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3.
J Hosp Infect ; 106(4): 678-697, 2020 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1385931

ABSTRACT

During the current SARS-CoV-2 pandemic new studies are emerging daily providing novel information about sources, transmission risks and possible prevention measures. In this review, we aimed to comprehensively summarize the current evidence on possible sources for SARS-CoV-2, including evaluation of transmission risks and effectiveness of applied prevention measures. Next to symptomatic patients, asymptomatic or pre-symptomatic carriers are a possible source with respiratory secretions as the most likely cause for viral transmission. Air and inanimate surfaces may be sources; however, viral RNA has been inconsistently detected. Similarly, even though SARS-CoV-2 RNA has been detected on or in personal protective equipment (PPE), blood, urine, eyes, the gastrointestinal tract and pets, these sources are currently thought to play a negligible role for transmission. Finally, various prevention measures such as handwashing, hand disinfection, face masks, gloves, surface disinfection or physical distancing for the healthcare setting and in public are analysed for their expected protective effect.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , Carrier State/transmission , Disease Transmission, Infectious/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/transmission , COVID-19/virology , Carrier State/virology , Gloves, Protective/virology , Hand Disinfection/methods , Health Facilities/standards , Humans , Masks/virology , Pandemics/prevention & control , Personal Protective Equipment/virology
4.
PLoS One ; 16(8): e0256086, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1357436

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Quality water, sanitation, and hygiene facilities act as barricades to the transmission of COVID-19 in health care facilities. These facilities ought to also be available, accessible, and functional in temporary treatment centers. Despite numerous studies on health care facilities, however, there is limited information on the status of WASH facilities in such centers. METHODS: The assessment of health care facilities for the COVID-19 response checklist and key informant interviews, were used for data collection. 35 treatment centers in Southern Ethiopia were surveyed. Eightkey informants were interviewed to gain an understanding of the WASH conditions in the treatment centers. The Quantitative data was entered using EPI-INFO 7 and exported to SPSS 20 for analysis. Results are presented using descriptive statistics. Open Code 4.02 was used for the thematic analysis of the qualitative data. RESULTS: Daily water supply interruptions occurred at 27 (77.1%) of the surveyed sites. Only 30 (85.72%) had bathrooms that were segregated for personnel and patients, and only 3 (3.57%) had toilets that were handicapped accessible. 20(57.2%) of the treatment centers did not have a hand hygiene protocol that satisfied WHO guidelines. In terms of infection prevention and control, 16 (45.71%) of the facilities lacked adequate personal protective equipment stocks. Between urban and rural areas, there was also a significant difference in latrine maintenance, hand hygiene protocol design and implementation, and incineration capacity. CONCLUSION: The results reveal crucial deficiencies in the provision of WASH in the temporary COVID-19 treatment centers. Efforts to improve WASH should offer priority to hygiene service interventions to minimize the risk of healthcare-acquired infections. The sustainable provision of hygiene services, such as hand washing soap, should also be given priority.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Health Facilities/statistics & numerical data , Hygiene , Quarantine/statistics & numerical data , Sanitation/statistics & numerical data , Water Quality , COVID-19/prevention & control , Ethiopia , Health Facilities/standards , Humans , Quality Assurance, Health Care , Quarantine/standards , Sanitation/standards
5.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(21): e26102, 2021 May 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1242123

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT: Healthcare workers (HWs) perform a critical role not only in the clinical management of patients but also in providing adequate infection control and prevention measures and waste management procedures to be implemented in healthcare facilities. The aim of this study was to evaluate the awareness and knowledge of COVID-19 infection control precautions and waste management procedures among HWs in Saudi Arabian hospitals.This was a descriptive, cross-sectional study. Information on knowledge, awareness, and practice of infection control and waste management procedures were obtained from the HWs using a structured questionnaire. A thematic analysis was used to analyze the data.Our findings indicated that most of the study participants were knowledgeable, with a mean score of 78.3%. In total, 92.5%, 90.3%, and 91.7% of the participants were aware of the infection control precautions, COVID-19 waste management procedures, the availability of infection control supplies, respectively. HWs' Knowledge regarding waste management and infection control procedures correlated significantly with sex (P ≤ .001 and <.001), education (P = .024 and .043), and working experience (P = .029 and .009), respectively.Most participants appreciated the importance of their role in infection control, surveillance, and monitoring of the ongoing safety practices in their patients as well as their facilities and communities.


