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2.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(24)2021 12 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1613817

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has resulted in changes in healthcare use. This study aimed to identify factors associated with a patient's decision to avoid and/or delay healthcare during the COVID-19 pandemic. We used data from a community-based survey in Portugal from July 2020 to August 2021, "COVID-19 Barometer: Social Opinion", which included data regarding health services use, risk perception and confidence in health services. We framed our analysis under Andersen's Behavioural Model of Health Services Use and utilised Poisson regression to identify healthcare avoidance associated factors. Healthcare avoidance was high (44%). Higher prevalence of healthcare avoidance was found among women; participants who reported lower confidence in the healthcare system response to COVID-19 and non-COVID-19; lost income during the pandemic; experienced negative emotions due to physical distancing measures; answered the questionnaire before middle June 2021; and perceived having worse health, the measures implemented by the Government as inadequate, the information conveyed as unclear and confusing, a higher risk of getting COVID-19, a higher risk of complications and a higher risk of getting infected in a health institution. It is crucial to reassure the population that health services are safe. Health services should plan their recovery since delays in healthcare delivery can lead to increased or worsening morbidity, yielding economic and societal costs.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Delivery of Health Care , Female , Health Facilities , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
3.
PLoS One ; 16(3): e0249214, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1605662

ABSTRACT

The novel coronavirus (COVID-19) is an infectious disease caused by a newly discovered coronavirus. Despite strong efforts that have been taking place to control the pandemic globally, the virus is on the rise in many countries. Hence, this study assessed the maternal health care services utilization amidst the COVID-19 pandemic in West Shoa zone, Central Ethiopia. A community-based cross-sectional study was conducted among 844 pregnant women or those who gave birth in the last 6 months before the study. A multi-stage sampling technique was used to select the study participants. The data were collected through face-to-face interviews using a semi-structured questionnaire. Logistic regressions were performed to identify the presence of significant associations, and an adjusted odds ratio with 95%CI was employed for the strength and directions of association between the independent and outcome variables. A P-value of <0.05 was used to declare statistical significance. The prevalence of maternal health service utilization during the COVID-19 pandemic was 64.8%. The odds of maternal health service utilization was higher among mothers who had primary (AOR = 2.16, 95%CI: 1.29-3.60), secondary (AOR = 1.97, 95%CI: 1.13-3.44), and college and above education (AOR = 2.89, 95%CI: 1.34-6.22) than those who could not read and write. Besides, mothers who did travel 30-60 minutes (AOR = 0.37, 95%CI: 0.23-0.59) and 60-90minutes (AOR = 0.10, 95%CI: 0.05-0.19) to reach the health facility had a lower odds of maternal health service utilization than those who did travel <30 minutes. Moreover, mothers who earn 1000-2000 (AOR = 3.10, 95%CI: 1.73-5.55) and > 2000 birrs (AOR = 2.66 95%CI: 1.52-4.64) had higher odds of maternal health service utilization than those who earn <500 birrs. Similarly, the odds of utilizing maternal health service were higher among mothers who did not fear COVID-19 infection (AOR = 2.79, 95%CI: 1.85-4.20), who had not had to request permission from husband to visit the health facility (AOR = 7.24, 95%CI: 2.65-19.75), who had practicedCOVID-19 prevention measure (AOR = 5.82, 95%CI: 3.87-8.75), and used face mask (AOR = 2.06, 95% CI: 1.28-3.31) than their counterpart. Empowering mothers and creating awareness on COVID-19 preventionis recommended to improve maternal health service utilization during the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/pathology , Health Facilities/statistics & numerical data , Maternal Health Services/statistics & numerical data , Adolescent , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Educational Status , Ethiopia/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Logistic Models , Masks , Odds Ratio , Pandemics , Pregnancy , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Social Class , Young Adult
4.
BMC Pregnancy Childbirth ; 22(1): 5, 2022 Jan 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1605314

