share of GDP is projected to reach 19.6 percent.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Health Expenditures , Forecasting , Gross Domestic Product , Humans , Insurance, Health , Pandemics , United States/epidemiology
6.
Front Public Health ; 9: 646494, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1760279

ABSTRACT

China has built a social medical insurance system that covers the entire population so as to reduce the impact of diseases on individuals and families. Although the decline in the incidence of catastrophic health expenditures (CHEs) in China is encouraging, this issue remains important. On the basis of considering selectivity bias and heterogeneity, we applied propensity score matching (PSM) to analyze the 2018 data from the China Family Panel Studies. We assigned CHE households and non-CHE households to the treatment group and the control group, respectively, and used non-random data to simulate a randomized trial to investigate the impact of CHE on household consumption in China. The results of this study indicate that, when the threshold is set at 40%, the consumption of households experiencing CHEs (CHE household) is significantly lower than that of households not experiencing CHEs (non-CHE households) and that CHEs have a significant negative impact on other household consumption and a significant impact on the household property and debt. This effect still exists when the threshold is set lower, with household essential consumption most affected. The occurrence of CHEs leads to a reduction in household consumption and a significantly worsening financial situation for the CHE households, impacting the basic quality of life of the families. Therefore, it is necessary to further reform the medical and health system to reduce the high medical expenses.


Subject(s)
Catastrophic Illness , Health Expenditures , Catastrophic Illness/economics , China , Humans , Quality of Life
7.
J Med Econ ; 25(1): 437-449, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1740633

ABSTRACT

AIMS: How the Chinese government controls the Covid-19 epidemic? This paper aims to answer this question from the perspective of public health expenditure, and policy, and then to help the government to perform better in infectious disease prevention and public health emergency management. METHODS AND MATERIALS: We reviewed the development phases of the COVID-19 epidemic in China and divided it into four stages (incubation stage, outbreak stage, resolution stage, and stable stage). Then we adopted a content analysis method via MAXQDA2020, to analyze the combined application of four different types of policy tools in different stages with 571 texts of epidemic governance policy from the Chinese central government. We also calculated and compared the Chinese public health expenditure between epidemic and non-epidemic periods. Moreover, we also discussed implications for public health emergency management and for infectious disease prevention and control in China. RESULTS: (1) in the incubation stage, the potential epidemic has not attracted enough attention from the government; (2) the combination of the 4 types of policies is not only an important reason in controlling epidemic during the outbreak stage and resolution stage, but also the reason why the small-scale epidemic has not expanded in the stable stage; (3) the increasing Chinese public health expenditure, involving public health emergency treatment (114.81 billion yuan), government hospitals (284.84 billion yuan) and major public health service projects (45.33 billion yuan), is another critical reason for the rapid control of the epidemic. CONCLUSION AND IMPLICATIONS: Public health expenditure and policy played an important role in the governance and control of the COVID-19 epidemic in China. Some limitations of China's infectious disease prevention system and public health emergency management system have been exposed to the public in this epidemic, which the Chinese government needs to improve in the future.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Health Expenditures , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , China/epidemiology , Humans , Policy , Public Health , United States
8.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(5)2022 03 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1732026

ABSTRACT

In the context of the COVID-19 pandemic, financial resources allocated to the health system have been refocused according to priority 0: fighting the pandemic. The main objective of this research is to identify the vulnerabilities affecting the health budget effort in the EU and in the Member States during the health crisis period. The analysis takes into account relevant statistical indicators both in terms of financial allocation to health and expenditure on health protection of the population in the Member States, with the effect being tracked even during the pandemic period. The novelty of the study is the identification of viable directions of intervention based on the structural determination of expenditures related to measures to combat the pandemic and making proposals for changes in public policies based on the determination of the effectiveness of budget allocations in health in relation to the proposed purpose. The main outcome of the study is the identification of the vulnerabilities and the projection of measures to mitigate them in the medium and long term.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Budgets , COVID-19/epidemiology , Health Expenditures , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2
9.
BMC Res Notes ; 15(1): 86, 2022 Mar 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1724540

