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1.
J Pak Med Assoc ; 72(12): 2565-2566, 2022 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20245600

ABSTRACT

Adult vaccination is an accepted part of health care and diabetes care. In spite of evidence regarding the efficacy and utility of vaccination in preventing disease, we continue to encounter vaccine hesitancy and vaccine skepticism. As physicians, it is our duty to encourage the public to get vaccinated. In this article, we create a simple framework which helps assess the barriers to vaccine acceptance, and create bridges to overcome vaccine hesitancy and skepticism. We use an interesting mnemonic, NARCO, to remind ourselves, and our readers, of the appropriate hierarchy of interviewing related to vaccine acceptance.


Subject(s)
Physicians , Vaccination Hesitancy , Adult , Humans , Health Facilities , Memory , Vaccination , Primary Health Care
2.
Cien Saude Colet ; 27(9): 3503-3516, 2022 Sep.
Article in Portuguese, English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20239474

ABSTRACT

This paper discusses the historical construction of the Expanded Family Health Center (NASF, in Portuguese), based on the analysis of 17 documents edited by the Ministry of Health (MH) between 2005 and 2021. This is a qualitative study of documental review that seeks to understand how the regulations and official instructive manuals have been shaping the way NASF teams operate. It proposes to divide the NASF construction process into five periods: previous movements (2003 to 2007); support guidelines (2008 to 2011); the universalization of nasf (2012 to 2015); expansion of support (2016 to 2018); and the dismantling of NASF? (2019 to 2021). The results show changes in guidelines over the years of the team's existence, especially in relation to the matrix support concept and its two dimensions: technical-pedagogical and clinical care. This study also demonstrates the effects of the Previne Brasil Program on the NASF, which resulted in the reduction of 379 teams in 2020 and 2021. Added to this scenario is the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic, which may be repositioning NASF interventions in the Brazilian Unified Health System (SUS, in Portuguese).


Este artigo discute a construção histórica do Núcleo Ampliado de Saúde da Família (NASF), a partir da análise de 17 documentos editados pelo Ministério da Saúde entre os anos de 2005 e 2021. Trata-se de um estudo qualitativo de revisão documental que busca compreender como as normativas, cadernos instrutivos e notas técnicas oficiais vêm dando contorno ao modo de operar das equipes do NASF. Propõe-se a divisão do processo de construção do NASF em cinco períodos: movimentos antecedentes (2003 a 2007); diretrizes do apoio (2008 a 2011); universalização do NASF (2012 a 2015); ampliação do apoio (2016 a 2018); e o desmonte do NASF? (2019 a 2021). Os resultados apontam mudanças de orientação ao longo dos anos de existência da equipe, especialmente em relação ao conceito do apoio matricial e suas duas dimensões, técnico-pedagógica e clínico assistencial. O estudo demonstra ainda os efeitos do Programa Previne Brasil sobre o NASF, que se materializaram na redução de 379 equipes nos anos de 2020 e 2021. Soma-se a esse cenário a pandemia do SARS-CoV-2, que pode reposicionar as intervenções do NASF no Sistema Único de Saúde.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Family Health , Brazil , Health Facilities , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
3.
Rev Gaucha Enferm ; 44: e20220007, 2023.
Article in English, Portuguese | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20233903

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To know the perceptions of nursing workers about their working conditions in COVID-19 hospital units. METHOD: Qualitative, descriptive, multicenter study, carried out in September 2020 and July 2021 with 35 nursing workers from COVID-19 units of seven hospitals in Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Data were produced through semi-structured interviews and submitted to thematic content analysis with the support of NVivo software. RESULTS: The participants reported availability of material resources and personal protective equipment, but perceived a lack of human resources, multiprofessional support and extra absorption of tasks, resulting in the intensification of work and culminating in overload. Professional and institutional aspects were also mentioned, such as fragility in professional autonomy, wage lag, payment delays and little institutional appreciation. CONCLUSION: Nursing workers in the COVID-19 units lived with precarious working conditions, worsened by organizational, professional and financial elements.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Nursing Staff , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , Working Conditions , Health Facilities , Hospital Units
4.
PLoS One ; 18(6): e0285999, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20233143