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The Salud Mesoamérica Initiative (SMI) is a public-private collaboration aimed to improve maternal and child health conditions in the poorest populations of Mesoamerica through a results-based aid mechanism. We assess the impact of SMI on the staffing and availability of equipment and supplies for delivery care, the proportion of institutional deliveries, and the proportion of women who choose a facility other than the one closest to their locality of residence for delivery. METHODS: We used a quasi-experimental design, including baseline and follow-up measurements between 2013 and 2018 in intervention and comparison areas of Guatemala, Nicaragua, and Honduras. We collected information on 8754 births linked to the health facility closest to the mother's locality of residence and the facility where the delivery took place (if attended in a health facility). We fit difference-in-difference models, adjusting for women's characteristics (age, parity, education), household characteristics, exposure to health promotion interventions, health facility level, and country. RESULTS: Equipment, inputs, and staffing of facilities improved after the Initiative in both intervention and comparison areas. After adjustment for covariates, institutional delivery increased between baseline and follow-up by 3.1 percentage points (ß = 0.031, 95% CI -0.03, 0.09) more in intervention areas than in comparison areas. The proportion of women in intervention areas who chose a facility other than their closest one to attend the delivery decreased between baseline and follow-up by 13 percentage points (ß = - 0.130, 95% CI -0.23, - 0.03) more than in the comparison group. CONCLUSIONS: Results indicate that women in intervention areas of SMI are more likely to go to their closest facility to attend delivery after the Initiative has improved facilities' capacity, suggesting that results-based aid initiatives targeting poor populations, like SMI, can increase the use of facilities closest to the place of residence for delivery care services. This should be considered in the design of interventions after the COVID-19 pandemic may have changed health and social conditions.


Subject(s)
Delivery, Obstetric , Health Promotion , Health Services Accessibility , Maternal Health Services , Prenatal Care , Adolescent , Adult , Female , Guatemala , Health Facilities , Honduras , Humans , Middle Aged , Nicaragua , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Outcome , Young Adult
5.
JAMA Netw Open ; 5(1): e2142046, 2022 01 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1605268

ABSTRACT

Importance: The COVID-19 pandemic has had a distinct spatiotemporal pattern in the United States. Patients with cancer are at higher risk of severe complications from COVID-19, but it is not well known whether COVID-19 outcomes in this patient population were associated with geography. Objective: To quantify spatiotemporal variation in COVID-19 outcomes among patients with cancer. Design, Setting, and Participants: This registry-based retrospective cohort study included patients with a historical diagnosis of invasive malignant neoplasm and laboratory-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection between March and November 2020. Data were collected from cancer care delivery centers in the United States. Exposures: Patient residence was categorized into 9 US census divisions. Cancer center characteristics included academic or community classification, rural-urban continuum code (RUCC), and social vulnerability index. Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary outcome was 30-day all-cause mortality. The secondary composite outcome consisted of receipt of mechanical ventilation, intensive care unit admission, and all-cause death. Multilevel mixed-effects models estimated associations of center-level and census division-level exposures with outcomes after adjustment for patient-level risk factors and quantified variation in adjusted outcomes across centers, census divisions, and calendar time. Results: Data for 4749 patients (median [IQR] age, 66 [56-76] years; 2439 [51.4%] female individuals, 1079 [22.7%] non-Hispanic Black individuals, and 690 [14.5%] Hispanic individuals) were reported from 83 centers in the Northeast (1564 patients [32.9%]), Midwest (1638 [34.5%]), South (894 [18.8%]), and West (653 [13.8%]). After adjustment for patient characteristics, including month of COVID-19 diagnosis, estimated 30-day mortality rates ranged from 5.2% to 26.6% across centers. Patients from centers located in metropolitan areas with population less than 250 000 (RUCC 3) had lower odds of 30-day mortality compared with patients from centers in metropolitan areas with population at least 1 million (RUCC 1) (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 0.31; 95% CI, 0.11-0.84). The type of center was not significantly associated with primary or secondary outcomes. There were no statistically significant differences in outcome rates across the 9 census divisions, but adjusted mortality rates significantly improved over time (eg, September to November vs March to May: aOR, 0.32; 95% CI, 0.17-0.58). Conclusions and Relevance: In this registry-based cohort study, significant differences in COVID-19 outcomes across US census divisions were not observed. However, substantial heterogeneity in COVID-19 outcomes across cancer care delivery centers was found. Attention to implementing standardized guidelines for the care of patients with cancer and COVID-19 could improve outcomes for these vulnerable patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Neoplasms/epidemiology , Pandemics , Rural Population , Social Vulnerability , Urban Population , Aged , Cause of Death , Censuses , Female , Health Facilities , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Male , Middle Aged , Odds Ratio , Registries , Respiration, Artificial , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index , Spatial Analysis , United States/epidemiology
6.
Biomed Res Int ; 2021: 9195965, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1591582