Subject(s)
Attitude of Health Personnel , COVID-19/prevention & control , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Infection Control/standards , Medical Waste Disposal/standards , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/transmission , COVID-19/virology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Health Facilities/standards , Health Personnel/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Infection Control/organization & administration , Infection Control/statistics & numerical data , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics/prevention & control , Practice Guidelines as Topic , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Saudi Arabia/epidemiology , Surveys and Questionnaires/statistics & numerical data , Young Adult
6.
BMC Public Health ; 21(1): 447, 2021 03 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1119419

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Amidst the COVID-19 pandemic, governments, health experts, and ethicists have proposed guidelines about ICU triage and priority access to a vaccine. To increase political legitimacy and accountability, public support is important. This study examines what criteria beyond medical need are deemed important to be perceived of priority COVID-19 healthcare access. METHOD: Two conjoint experiments about priority over ICU treatment and early COVID-19 vaccination were implemented in a probability-based sample of 1461 respondents representative of the Netherlands. Respondents were asked who should receive treatment out of two fictitious healthcare claimants that differed in in age, weight, complying with corona policy measures, and occupation, all randomly assigned. Average marginal coefficient effects are estimated to assess the relative importance of the attributes; attributes were interacted with relevant respondent characteristics to find whether consensus exists in this relative ranking. RESULTS: The Dutch penalize those not complying with coronavirus policy measures, and the obese, but prioritize those employed in 'crucial' sectors. For these conditions, there is consensus among the population. For age, young people are prioritized for ICU treatment, while the middle-aged are given priority over a vaccine, with younger respondents favoring healthcare for elderly claimants, while older respondents favor support for young cohorts. CONCLUSION: People who have no control over their social risk and are able to reciprocate to society are considered as more deserving of priority of COVID-19 healthcare. Our findings provide fair support for the implemented ethical guidelines about ICU-treatment and COVID-19 vaccines.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/therapy , Critical Care/standards , Delivery of Health Care/standards , Health Facilities/standards , Health Services Accessibility/standards , Vaccination/standards , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/epidemiology , Consensus , Critical Care/statistics & numerical data , Delivery of Health Care/statistics & numerical data , Female , Health Facilities/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Netherlands , Pandemics , Practice Guidelines as Topic , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination/statistics & numerical data
7.
PLoS One ; 16(3): e0247639, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1110093

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Coronavirus-19 is a global health challenge and need an immediate action. Thus, understanding client's knowledge about SARS-COV2 causes, roots of transmissions, and prevention strategies are urgently warranted. Although there were global studies reported knowledge and preventive practices of COVID-19, but the information is not representative and inclusive for Ethiopia. Thus, the current study is done to identify the knowledge and the prevention strategies for COVID-19 among clients in South Wollo, Ethiopia. METHODS: An institutional based cross-sectional study was conducted from May 21 to 30, 2020 among clients seeking service in Dessie town health facilities. A total of 81 clients were included from the selected health facilities with simple random sampling technique. We developed measuring tools by adopting from World Health Organization and center for disease prevention recommendation manual for assessing service providers' knowledge and preventive practices. For data entry Epi-data 3.1 version was employed and further data management and analysis was performed using STATA Version 14. Student T-test and one way ANOVA were computed to see the mean difference in knowledge and practice between and among the group. Chi-square test was also done to portray the presence of association between different co-variants with client's knowledge and preventive practices. RESULTS: Findings of the study showed that more than half (56.8%) of the participants had good knowledge about its symptoms, way of spread and prevention of the virus. Furthermore, 65.4% of clients demonstrated five or more preventive practice measures of COVID-19. The mean preventive practice score with standard deviation was (4.75±1.28 from 6 components). In the current study, knowledge had no significant difference among sex, education status, and monthly income. However, COVID-19 transmission knowledge was significantly higher among urban residents. Thus, clients who were knowledgeable about way of transmission and symptoms of COVID-19 had significantly higher COVID-19 preventive practice. CONCLUSION: Our findings revealed that clients' knowledge and preventive practice of COVID-19 were not optimal. Clients with good knowledge and urban residents had practiced better prevention measures of the pandemic, signifying that packages and programs directed in enhancing knowledge about the virus is useful in combating the pandemic and continuing safe practices.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Health Facility Administration , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Pandemics/prevention & control , Adolescent , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Demography , Ethiopia , Female , Health Facilities/standards , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Surveys and Questionnaires , Urban Population/statistics & numerical data
8.
Surg Infect (Larchmt) ; 22(8): 818-827, 2021 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1104786