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Kerala, a south Indian state, has a long and strong history of mobilisation of people's participation with institutionalised mechanisms as part of decentralisation reforms introduced three decades ago. This history formed the backdrop of the state's COVID-19 response from 2020 onwards. As part of a larger health equity study, we carried out an analysis to understand the contributions of people's participation to the state's COVID-19 response, and what implications this may have for health reform as well as governance more broadly. METHODS: We employed in-depth interviews with participants from four districts of Kerala between July and October, 2021. Following written informed consent procedures, we carried out interviews of health staff from eight primary health care centres, elected Local Self Government (LSG, or Panchayat) representatives, and community leaders. Questions explored primary health care reforms, COVID responses, and populations left behind. Transliterated English transcripts were analysed by four research team members using a thematic analysis approach and ATLAS.ti 9 software. For this paper, we specifically analysed codes and themes related to experiences of community actors and processes for COVID mitigation activities. RESULTS: A key feature of the COVID-19 response was the formation of Rapid Response Teams (RRTs), groups of lay community volunteers, who were identified and convened by LSG leaders. In some cases, pre-pandemic 'Arogya sena' (health army) community volunteer groups were merged with RRTs. RRT members were trained and supported by the health departments at the local level to distribute medicine and essential items, provided support for transportation to health facilities, and assisted with funerary rites during lockdown and containment period. RRTs often comprised youth cadres of ruling and opposition political parties. Existing community networks like Kudumbashree (Self Help Groups) and field workers from other departments have supported and been supported by RRTs. As pandemic restrictions eased, however, there was concern about the sustainability of this arrangement as well. CONCLUSION: Participatory local governance in Kerala allowed for the creation of invited spaces for community participation in a variety of roles as part of the COVID 19 response, with manifest impact. However, the terms of engagement were not decided by communities, nor were they involved more deeply in planning and organising health policy or services. The sustainability and governance features of such involvement warrant further study.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Health Care Reform , Humans , Adolescent , COVID-19/epidemiology , Communicable Disease Control , Health Facilities , Government
5.
PLoS One ; 18(5): e0285662, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20231714

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Routine health data is crucial in decision-making and improved health outcomes. Despite the significant investments in improving Ethiopia's Performance Monitoring Team (PMT), there is limited evidence on the involvement, implementation strategies, and facilitators and barriers to data utilization by these teams responding to present and emerging health challenges. Therefore, this study aimed to explore the PMT experiences, facilitators, and barriers to information use in healthcare facilities in Eastern Ethiopia. METHOD: This study employed a phenomenological study design using the Consolidated Framework for Implementation Research (CFIR) to identify the most relevant constructs, aiming to describe the data use approaches at six facilities in Dire Dawa and Harari regions in July 2021. Key informant interviews were conducted among 18 purposively selected experts using a semi-structured interview guide. Thematic coding analysis was applied using a partially deductive approach informed by previous studies and an inductive technique with the creation of new emerging themes. Data were analyzed thematically using ATLAS.ti. RESULTS: Study participants felt the primary function of PMT was improving health service delivery. This study also revealed that data quality, performance, service quality, and improvement strategies were among the major focus areas of the PMT. Data use by the PMT was affected by poor data quality, absence of accountability, and lack of recognition for outstanding performance. In addition, the engagement of PMT members on multiple committees negatively impacted data use leading to inadequate follow-up of PMT activities, weariness, and insufficient time to complete responsibilities. CONCLUSION: Performance monitoring teams in the health facilities were established and functioning according to the national standard. However, barriers to operative data use included PMT engagement with multiple committees, poor data quality, lack of accountability, and poor documentation practices. Addressing the potential barriers by leveraging the PMT and existing structures have the potential to improve data use and health service performance.


Subject(s)
Health Facilities , Humans , Ethiopia , Qualitative Research
7.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 23(1): 620, 2023 Jun 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20237266