ABSTRACT

Since its outbreak, the coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic has caused havoc on people's lives. All activities were paused due to the virus's spread across the continents. Researchers have been working hard to find new medication treatments for the COVID-19 pandemic. The World Health Organization (WHO) recommends that safety and self-measures play a major role in preventing the virus from spreading from one person to another. Wireless technology is playing a critical role in avoiding viral propagation. This technology mainly comprises of portable devices that assist self-isolated patients in adhering to safe precautionary measures. Government officials are currently using wireless technologies to identify infected people at large gatherings. In this research, we gave an overview of wireless technologies that assisted the general public and healthcare professionals in maintaining effective healthcare services during COVID-19. We also discussed the possible challenges faced by them for effective implementation in day-to-day life. In conclusion, wireless technologies are one of the best techniques in today's age to effectively combat the pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/psychology , COVID-19/therapy , Wireless Technology/trends , Delivery of Health Care , Health Facilities , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control , Patient Compliance/psychology , Physical Distancing , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity
7.
J Infect Dev Ctries ; 15(11): 1593-1596, 2021 11 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1572710

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 outbreak has resulted in a substantial morbidity and mortality, and has put the health system under tremendous stress. A need for devising and adopting newer methods and techniques is being emphasized in the healthcare facilities to combat the effects of the SARS-CoV-2. Besides patient care, focus needs to be laid on the effective and dignified management of the deceased and medico-legal services provided by the hospitals and medical institutions during the COVID-19 pandemic. Considering the likelihood of forensic experts and autopsy personnel being exposed to SARS-CoV-2 inadvertently during the autopsy, it is recommended to resort to safer and minimally invasive techniques of postmortem examination of the dead. In this regard, employing radiological techniques for postmortem examination appears to be a promising option during the COVID-19 pandemic. An inherent advantage of postmortem radiography over conventional autopsies is the minimization of the risk of transmission of infection to the health care workers. Our correspondence highlights on the possibility of using radiological facilities as an effective replacement of high-risk conventional autopsy procedures during the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
Autopsy , COVID-19/prevention & control , Health Facilities , Occupational Diseases/prevention & control , Radiology , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/epidemiology , Humans , India/epidemiology , Occupational Diseases/epidemiology , Pandemics , Regional Health Planning
8.
Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue Za Zhi ; 42(5): 923-927, 2021 May 10.
Article in Chinese | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1534266

ABSTRACT

Three healthcare revolutions and four medical paradigm shifts have had a profound impact on the development of healthcare system, which has greatly improved human health, however, the COVID-19 pandemic has exposed hidden dangers and problems in the construction of the healthcare system. In this paper, we made a brief introduction of population medicine and value-based healthcare for the purpose of suggesting new ideas and directions for the future development of healthcare system.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Delivery of Health Care , Health Facilities , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
9.
Am J Nurs ; 121(12): 39-44, 2021 12 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1522339