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The COVID-19 pandemic has caused widespread illness and a significant proportion of the infected required hospitalisation for treatment. People in developing countries like India were vulnerable to high hospitalisation costs. Despite its crucial importance, few primary studies are available on this aspect of the pandemic. This study was aimed at finding out the out of pocket expenditure (OOPE) and incidence of catastrophic expenditure on hospitalisation of persons infected with COVID-19. A primary survey of 492 randomly selected hospitalisations of individuals tested positive for COVID-19 in high-burden districts during August to November 2020 was carried out telephonically in Chhattisgarh state of India. RESULTS: Public hospitals accounted for 69% of the hospitalisations for COVID-19 treatment. Mean OOPE per hospitalisation was Indian Rupees (INR) 4871 in public hospitals and INR 169,504 in private hospitals. Around 3% of hospitalisations in public hospitals and 59% in private hospitals resulted in catastrophic expenditure, at a threshold of 40% of non-food annual household expenditure. Enrolment under publicly or privately funded health insurance was not effective in curtailing OOPE. Multivariate analysis showed that utilisation of private hospitals was a key determinant of incurring catastrophic expenditure.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/therapy , Health Expenditures , Hospitalization , Humans , India/epidemiology , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
10.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(4)2022 02 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1715303

ABSTRACT

This paper assesses the convergence process in the health care expenditure for selected European Union (EU) countries over the past 50 years. As a novel contribution, we use bound unit root tests and, for robustness purposes, a series of tests for strict stationarity to provide new insights about the convergence process. We make a comparison between public and private health expenditure per capita and as a percentage of the gross domestic product (GDP), with a focus on six EU countries with different health care systems in place. When we consider the health expenditure per capita, we report mixed findings. We show that the spread from the group average is stationary in the cases of Finland and Portugal when the overall and public expenditure is considered. In terms of private expenditure, the convergence process is noticed only for Austria. For all other countries included in our sample, we document a non-stationary process, indicating a lack of convergence. This result is robust to the different tests we use. However, when we assess the convergence in terms of the health-expenditure-to-GDP ratio, the convergence process is recorded for Austria only. The robustness check we performed using strict stationarity tests partially confirmed the mixed results we obtained. Therefore, our findings highlight the heterogeneity of the EU health care systems and the need for identification of common solutions to the EU health care systems' problems in order to enhance their convergence processes.


Subject(s)
Delivery of Health Care , Health Expenditures , Austria , European Union , Gross Domestic Product
14.
PLoS One ; 17(2): e0263814, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1690710

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: This study aimed to assess the severity of appendicitis during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, as patients with appendicitis may procrastinate seeking medical attention during the pandemic. METHODS: Information on patients with appendicitis who were treated at the Taipei City Hospital during the COVID-19 pandemic (January 1, 2020 to June 30, 2020) was retrieved. Patients who were diagnosed with appendicitis and treated at the same hospital from January 1, 2019 to July 1, 2019 were designated as the control group. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was conducted to assess changes in the severity of appendicitis (at a 2-week interval) between the two groups. RESULTS: We identified 307 (study group: 149; control group: 158) consecutive patients with appendicitis. The mean age was 46.2 +- 19.8 years. Between the two groups, there were no significant differences in age, sex, comorbidity, surgery type (laparoscopic or open appendectomy) or surgery time. The number of patients in the study group decreased between January 29, 2020 and April 21, 2020, which paralleled the period of spikes in the confirmed COVID-19 cases and restricted daily activities. The percentage of uncomplicated and complicated appendicitis (excluding mild appendicitis or normal appendix) in the study group increased between February 26 and March 10, as well as between April 8 and April 21. In the multivariate regression analysis, the odds of uncomplicated and complicated appendicitis increased in three bi-weeks for the study group but not in the control group. CONCLUSION: The severity of acute appendicitis might increase during the COVID-19 pandemic, because patients with mild appendicitis (or abdominal pain) may hesitate to seek help.