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: In Iran, tracking of patients and its associated data recording in private healthcare centers are poor, and thus a majority of patients suffering from Covid-19 are treated without any control on the isolation and quarantine processes. The present study aims to investigate the factors contributed to referral to private or public healthcare centers that provide Covid-19 care services. METHODS: This cross-sectional study was conducted from November 2021 to January 2022 in Tabriz, Iran. We invited a total of 258 and 202Covid-19 patients from governmental and private healthcare centers, respectively, to participate in the study by convenient sampling method. Applying a self-administered questionnaire, we collected data on the reason of referring to the healthcare centers, patient's waiting time, quality of healthcare services received by the patients, patients' level of satisfaction, accessibility, insurance coverage, perceived severity of the disease, and the level of staff compliance from health protocols. Logistic regression model was used for data analysis by using SPSS-26 software. RESULTS: Adjusted for other variables, higher socio-economic status (AOR (Adjusted Odds Ratio) = 6.64), older age (AOR = 1.02), referral of friends and family members (AOR = 1.52), shorter waiting time (AOR = 1.02) and higher satisfaction (AOR = 1.02) were contributed to referral to private centers. Better accessibility (AOR = 0.98) and wider insurance coverage (AOR = 0.99) were also contributed to referral to governmental centers. CONCLUSION: Providing more appropriate insurance coverage by private healthcare centers, and promoting their level of accessibility seems to promote patients' referral to such centers. Moreover, establishing an accurate system for recording patients' information and follow up in private centers might promote the role of private healthcare centers in managing the overload of patients on healthcare system during such epidemics.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , Iran/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Health Facilities , Referral and Consultation
8.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 20(9)2023 05 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20237156

ABSTRACT

U.S.-Mexico border residents experience pervasive social and ecological stressors that contribute to a high burden of chronic disease. However, the border region is primarily composed of high-density Mexican-origin neighborhoods, a characteristic that is most commonly health-promoting. Understanding factors that contribute to border stress and resilience is essential to informing the effective design of community-level health promotion strategies. La Vida en La Frontera is a mixed-methods, participatory study designed to understand factors that may contribute to border resilience in San Luis, Arizona. The study's initial qualitative phase included interviews with 30 Mexican-origin adults exploring community perceptions of the border environment, cross-border ties, and health-related concepts. Border residents described the border as a Mexican enclave characterized by individuals with a common language and shared cultural values and perspectives. Positive characteristics related to living in proximity to Mexico included close extended family relationships, access to Mexican food and products, and access to more affordable health care and other services. Based on these findings, we co-designed the 9-item Border Resilience Scale that measures agreement with the psychosocial benefits of these border attributes. Pilot data with 60 residents suggest there are positive sociocultural attributes associated with living in border communities. Further research should test if they mitigate environmental stressors and contribute to a health-promoting environment for residents.


Subject(s)
Community-Based Participatory Research , Health Facilities , Adult , Humans , Arizona , Mexico , Environment , Mexican Americans
9.
PLoS One ; 18(6): e0286528, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20244334

ABSTRACT

While spillover across equity markets has been extensively investigated, volatility spillover across sectors has largely been under-examined in the current literature. This paper estimates the sectoral volatility using the ARMA-GARCH model and its spillover across Australian sectors on the VAR framework during the 2010-2021 period. We then identify breakpoints in market volatility during the Covid-19 pandemic using a wavelet methodology. We find that volatility spillover across Australian sectors is very significant at 60 per cent from 2010 to 2019, reaching 90 per cent during the Covid-19 pandemic in 2020. The spillover then reverts to its pre-pandemic level in 2021. Consumer Staples and Industrials are the significant risk transmitters, whereas Financials and Real estates are the most significant risk absorbers. Our findings also indicate that Real Estate, Health Care, and Financials record the most significant increase in volatility of more than 300 per cent. Policy implications regarding risk management across Australian sectors have emerged, particularly during extreme events such as the pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , Australia/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Pandemics , Health Facilities , Industry
10.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 20(10)2023 05 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20244042

ABSTRACT

The outbreak of Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) has threatened health and well-being in all populations. This impact is also deepening structural inequalities for migrant workers in Thailand. Due to their vulnerability and limited opportunity to access health services, they have greater risks in many health aspects compared to other populations. This qualitative study sought to examine the key health concerns and barriers during the COVID-19 pandemic on healthcare access among migrant workers in Thailand through the lens of policymakers, healthcare professionals, experts on migrant health, and migrant workers. We conducted 17 semi-structured in-depth interviews of stakeholders from health and non-health sectors in Thailand from July to October 2021. The interviews were transcribed and analyzed using both deductive and inductive thematic approaches. Thematic coding was applied. The results showed that financial constraints were a major barrier for healthcare access among migrant workers. These included affordability of healthcare and difficulty accessing funds (migrant health insurance). Structural barriers included some health facilities opening for emergency cases only. Insufficient healthcare resources were profound during the peak of positive cases. Cognitive barriers included negative attitudes and diverse understanding of healthcare rights. Language and communication barriers, and a lack of information also played an important role. Conclusion, our study highlights healthcare access barriers to migrant workers in Thailand during the COVID-19 pandemic. Recommendations for future resolution of these barriers were also proposed.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Transients and Migrants , Humans , Pandemics , Thailand/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Health Services Accessibility , Qualitative Research , Health Facilities
11.
J Pediatric Infect Dis Soc ; 12(4): 222-225, 2023 Apr 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20242950