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT: During the COVID-19 pandemic, many health care facilities closed their doors to nursing students, depriving them of the experience of caring for patients, a foundation of nursing education. The purpose of this article is to report on how the National Council of State Boards of Nursing convened nurse leaders from around the country to explore this problem and develop possible solutions.Coming together virtually, these leaders recommended a national model, the practice-academic partnership, to provide nursing students with in-person clinical experiences during the pandemic. This model is unique in its recognition of the important role of nursing regulatory bodies in these partnerships. The practice-academic partnership model creates clinical education opportunities for students during a public health crisis, such as the COVID-19 pandemic. Further, the model could be applied to meet the chronic challenges nursing education programs have often faced in securing clinical sites, even in the absence of a global or national public health emergency. We provide the context in which the practice-academic partnership model was developed, along with keys to its successful implementation and suggestions for its evaluation. We also discuss the implications of using this model once the pandemic ends.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/nursing , Education, Nursing/organization & administration , Health Facilities , Interinstitutional Relations , Schools, Nursing , Forecasting , Humans , Models, Organizational , Students, Nursing
10.
Acta Biomed ; 92(S6): e2021463, 2021 11 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1524831

ABSTRACT

Proposed for the first time by European Commission in May 2020, the "NextGenerationEU" (NGEU) program is the European Union's most important effort to address key issues relating to public health and healthcare, digital and technological innovation, climate change, sustainable mobility, and key sociocultural aspects. In addition, the NGEU represents a response to the COVID-19 crisis through an extremely powerful financial intervention (over 800 billion euros). Italy is one of the main recipients of the NGEU plan's resources with almost 200 billion euros received in grants and loans. Implementation of the NGEU in Italy will take place through the National Recovery and Resilience Plan (NRRP). The NRRP not only describes how the NGEU resources will be used, but it singles out crucial public law reforms in national legislation and organization. Unsurprisingly, public health intervention represents a major component of the NRRP. Here we summarize and discuss the rules, regulations and perspective envisaged by the NRRP to foster effective healthcare and to reshape the Italian National Health System through the redesigning of primary care, enhanced communication between hospital and community healthcare, and stronger implementation of digital technologies in public health. (www.actabiomedica.it).


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Delivery of Health Care , Health Facilities , Humans , Italy , SARS-CoV-2
11.
PLoS One ; 16(11): e0260270, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1523455

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19) is a newly emerging pandemic affecting more than 120 million people globally. Compliance with preventive practices is the single most effective method to overcome the disease. Although several studies have been conducted regarding COVID-19, data on healthcare provider's adherence to COVID-19 preventive practices during childbirth through direct observation is limited. Therefore, this study aimed to assess healthcare provider's adherence to COVID-19 preventive practices during childbirth in northwest Ethiopia. METHODS: A multicenter study was conducted at hospitals in northwest Ethiopia among 406 healthcare providers from November 15 /2020 to March 10 /2021. A simple random sampling technique was employed to select the study subjects. Data were collected via face-to-face interviews and direct observation using a structured questionnaire and standardized checklist respectively. EPI INFO version 7.1.2 and SPSS 25 were used for data entry and analysis respectively. Binary logistic regression analyses were undertaken to identify associated factors. The level of significance was decided based on the adjusted odds ratio (AOR) with a 95% confidence interval at a p-value of ≤ 0.05. RESULTS: The proportion of healthcare providers having good adherence to COVID-19 preventive practices during intrapartum care was 46.1% (95% CI: 41.2, 50.9). Healthcare providers who had job satisfaction (AOR = 3.18; 95% CI: 1.64, 6.13), had smartphone and/or computer (AOR = 2.75; 95% CI: 1.62, 4.65), ever received training on infection prevention (AOR = 3.58; 95% CI: 2.20, 5.84), earned higher monthly income (AOR = 2.15; 95% CI: 1.30, 3.57), and worked at health facility in the urban area (AOR = 1.72; 95% CI: 1.07, 2.77) had a significant association with adherence to COVID-19 preventive practices. Moreover, the most commonly mentioned barriers for not adhering to the preventive practice of COVID-19 were crowdedness of the delivery room, non-availability of personal protective equipment, and shortage of alcohol or sanitizer. CONCLUSION: The healthcare provider's adherence to COVID-19 preventive practices was low. Hence, stakeholders need to pay special attention to increase healthcare provides' job satisfaction. In addition, the provision of continuous training on infection prevention would be helpful. Furthermore, personal protective equipment, alcohol, and sanitizer supply must be provided for healthcare providers.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Health Facilities/statistics & numerical data , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Health Personnel/statistics & numerical data , Pandemics/prevention & control , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Ethiopia/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pregnancy , Surveys and Questionnaires , Young Adult
12.
PLoS One ; 16(11): e0260055, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1518367