Subject(s)
Appendicitis/pathology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Pandemics , Severity of Illness Index , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Appendectomy , Child , Female , Health Expenditures , Hospitalization , Humans , Length of Stay , Logistic Models , Male , Middle Aged , Multivariate Analysis , Odds Ratio , Taiwan/epidemiology , Time Factors , Young Adult
15.
Recenti Prog Med ; 113(2): 76-83, 2022 02.
Article in Italian | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1686214

ABSTRACT

The "National Report on Medicines use in older adults in Italy. Year 2019" provides a summary of data concerning the expenditure and consumption of medicines in individuals aged 65 or above in Italy. In addition to general characteristics and considerations, analyzes conducted on specific conditions, situations and settings are reported, such as the concomitant use in patients with chronic diseases, the use of medicines in hospitals and RSA and the impact of the covid-19 pandemic. Four local experiences related to deprescribing interventions are then reported, which highlight the feasibility and value of this approach.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Aged , Health Expenditures , Hospitals , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2
16.
BMJ Glob Health ; 6(12)2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1597553

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Domestic hand hygiene could prevent over 500 000 attributable deaths per year, but 6 in 10 people in least developed countries (LDCs) do not have a handwashing facility (HWF) with soap and water available at home. We estimated the economic costs of universal access to basic hand hygiene services in household settings in 46 LDCs. METHODS: Our model combines quantities of households with no HWF and prices of promotion campaigns, HWFs, soap and water. For quantities, we used estimates from the WHO/UNICEF Joint Monitoring Programme. For prices, we collated data from recent impact evaluations and electronic searches. Accounting for inflation and purchasing power, we calculated costs over 2021-2030, and estimated total cost probabilistically using Monte Carlo simulation. RESULTS: An estimated US$12.2-US$15.3 billion over 10 years is needed for universal hand hygiene in household settings in 46 LDCs. The average annual cost of hand hygiene promotion is US$334 million (24% of annual total), with a further US$233 million for 'top-up' promotion (17%). Together, these promotion costs represent US$0.47 annually per head of LDC population. The annual cost of HWFs, a purpose-built drum with tap and stand, is US$174 million (13%). The annual cost of soap is US$497 million (36%) and water US$127 million (9%). CONCLUSION: The annual cost of behavioural change promotion to those with no HWF represents 4.7% of median government health expenditure in LDCs, and 1% of their annual aid receipts. These costs could be covered by mobilising resources from across government and partners, and could be reduced by harnessing economies of scale and integrating hand hygiene with other behavioural change campaigns where appropriate. Innovation is required to make soap more affordable and available for the poorest households.


Subject(s)
Developing Countries , Hand Hygiene , Family Characteristics , Hand Disinfection , Health Expenditures , Humans
17.
Inquiry ; 58: 469580211062402, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1594373

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 infection resulted in significant economic implications to patients as well as a considerable financial burden to the general population for preventive measures. A descriptive study was conducted among staff at one of the public universities in Malaysia to estimate the monthly out-of-pocket expenditures for preventive measures used for COVID-19 infection. The study tool includes questions on household out-of-pocket expenditure and the measurements of the impact of the expenditure on household income. It was found that the average cumulative monthly expenditures related to the preventive measures were US$ 45.90 (Ringgit Malaysia 187.77), which was 4.3% of the household income. The highest expenditures were for traditional and complementary medicine followed by nutraceutical/supplements and disposable facemask. 8% of the households in this study incurred more than ten per cents of their monthly household income for expenditures related to COVID-19 preventive measures. Several households are experiencing substantial financial implications for preventive measures related to COVID-19 infection. This study highlights the out-of-pocket expenditures incurred for preventive measures were substantial for certain households. Effective initiatives from the government on providing subsidized protective personal equipment and a cost-sharing approach could help to alleviate the household financial burden.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Health Expenditures , Humans , Malaysia , SARS-CoV-2
19.
Health Aff (Millwood) ; 41(1): 13-25, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1574499