ABSTRACT

Clostridioides difficile infection (CDI) among children remains a concerning cause of morbidity in hospital settings. We present epidemiological and molecular trends in healthcare- and community-associated CDI among children in Canadian inpatient and outpatient settings, including those who experienced recurrent infections.


Subject(s)
Clostridioides difficile , Clostridium Infections , Cross Infection , Humans , Child , Canada/epidemiology , Clostridium Infections/epidemiology , Clostridium Infections/etiology , Health Facilities , Delivery of Health Care , Cross Infection/epidemiology
12.
J Natl Compr Canc Netw ; 21(6)2023 06 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20242525

ABSTRACT

US healthcare systems have been deeply impacted by significant societal shifts over the past several years. The COVID-19 pandemic has changed the way we interact with healthcare, political narratives have impacted how healthcare is perceived and engaged with by the public, and the United States has become increasingly aware of historic and ongoing racial injustices across all health and social systems. The watershed events experienced during the last several years play a critical role in shaping the future of cancer care for payers, providers, manufacturers, and, most importantly, patients and survivors. To explore these issues, in June 2021 NCCN convened a virtual policy summit: Defining the "New Normal" - 2021 and the State of Cancer Care in America Following 2020. This summit offered the opportunity for a varied group of stakeholders to begin to explore the impact of recent events on the current and future state of oncology in the United States. Topics included the impact of COVID-19 on cancer detection and treatment, the role of innovation in ensuring continuity of care, and efforts to create more equitable systems of care.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Neoplasms , Humans , Pandemics , Health Facilities , Policy
13.
Front Health Serv Manage ; 39(4): 20-24, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20241617

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY: The founding of Ochsner Ventures followed the natural evolution of more than a decade of growth and expansion of Ochsner Health's offerings and capabilities beyond traditional patient care. This growth has enabled the health system to bring critical services to underserved communities across the Gulf South. Ochsner Ventures supports promising companies both in and beyond the region while bringing forward new solutions to healthcare sector challenges and improving health outcomes, access, and equity. In a dynamic healthcare environment amid the persistent effects of the COVID-19 pandemic, Ochsner Health is executing a multiyear strategic plan to reinforce its mission and maintain a position of strength in the region. One aspect of the strategy focuses on the diversification and pursuit of new value by creating new revenue, additional savings, cost reductions, innovations, and amplifying existing assets and capabilities.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , COVID-19/therapy , Pandemics , Health Facilities
14.
BMJ Open ; 13(5): e069753, 2023 05 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20241603

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Racialized population groups have worse health outcomes across the world compared with non-racialized populations. Evidence suggests that collecting race-based data should be done to mitigate racism as a barrier to health equity, and to amplify community voices, promote transparency, accountability, and shared governance of data. However, limited evidence exists on the best ways to collect race-based data in healthcare contexts. This systematic review aims to synthesize opinions and texts on the best practices for collecting race-based data in healthcare contexts. METHODS AND ANALYSES: We will use the Joanna Briggs Institute (JBI) method for synthesizing text and opinions. JBI is a global leader in evidence-based healthcare and provides guidelines for systematic reviews. The search strategy will locate both published and unpublished papers in English in CINAHL, Medline, PsycINFO, Scopus and Web of Science from 1 January 2013 to 1 January 2023, as well as unpublished studies and grey literature of relevant government and research websites using Google and ProQuest Dissertations and Theses. The Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses statement methodology for systematic reviews of text and opinion will be applied, including screening and appraisal of the evidence by two independent reviewers and data extraction using JBI's Narrative, Opinion, Text, Assessment, Review Instrument. This JBI systematic review of opinion and text will address gaps in knowledge about the best ways to collect race-based data in healthcare. Improvements in race-based data collection, may be related to structural policies that address racism in healthcare. Community participation may also be used to increase knowledge about collecting race-based data. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: The systematic review does not involve human subjects. Findings will be disseminated through a peer-reviewed publication in JBI evidence synthesis, conferences and media. PROSPERO REGISTRATION NUMBER: CRD42022368270.