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: A large portion of COVID-19 cases and deaths in the United States have occurred in nursing homes; however, current literature including the frontline perspective of staff working in nursing homes is limited. The objective of this qualitative assessment was to better understand what individual and facility level factors may have contributed to the impact of COVID-19 on Certified Nursing Assistants (CNAs) and Environmental Services (EVS) staff working in nursing homes. METHODS: Based on a simple random sample from the National Healthcare Safety Network (NHSN), 7,520 facilities were emailed invitations requesting one CNA and/or one EVS staff member for participation in a voluntary focus group over Zoom. Facility characteristics were obtained via NHSN and publicly available sources; participant demographics were collected via SurveyMonkey during registration and polling during focus groups. Qualitative information was coded using NVIVO and Excel. RESULTS: Throughout April 2021, 23 focus groups including 110 participants from 84 facilities were conducted homogenous by participant role. Staffing problems were a recurring theme reported. Participants often cited the toll the pandemic took on their emotional well-being, describing increased stress, responsibilities, and time needed to complete their jobs. The lack of consistent and systematic guidance resulting in frequently changing infection prevention protocols was also reported across focus groups. CONCLUSIONS: Addressing concerns of low wages and lack of financial incentives may have the potential to attract and retain employees to help alleviate nursing home staff shortages. Additionally, access to mental health resources could help nursing home staff cope with the emotional burden of the COVID-19 pandemic. These frontline staff members provided invaluable insight and should be included in improvement efforts to support nursing homes recovering from the impact of COVID-19 as well as future pandemic planning.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Caregivers , Nursing Homes , Pandemics , Adult , Female , Health Facilities , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Nursing Staff , Risk Factors , Young Adult
14.
BMC Med Ethics ; 22(1): 134, 2021 09 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1511747

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Evolving medical technology, advancing biomedical and drug research, and changing laws and legislation impact patients' healthcare options and influence healthcare practitioners' (HCPs') practices. Conscientious objection policy confusion and variability can arise as it may occasionally be unclear what underpins non-participation. Our objective was to identify, analyze, and synthesize the factors that influenced HCPs who did not participate in ethically complex, legally available healthcare. METHODS: We used Arksey and O'Malley's framework while considering Levac et al.'s enhancements, and qualitatively synthesized the evidence. We searched Medline, CINAHL, JSTOR, EMBASE, PsychINFO, Sociological Abstracts, and ProQuest Dissertations and Theses Global from January 1, 1998, to January 15, 2020, and reviewed the references of the final articles. We included articles written in English that discussed the factors that influenced physicians and registered nurses (RNs) who did not participate in end-of-life (EOL), reproductive technology and health, genetic testing, and organ or tissue donation healthcare areas. Using Covidence, we conducted title and abstract screening, followed by full-text screening against our eligibility criteria. We extracted the article's data into a spreadsheet, analyzed the articles, and completed a qualitative content analysis using NVivo12. RESULTS: We identified 10,664 articles through the search, and after the screening, 16 articles were included. The articles sampled RNs (n = 5) and physicians (n = 11) and encompassed qualitative (n = 7), quantitative (n = 7), and mixed (n = 2) methodologies. The care areas included reproductive technology and health (n = 11), EOL (n = 3), organ procurement (n = 1), and genetic testing (n = 1). One article included two care areas; EOL and reproductive health. The themed factors that influenced HCPs who did not participate in healthcare were: (1) HCPs' characteristics, (2) personal beliefs, (3) professional ethos, 4) emotional labour considerations, and (5) system and clinical practice considerations. CONCLUSION: The factors that influenced HCPs' who did not participate in ethically complex, legally available care are diverse. There is a need to recognize conscientious objection to healthcare as a separate construct from non-participation in healthcare for reasons other than conscience. Understanding these separate constructs will support HCPs' specific to the underlying factors influencing their practice participation.