ABSTRACT

Background: As the coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) pandemic continues globally, high numbers of new infections are developing nationwide, particularly in the U.S. Midwest and along both the Atlantic and Pacific coasts. The need to accommodate growing numbers of hospitalized patients has led facilities in affected areas to suspend anew or curtail normal hospital activities, including elective surgery, even as earlier-affected areas normalized surgical services. Backlogged surgical cases now number in the tens of millions globally. Facilities will be hard-pressed to address these backlogs, even absent the recrudescence of COVID-19. This document provides guidance for the safe and effective resumption of surgical services as circumstances permit. Methods: Review and synthesis of pertinent international peer-reviewed literature, with integration of expert opinion. Results: The "second-wave" of serious infections is placing the healthcare system under renewed stress. Surgical teams likely will encounter persons harboring the virus, whether symptomatic or not. Continued vigilance and protection of patients and staff remain paramount. Reviewed are the impact of COVID-19 on the surgical workforce, considerations for operating on a COVID-19 patient and the outcomes of such operations, the size and nature of the surgical backlog, and the logistics of resumption, including organizational considerations, patient and staff safety, preparation of the surgical candidate, and the role of enhanced recovery programs to reduce morbidity, length of stay, and cost by rational, equitable resource utilization. Conclusions: Resumption of surgical services requires institutional commitment (including teams of surgeons, anesthesiologists, nurses, pharmacists, therapists, dieticians, and administrators). Structured protocols and equitable implementation programs, and iterative audit, planning, and integration will improve outcomes, enhance safety, preserve resources, and reduce cost, all of which will contribute to safe and successful reduction of the surgical backlog.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Delivery of Health Care/standards , Elective Surgical Procedures/standards , Guidelines as Topic , Infection Control/standards , Pandemics/prevention & control , Perioperative Care/standards , COVID-19/epidemiology , Health Facilities/standards , Humans , Infection Control/methods , Perioperative Care/methods , SARS-CoV-2 , Societies, Medical
9.
Pan Afr Med J ; 37(Suppl 1): 35, 2020.
Article in French | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1033073

ABSTRACT

Niger has been facing the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic since 19th March 2020. In this article we report an assessment of infection prevention and control (IPC) practices at healthcare facilities in the city of Niamey in Niger and propose solutions. This assessment focused on the 12 themes contained in the World Health Organization IPC assessment framework for healthcare facilities. The assessment was conducted in 83 public and private healthcare facilities, which represent 60% of healthcare facilities in the city of Niamey. At the level of tertiary healthcare facilities, the overall IPC score was 75% which represents a moderate level of compliance with recommended IPC practices. At the level of private healthcare facilities, the overall score was 53%; also, a moderate level of performance. Finally, the overall IPC score was 45% at primary public healthcare facilities; which shows a very low level of adherence to IPC recommendations. IPC practices in public and private healthcare facilities in Niamey remain a challenge for healthcare authorities. Developing a tailored restorative plan would be helpful in meeting this challenge.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Health Facilities/standards , Infection Control/standards , Humans , Niger , Urban Health
10.
Ann Thorac Surg ; 110(4): e333-e334, 2020 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1023473

ABSTRACT

The outbreak of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) pandemic pointed out that the need to ensure emergent surgery in patients positive for infection is no longer hypothetical. Among emergency procedures, thoracic surgical operations are frequent. A standardized surgical pathway is mandatory to achieve effective and safe management of this subset of patients. We briefly present the protocol adopted by our thoracic surgery division.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Disease Transmission, Infectious/prevention & control , Guidelines as Topic , Health Facilities/standards , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Thoracic Surgical Procedures/standards , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , SARS-CoV-2
11.
Pan Afr Med J ; 37(Suppl 1): 18, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-994232

ABSTRACT

Introduction: the increased demands of health facilities and workers due to coronavirus overwhelm the already burdened Tanzanian health systems. This study evaluates the current capacity of facilities and providers for HIV care and treatment services and their preparedness to adhere to the national and global precaution guidelines for HIV service providers and patients. Methods: data for this study come from the latest available, Tanzania Service Provision Assessment survey 2014-15. Frequencies and percentages described the readiness and availability of HIV services and providers. Chi-square test compared the distribution of services by facility location and availability and readiness of precaution commodities and HIV services by managing authorities. Results: availability of latex gloves was high (83% at OPD and 95.3% laboratory). Availability of medical masks, alcohol-based hand rub and disinfectants was low. Availability of medical mask at outpatient department (OPD) was 28.7% urban (23.5% public; 33.8% private, p=0.02) and 13.5% rural (10.1% public; 25.4% private, p=0.001) and lower at laboratories. Fewer facilities in rural area (68.4%) had running water in OPD than urban (86.3%). Higher proportions of providers at public than private facilities in urban (82.8% versus 73.1%) and rural (88.2% versus 81.6%) areas provided HIV test counseling and at least two other HIV services. Conclusion: availability of commodities such as medical masks, alcohol-based hand rub, and disinfectant was low while the readiness of providers to multitask HIV related services was high. Urgent distribution and re-assessment of these supplies are necessary, to protect HIV patients, their caregivers, and health providers from COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Delivery of Health Care/statistics & numerical data , HIV Infections/therapy , Health Facilities/statistics & numerical data , Delivery of Health Care/standards , Disinfectants/supply & distribution , Guideline Adherence/statistics & numerical data , Hand Sanitizers/supply & distribution , Health Care Surveys , Health Facilities/standards , Humans , Masks/supply & distribution , Private Facilities/standards , Private Facilities/statistics & numerical data , Public Facilities/standards , Public Facilities/statistics & numerical data , Rural Health Services/standards , Rural Health Services/statistics & numerical data , Tanzania , Urban Health Services/standards , Urban Health Services/statistics & numerical data
12.
J Hosp Infect ; 106(4): 698-708, 2020 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-813690