Subject(s)
Delivery of Health Care , Health Facilities , Humans , Evidence-Based Practice , Health Personnel , Narration , Systematic Reviews as Topic
15.
Radiat Prot Dosimetry ; 199(8-9): 995-1001, 2023 May 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20234268

ABSTRACT

The SCK CEN Academy for Nuclear Science and Technology functions as the umbrella structure coordinating the education and training activities of the Belgian Nuclear Research Centre (SCK CEN). One of the main activities of the SCK CEN Academy is to provide customised training to professionals working in the nuclear industry, healthcare, research or governmental institutions. The courses and practical sessions are usually given in a face-to-face (FTF) format. This has drastically changed in the last 2 y because of the COVID-19 pandemic when it was necessary to switch course delivery from FTF to an online format. Feedback was collected from trainees and trainers in different training courses in radiation protection provided in FTF and online format. The analysis of this feedback allows training providers to make better-informed decisions on the best-suited training format depending on the content, target audience and the duration of the learning activity.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Radiation Protection , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control , COVID-19/prevention & control , Academies and Institutes , Health Facilities
16.
Soc Sci Med ; 328: 115998, 2023 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2327770

ABSTRACT

In this paper we explore the impact of the emerging COVID-19 pandemic on the governance of healthcare in the Netherlands. In doing so, we re-examine the idea that a crisis necessarily leads to processes of transition and change by focusing on crisis as a specific language of organizing collective action instead. Framing a situation as a crisis of a particular kind allows for specific problem definitions, concurrent solutions and the inclusion and exclusion of stakeholders. Using this perspective, we examine the dynamics and institutional tensions involved in governing healthcare during the pandemic. We make use of multi-sited ethnographic research into the Dutch healthcare crisis organization as it responded to the COVID-19 pandemic, focusing on decision-making at the regional level. We tracked our participants through successive waves of the pandemic between March 2020 and August 2021 and identified three dominant framings of the pandemic-as-crisis: a crisis of scarcity, a crisis of postponed care and a crisis of acute care coordination. In this paper, we discuss the implications of these framings in terms of the institutional tensions that arose in governing healthcare during the pandemic: between centralized, top-down crisis management and local, bottom-up work; between informal and formal work; and between existing institutional logics.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , Pandemics , Anthropology, Cultural , Ethnicity , Health Facilities
17.
Front Public Health ; 11: 1162804, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2327590

ABSTRACT

Objectives: This study explores the factors influencing the construction duration of public health emergency medical facilities and the ways in which they can be enhanced. Methods: Combining 30 relevant emergency medical facility construction cases in different cities in China from 2020 to 2021, seven condition variables and an outcome variable were selected, and necessary and sufficient condition analyses of duration influence factors were conducted using the fsQCA method. Results: The consistency of seven condition variables was <0.9, which shows that the construction period of public health emergency medical facilities is not independently affected by a single condition variable but by multiple influencing factors. The solution consistency value of the path configurations was 0.905, indicating that four path configurations were sufficient for the outcome variables. The solution coverage of the four path configurations was 0.637, indicating that they covered ~63.7% of the public health emergency medical facility cases. Conclusion: To reduce the construction duration, the construction of emergency medical facilities should focus on planning and design, the selection of an appropriate form of construction, the reasonable deployment of resources, and the vigorous adoption of information technology.


Subject(s)
Health Facilities , Public Health , China
18.
PLoS One ; 18(5): e0285847, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2322037