Subject(s)
Conscience , Physicians , Delivery of Health Care , Health Facilities , Humans
15.
BMJ Open ; 11(10): e050812, 2021 10 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1504736

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: This survey aimed to assess the awareness and readiness of healthcare providers to use telemonitoring (TM) technologies for managing diabetes patients as well as to identify associated factors in Ethiopia. DESIGN: An institution-based cross-sectional quantitative survey was conducted by using a pretested self-administered questionnaire from February to March 2020. Data analysis used a binary logistic regression and partial proportional odds model for factor identification. PARTICIPANTS: Randomly selected 423 study physicians and nurses. SETTING: This study was conducted at the University of Gondar and Tibebe Ghion specialised teaching referral hospitals. OUTCOME MEASURES: Awareness and readiness towards TM in diabetes care. RESULT: Out of 406 healthcare providers (69.7%, n=283 nurses and 30.3%, n=123 physicians) who completed the survey, 345 (38.7%) heard about TM, when it came to readiness, 321 (25.1%) and 121 (65.5%) of respondents had average and low readiness towards TM, respectively. The result of regression analysis shows that awareness towards TM was higher among respondents who had access to a computer (adjusted OR (AOR): 2.8 (95% CI 1.1 to 7.1)), computer-related training (AOR: 4.6 (95% CI 1.63 to 12.95)) and those who had the experience of supporting patients through digital tools (AOR: 1.7 (95% CI 1.0 to 2.8)). Self-perceived innovators and those who had access to a computer, computer-related training and favourable attitude towards TM had significantly higher readiness to use TM. CONCLUSION: The findings of this survey revealed low awareness and readiness of participant's towards TM. However, this study suggests the need of improving participant's attitudes, access to smartphones and computers and technical skills to fill this gap.


Subject(s)
Diabetes Mellitus , Health Facilities , Cross-Sectional Studies , Diabetes Mellitus/therapy , Ethiopia , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Hospitals, Teaching , Humans , Surveys and Questionnaires
16.
Med Care ; 60(1): 3-12, 2022 01 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1504829

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Equitable access to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) testing is important for reducing disparities. We sought to examine differences in the health care setting choice for SARS-CoV-2 testing by race/ethnicity and insurance. Options included traditional health care settings and mobile testing units (MTUs) targeting communities experiencing disproportionately high coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) rates. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective, observational study among patients in a large health system in the Southeastern US. Descriptive statistics and multinomial logistic regression analyses were employed to evaluate associations between patient characteristics and health care setting choice for SARS-CoV-2 testing, defined as: (1) outpatient (OP) care; (2) emergency department (ED); (3) urgent care (UC); and (4) MTUs. Patient characteristics included race/ethnicity, insurance, and the existence of an established relationship with the health care system. RESULTS: Our analytic sample included 105,386 adult patients tested for SARS-CoV-2. Overall, 55% of patients sought care at OP, 24% at ED, 12% at UC, and 9% at MTU. The sample was 58% White, 24% Black, 11% Hispanic, and 8% other race/ethnicity. Black patients had a higher likelihood of getting tested through the ED compared with White patients. Hispanic patients had the highest likelihood of testing at MTUs. Patients without a primary care provider had a higher relative risk of being tested through the ED and MTUs versus OP. CONCLUSIONS: Disparities by race/ethnicity were present in health care setting choice for SARS-CoV-2 testing. Health care systems may consider implementing mobile care delivery models to reach vulnerable populations. Our findings support the need for systemic change to increase primary care and health care access beyond short-term pandemic solutions.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Testing/methods , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/ethnology , Health Facilities/statistics & numerical data , Health Status Disparities , Adolescent , Adult , African Americans/statistics & numerical data , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Female , Health Services Accessibility/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Patient Acceptance of Health Care/ethnology , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Socioeconomic Factors , United States , Young Adult
19.
PLoS One ; 16(6): e0253110, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1496435