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has significantly impacted the health of millions of people around the world. The shortage of personal protective equipment, including N95 respirators, in hospital facilities has put frontline healthcare professionals at high risk for contracting this virus. AIM: To develop a reproducible and safe N95 respirator reprocessing method that satisfies all presented regulatory standards and that can be directly implemented by hospitals using existing available equipment. METHODS: A non-toxic gravity steam reprocessing method has been developed for the reuse of N95 respirators consisting of 30 min of steam treatment at 121°C followed by 30 min of heat drying. Samples of model number 1860, 1860s, 1870+, and 9105 N95 respirators were either collected from hospitals (for microbiology testing) or purchased new (for functionality testing), with all functionality tests (i.e. filter efficiency, fit evaluation, and strap integrity) performed at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention using standard procedures established by the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health. FINDINGS: All tested models passed the minimum filter efficiency of 95% after three cycles of gravity steam reprocessing. The 1870+ N95 respirator model is the most promising model for reprocessing based on its efficient bacterial inactivation coupled with the maintenance of all other key functional respirator properties after multiple reprocessing steps. CONCLUSIONS: The gravity steam method can effectively reprocess N95 respirators over at least three reprocessing cycles without negatively impacting the functionality requirements set out by regulators. Enabling the reuse of N95 respirators is a crucial tool for managing both the current pandemic and future healthcare crises.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/transmission , Equipment Reuse/standards , N95 Respirators/supply & distribution , Steam/adverse effects , Sterilization/instrumentation , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, U.S./organization & administration , Decontamination/methods , Disease Transmission, Infectious/prevention & control , Health Facilities/standards , Health Facilities/statistics & numerical data , Humans , N95 Respirators/standards , National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, U.S./organization & administration , Personal Protective Equipment/supply & distribution , Respiratory Protective Devices/standards , Respiratory Protective Devices/virology , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , United States
13.
Am J Trop Med Hyg ; 103(5): 1762-1764, 2020 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-809306

ABSTRACT

The highly infectious nature of the SARS-CoV-2 virus requires rigorous infection prevention and control (IPC) to reduce the transmission of COVID-19 within healthcare facilities, but in low-resource settings, the lack of water access creates a perfect storm for low-handwashing adherence, ineffective surface decontamination, and other environmental cleaning functions that are critical for IPC compliance. Data from the WHO/UNICEF Joint Monitoring Programme show that one in four healthcare facilities globally lacks a functional water source on premises (i.e., basic water service); in sub-Saharan Africa, half of all healthcare facilities have no basic water services. But even these data do not tell the whole story, other water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH) assessments in low-resource healthcare facilities have shown the detrimental effects of seasonal or temporary water shortages, nonfunctional water infrastructure, and fluctuating water quality. The rapid spread of COVID-19 forces us to reexamine prevailing norms within national health systems around the importance of WASH for quality of health care, the prioritization of WASH in healthcare facility investments, and the need for focused, cross-sector leadership and collaboration between WASH and health professionals. What COVID-19 reveals about infection prevention in low-resource healthcare facilities is that we can no longer afford to "work around" WASH deficiencies. Basic WASH services are a fundamental prerequisite to compliance with the principles of IPC that are necessary to protect patients and healthcare workers in every setting.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Health Facilities , Infection Control/standards , Africa , Hand Disinfection/standards , Health Facilities/economics , Health Facilities/standards , Humans , Infection Control/economics , Sanitation/standards , Water Supply/standards
15.
Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol ; 41(12): 1438-1440, 2020 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-693323