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: There is a dearth of studies assessing the effects of SARS-CoV-2 on the healthcare system and access to care, especially in lower- and middle-income countries such as Malawi. We aimed to assess the impacts of COVID-19 on reported maternal and neonatal complications as well as potential changes in maternal care access to care among five primary care health facilities in Blantyre, Malawi. METHODS: This retrospective cohort study assessed maternal and neonatal register data from five participating health centers in Blantyre, Malawi using the Malawi District Health Information Software 2 (DHIS2) to compare outcomes from 15 months before COVID-19 emerged, defined as the pre-Covid period (January 2019 -March 2020) with nine months after COVID-19 (April 2020 -December 2020). RESULTS: There was a significant decrease in reported use of vacuum extraction, which went from <0.01%in the pre-COVID period to 0% in the COVID period (p = 0.01). The proportion of births reporting fetal distress almost tripled from 0.46% to 1.36% (p = 0.001) during the COVID-19 period. Additionally, reported anticonvulsant use significantly increased from 0.01% to 1.2% (p<0.01), and antibiotic use significantly increased from 0.45% to 1.6% (p = 0.01). Asphyxia was the only significant neonatal complication variable reported, increasing from 2.80% to 3.45% (p = 0.01). CONCLUSION: Our findings suggest that significant outcomes were mainly due to the indirect effects of COVID-19 rather than the virus itself. Based on our findings and the contextual qualitative interviews with two Malawian expert midwives, we concluded that mothers may have been affected more due to understaffing and shortage of skilled personnel in the study health facilities. Therefore, the development of highly skilled health workers may contribute to better outcomes, along with adequate staffing and a streamlined referral process.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Infant, Newborn , Female , Pregnancy , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Malawi , Maternal Health , Retrospective Studies , Health Facilities , Government , Mothers
19.
Malar J ; 22(1): 152, 2023 May 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2320679

ABSTRACT

There has been a significant reduction in malaria morbidity and mortality worldwide from 2000 to 2019. However, the incidence and mortality increased again in 2020 due to the disruption to services during the COVID-19 pandemic. Surveillance to reduce the burden of malaria, eliminate the disease and prevent its retransmission is, therefore, crucial. The 1-3-7 approach proposed by China has played an important role in eliminating malaria, which has been internationally popularized and adopted in some countries to help eliminate malaria. This review summarizes the experience and lessons of 1-3-7 approach in China and its application in other malaria-endemic countries, so as to provide references for its role in eliminating malaria and preventing retransmission. This approach needs to be tailored and adapted according to the region condition, considering the completion, timeliness and limitation of case-based reactive surveillance and response. It is very important to popularize malaria knowledge, train staff, improve the capacity of health centres and monitor high-risk groups to improve the performance in eliminating settings. After all, remaining vigilance in detecting malaria cases and optimizing surveillance and response systems are critical to achieving and sustaining malaria elimination.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Malaria , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Pandemics/prevention & control , China/epidemiology , Health Facilities , Malaria/epidemiology , Malaria/prevention & control
20.
Am J Emerg Med ; 68: 179-185, 2023 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2319898

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Cyberattacks are one of the most widespread, damaging, and disruptive forms of action against healthcare entities. Data breaches, ransomware attacks, and other intrusions can lead to significant cost both in monetary and personal harm to those affected and may result in large payouts to cyber criminals, crashes of information technology systems, leaks of protected health and personal information, as well as fines and lawsuits. This study is a descriptive analysis of healthcare-related cyber breaches affecting 500 or more individuals in the past decade in the United States. METHODS: The publicly available U.S. breach report database was downloaded in the Microsoft Excel (Microsoft, Redmond, Washington, USA) format and searched for all reported breaches occurring between January 1, 2011 - December 31, 2021 (10 years). Breaches were subdivided by category and analyzed by states, breach submission dates, types of breach, location of breached information, entity type, and individuals affected. All subcategories were predefined by the breach report. RESULTS: There were a total of 3822 PHI breaches that affected 283,335,803 people in the United States from January 1, 2011 to December 31, 2021. Of the 3822 PHI breaches, 1593 (41.7%) were hacking/ IT related, 1055 (27.6%) were listed as unknown, 819 (21.4%) were theft related, 194 (5.1%) were loss related, 97 (2.5%) were related to improper disposal and 64 (1.7%) were listed as "others". Year 2020 saw the most breaches with 631 and California was the state with the highest number of breaches at 403. CONCLUSION: Cyberattacks and healthcare breaches are one of the most costly and disruptive situations facing healthcare today. A total of 3822 breaches affecting 283,335,803 people in the United States were recorded from January 1, 2011 to December 31, 2021. By understanding the extent of cyberthreats this will better prepare healthcare organizations and providers to mitigate, respond, and recover from these devastating attacks.


Subject(s)
Computer Security , Confidentiality , Humans , United States , Health Facilities , Washington , Electronic Health Records
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