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The World Health Organization recommends inpatient hospital treatment of young infants up to two months old with any sign of possible serious infection. However, each sign may have a different risk of death. The current study aims to calculate the case fatality ratio for infants with individual or combined signs of possible serious infection, stratified by inpatient or outpatient treatment. METHODS: We analysed data from the African Neonatal Sepsis Trial conducted in five sites in the Democratic Republic of the Congo, Kenya and Nigeria. Trained study nurses classified sick infants as pneumonia (fast breathing in 7-59 days old), severe pneumonia (fast breathing in 0-6 days old), clinical severe infection [severe chest indrawing, high (> = 38°C) or low body temperature (<35.5°C), stopped feeding well, or movement only when stimulated] or critical illness (convulsions, not able to feed at all, or no movement at all), and referred them to a hospital for inpatient treatment. Infants whose caregivers refused referral received outpatient treatment. The case fatality ratio by day 15 was calculated for individual and combined clinical signs and stratified by place of treatment. An infant with signs of clinical severe infection or severe pneumonia was recategorised as having low- (case fatality ratio ≤2%) or moderate- (case fatality ratio >2%) mortality risk. RESULTS: Of 7129 young infants with a possible serious infection, fast breathing (in 7-59 days old) was the most prevalent sign (26%), followed by high body temperature (20%) and severe chest indrawing (19%). Infants with pneumonia had the lowest case fatality ratio (0.2%), followed by severe pneumonia (2.0%), clinical severe infection (2.3%) and critical illness (16.9%). Infants with clinical severe infection had a wide range of case fatality ratios for individual signs (from 0.8% to 11.0%). Infants with pneumonia had similar case fatality ratio for outpatient and inpatient treatment (0.2% vs. 0.3%, p = 0.74). Infants with clinical severe infection or severe pneumonia had a lower case fatality ratio among those who received outpatient treatment compared to inpatient treatment (1.9% vs. 6.5%, p<0.0001). We recategorised infants into low-mortality risk signs (case fatality ratio ≤2%) of clinical severe infection (high body temperature, or severe chest indrawing) or severe pneumonia and moderate-mortality risk signs (case fatality ratio >2%) (stopped feeding well, movement only when stimulated, low body temperature or multiple signs of clinical severe infection). We found that both categories had four times lower case fatality ratio when treated as outpatient than inpatient treatment, i.e., 1.0% vs. 4.0% (p<0.0001) and 5.3% vs. 22.4% (p<0.0001), respectively. In contrast, infants with signs of critical illness had nearly two times higher case fatality ratio when treated as outpatient versus inpatient treatment (21.7% vs. 12.1%, p = 0.097). CONCLUSIONS: The mortality risk differs with clinical signs. Young infants with a possible serious infection can be grouped into those with low-mortality risk signs (high body temperature, or severe chest indrawing or severe pneumonia); moderate-mortality risk signs (stopped feeding well, movement only when stimulated, low body temperature or multiple signs of clinical severe infection), or high-mortality risk signs (signs of critical illness). New treatment strategies that consider differential mortality risks for the place of treatment and duration of inpatient treatment could be developed and evaluated based on these findings. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: This trial was registered with the Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry under ID ACTRN 12610000286044.


Subject(s)
Fever/complications , Health Facilities/statistics & numerical data , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Infant Mortality/trends , Infections/mortality , Pneumonia/mortality , Anti-Infective Agents/therapeutic use , Body Temperature , Democratic Republic of the Congo/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Infections/drug therapy , Infections/epidemiology , Kenya/epidemiology , Male , Nigeria/epidemiology , Pneumonia/drug therapy , Pneumonia/epidemiology
20.
Am J Nurs ; 121(11): 7, 2021 11 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1493969

ABSTRACT

Nurses have the opportunity to make a difference for caregivers.


Subject(s)
Caregivers/psychology , Health Facilities , Quality of Health Care , COVID-19 , Humans
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