ABSTRACT

US health care spending increased 9.7 percent to reach $4.1 trillion in 2020, a much faster rate than the 4.3 percent increase seen in 2019. The acceleration in 2020 was due to a 36.0 percent increase in federal expenditures for health care that occurred largely in response to the COVID-19 pandemic. At the same time, gross domestic product declined 2.2 percent, and the share of the economy devoted to health care spending spiked, reaching 19.7 percent. In 2020 the number of uninsured people fell, while at the same time there were significant shifts in types of coverage.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Health Expenditures , Delivery of Health Care , Humans , Insurance, Health , Medicare , Pandemics/prevention & control , Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act , SARS-CoV-2 , United States
20.
J Med Internet Res ; 23(2): e22841, 2021 02 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1574897

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Misdiagnosis, arbitrary charges, annoying queues, and clinic waiting times among others are long-standing phenomena in the medical industry across the world. These factors can contribute to patient anxiety about misdiagnosis by clinicians. However, with the increasing growth in use of big data in biomedical and health care communities, the performance of artificial intelligence (Al) techniques of diagnosis is improving and can help avoid medical practice errors, including under the current circumstance of COVID-19. OBJECTIVE: This study aims to visualize and measure patients' heterogeneous preferences from various angles of AI diagnosis versus clinicians in the context of the COVID-19 epidemic in China. We also aim to illustrate the different decision-making factors of the latent class of a discrete choice experiment (DCE) and prospects for the application of AI techniques in judgment and management during the pandemic of SARS-CoV-2 and in the future. METHODS: A DCE approach was the main analysis method applied in this paper. Attributes from different dimensions were hypothesized: diagnostic method, outpatient waiting time, diagnosis time, accuracy, follow-up after diagnosis, and diagnostic expense. After that, a questionnaire is formed. With collected data from the DCE questionnaire, we apply Sawtooth software to construct a generalized multinomial logit (GMNL) model, mixed logit model, and latent class model with the data sets. Moreover, we calculate the variables' coefficients, standard error, P value, and odds ratio (OR) and form a utility report to present the importance and weighted percentage of attributes. RESULTS: A total of 55.8% of the respondents (428 out of 767) opted for AI diagnosis regardless of the description of the clinicians. In the GMNL model, we found that people prefer the 100% accuracy level the most (OR 4.548, 95% CI 4.048-5.110, P<.001). For the latent class model, the most acceptable model consists of 3 latent classes of respondents. The attributes with the most substantial effects and highest percentage weights are the accuracy (39.29% in general) and expense of diagnosis (21.69% in general), especially the preferences for the diagnosis "accuracy" attribute, which is constant across classes. For class 1 and class 3, people prefer the AI + clinicians method (class 1: OR 1.247, 95% CI 1.036-1.463, P<.001; class 3: OR 1.958, 95% CI 1.769-2.167, P<.001). For class 2, people prefer the AI method (OR 1.546, 95% CI 0.883-2.707, P=.37). The OR of levels of attributes increases with the increase of accuracy across all classes. CONCLUSIONS: Latent class analysis was prominent and useful in quantifying preferences for attributes of diagnosis choice. People's preferences for the "accuracy" and "diagnostic expenses" attributes are palpable. AI will have a potential market. However, accuracy and diagnosis expenses need to be taken into consideration.


Subject(s)
Artificial Intelligence , Diagnosis , Patient Preference , Physicians , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19 , China , Choice Behavior , Diagnostic Techniques and Procedures/economics , Female , Health Expenditures , Humans , Latent Class Analysis , Logistic Models , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Surveys and Questionnaires , Time Factors , Young Adult
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