ABSTRACT

Because severe acute respiratory coronavirus virus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) spreads easily and healthcare workers are at increased risk of both acquiring and transmitting infection, all healthcare facilities must rapidly and rigorously implement the full hierarchy of established infection controls: source control (removal or mitigation of infection sources), engineering and environmental controls, administrative controls, and personal protective equipment.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Health Personnel , Infection Control , Infectious Disease Transmission, Patient-to-Professional/prevention & control , Personal Protective Equipment/supply & distribution , Risk Management/organization & administration , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/transmission , Health Facilities/standards , Health Facilities/trends , Health Facility Administration , Humans , Infection Control/methods , Infection Control/organization & administration , Occupational Health/standards , Occupational Health/trends , SARS-CoV-2
16.
J Appl Clin Med Phys ; 21(7): 187-195, 2020 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-324503

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The COVID-19 pandemic has led to disorder in work and livelihood of a majority of the modern world. In this work, we review its major impacts on procedures and workflow of clinical physics tasks, and suggest alternate pathways to avoid major disruption or discontinuity of physics tasks in the context of small, medium, and large radiation oncology clinics. We also evaluate scalability of medical physics under the stress of "social distancing". METHODS: Three models of facilities characterized by the number of clinical physicists, daily patient throughput, and equipment were identified for this purpose. For identical objectives of continuity of clinical operations, with constraints such as social distancing and unavailability of staff due to system strain, however with the possibility of remote operations, the performance of these models was investigated. General clinical tasks requiring on-site personnel presence or otherwise were evaluated to determine the scalability of the three models at this point in the course of disease spread within their surroundings. RESULTS: The clinical physics tasks within three models could be divided into two categories. The former, which requires individual presence, include safety-sensitive radiation delivery, high dose per fraction treatments, brachytherapy procedures, fulfilling state and nuclear regulatory commission's requirements, etc. The latter, which can be handled through remote means, include dose planning, physics plan review and supervision of quality assurance, general troubleshooting, etc. CONCLUSION: At the current level of disease in the United States, all three models have sustained major system stress in continuing reduced operation. However, the small clinic model may not perform if either the current level of infections is maintained for long or staff becomes unavailable due to health issues. With abundance, and diversity of innovative resources, medium and large clinic models can sustain further for physics-related radiotherapy services.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Health Physics , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Radiation Oncology , COVID-19 , Health Facilities/standards , Health Personnel , Health Physics/organization & administration , Health Physics/standards , Humans , Practice Guidelines as Topic/standards , Quality Assurance, Health Care , Radiation Oncology/organization & administration , Radiation Oncology/standards , SARS-CoV-2 , United States/epidemiology
17.
Surg Infect (Larchmt) ; 21(4): 301-308, 2020 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-88662

ABSTRACT

Background: Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2)-associated viral infection (coronavirus disease 2019, COVID-19) is a virulent, contagious viral pandemic that is affecting populations worldwide. As with any airborne viral respiratory infection, surgical and non-surgical patients may be affected. Methods: Review and synthesis of pertinent English-language literature pertaining to COVID-19 infection among adult patients. Results: COVID-19 disease that requires hospitalization results in critical illness approximately 25% of the time and requires mechanical ventilation with positive airway pressure. Acute kidney injury, a marked hypercoagulable state, and sometimes myocarditis can be features of COVID-19 in addition to the characteristic severe acute lung injury. Even if not among the most seriously afflicted, older patients with medical comorbidities are both predisposed to infection and risk increased morbidity and mortality, however, all persons presenting for surgical intervention should be suspected of infection (and thus transmissibility) even if asymptomatic. Although most elective surgery has been curtailed by administrative or governmental fiat, patients will still need urgent or emergency operative intervention for time-sensitive disease processes such as malignant neoplasia or for true emergencies such as perforated viscus or traumatic injury. It is possible to provide safe surgical care for SARS-CoV-2-positive patients and minimize nosocomial transmission to healthcare workers. Conclusions: This guidance will facilitate appropriate protection of patients and staff, and maintenance of infection control measures to assist surgical personnel and facilities to prepare for COVID-19-infected adult patients requiring urgent or emergent operative intervention and to provide optimal patient care.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Elective Surgical Procedures/standards , Infection Control/standards , Infectious Disease Transmission, Patient-to-Professional/prevention & control , Pandemics/prevention & control , Perioperative Care/standards , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , Adult , Aerosols/adverse effects , Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Cross Infection/etiology , Cross Infection/prevention & control , Cross Infection/virology , Elective Surgical Procedures/adverse effects , Elective Surgical Procedures/methods , Health Facilities/standards , Humans , Infection Control/methods , Intraoperative Care/methods , Intraoperative Care/standards , Intubation, Intratracheal/adverse effects , Patient Safety/standards , Perioperative Care/methods , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , SARS-CoV-2
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