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2.
Int J Public Health ; 66: 1604210, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1394850

ABSTRACT

Objectives: In the COVID-19 pandemic, critical health literacy (CHL-P) has been proposed as a means of addressing issues of complexity, uncertainty, and urgency. Our study aimed to identify CHL-P clusters among university students in Germany and to analyze associations with potential determinants. Methods: In May 2020, students at four German universities participated in the COVID-19 International Student Well-Being Study, an online survey that yielded a non-probabilistic sample of N = 5,021. CHL-P, COVID-19-related knowledge, worries, risk perception, and adherence to protective measures were measured in an online questionnaire with self-constructed items. We conducted a cluster analysis of the five CHL-P items and performed logistic regression analyses. Results: Two CHL-P clusters were identified: high vs. moderate CHL-P. Belonging to the high-CHL-P cluster (31.2% of students) was significantly associated with older age, female/other gender, advanced education, higher levels of parental education, and moderate importance placed on education. In addition, higher levels of knowledge, risk perception and worries, and adherence to protective measures were associated with high CHL-P cluster membership. Conclusion: Students would benefit from educational measures that promote CHL-P at German universities.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Health Literacy , Pandemics , Students , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cluster Analysis , Female , Germany/epidemiology , Health Literacy/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Male , Students/statistics & numerical data , Surveys and Questionnaires , Universities , Young Adult
3.
J Alzheimers Dis ; 83(1): 43-49, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1381382

ABSTRACT

We aimed to explore the awareness and preparedness of dementia caregivers and people with mild cognitive deficits on how to prevent COVID-19 infection and cope with the indirect consequences of the pandemic. A total of 139 patient-caregiver dyads received a telephone survey and 109 completed the survey. The majority of respondents reported having a moderate-to-good knowledge of the typical manifestations of COVID-19. Conversely, only few of them were informed of the atypical presentations and on how to recognize emergency warning signs. Filling the knowledge gaps on COVID-19 in the most vulnerable people may represent a significant resource to tackle the pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Caregivers , Dementia/epidemiology , Disease Transmission, Infectious/prevention & control , Health Literacy , Aged , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Caregivers/education , Caregivers/psychology , Female , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Health Literacy/methods , Health Literacy/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Infection Control/methods , Italy/epidemiology , Male , SARS-CoV-2 , Surveys and Questionnaires , Symptom Assessment/methods
4.
J Med Internet Res ; 23(6): e24947, 2021 06 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1262582

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Telehealth is an increasingly important component of health care delivery in response to the COVID-19 pandemic. However, well-documented disparities persist in the use of digital technologies. OBJECTIVE: This study aims to describe smartphone and internet use within a diverse sample, to assess the association of smartphone and internet use with markers of health literacy and health access, and to identify the mediating factors in these relationships. METHODS: Surveys were distributed to a targeted sample designed to oversample historically underserved communities from April 2017 to December 2017. Multivariate logistic regression was used to estimate the association of internet and smartphone use with outcomes describing health care access and markers of health literacy for the total cohort and after stratifying by personal history of cancer. Health care access was captured using multiple variables, including the ability to obtain medical care when needed. Markers of health literacy included self-reported confidence in obtaining health information. RESULTS: Of the 2149 participants, 1319 (61.38%) were women, 655 (30.48%) were non-Hispanic White, and 666 (30.99%) were non-Hispanic Black. The median age was 51 years (IQR 38-65). Most respondents reported using the internet (1921/2149, 89.39%) and owning a smartphone (1800/2149, 83.76%). Compared with the respondents with smartphone or internet access, those without smartphone or internet access were more likely to report that a doctor was their most recent source of health information (344/1800, 19.11% vs 116/349, 33.2% for smartphone and 380/1921, 19.78% vs 80/228, 35.1% for internet, respectively; both P<.001). Internet use was associated with having looked for information on health topics from any source (odds ratio [OR] 3.81, 95% CI 2.53-5.75) and confidence in obtaining health information when needed (OR 1.83, 95% CI 1.00-3.34) compared with noninternet users. Smartphone owners had lower odds of being unable to obtain needed medical care (OR 0.62, 95% CI 0.40-0.95) than nonsmartphone owners. Among participants with a prior history of cancer, smartphone ownership was significantly associated with higher odds of confidence in ability to obtain needed health information (OR 5.63, 95% CI 1.05-30.23) and lower odds of inability to obtain needed medical care (OR 0.17, 95% CI 0.06-0.47), although these associations were not significant among participants without a prior history of cancer. CONCLUSIONS: We describe widespread use of digital technologies in a community-based cohort, although disparities persist. In this cohort, smartphone ownership was significantly associated with ability to obtain needed medical care, suggesting that the use of smartphone technology may play a role in increasing health care access. Similarly, major illnesses such as cancer have the potential to amplify health engagement. Finally, special emphasis must be placed on reaching patient populations with limited digital access, so these patients are not further disadvantaged in the new age of telehealth.


Subject(s)
Health Literacy/statistics & numerical data , Health Services Accessibility , Internet Use/statistics & numerical data , Neoplasms/prevention & control , Ownership , Smartphone/statistics & numerical data , Surveys and Questionnaires , Telemedicine/statistics & numerical data , Adult , Aged , Cohort Studies , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Internet , Male , Middle Aged , Self Report , Smartphone/supply & distribution , Vulnerable Populations
6.
J Med Internet Res ; 23(5): e25600, 2021 05 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1256246

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: During the COVID-19 pandemic, the internet has significantly spread information, providing people with knowledge and advice about health protection regarding COVID-19. While a previous study demonstrated that health and eHealth literacy are related to COVID-19 prevention behaviors, few studies have focused on the relationship between health literacy, eHealth literacy, and COVID-19-related health behaviors. The latter includes not only preventative behaviors but also conventional health behaviors. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to develop and verify a COVID-19-related health behavior questionnaire, explore its status and structure, and examine the associations between these behaviors and participants' health literacy and eHealth literacy. METHODS: A snowball sampling method was adopted to recruit participants to complete anonymous cross-sectional questionnaire surveys online that assessed sociodemographic information, self-reported coronavirus knowledge, health literacy, eHealth literacy, and COVID-19-related health behaviors. RESULTS: Of 1873 college students who were recruited, 781 (41.7%) had adequate health literacy; the mean eHealth literacy score was 30.16 (SD 6.31). The COVID-19-related health behavior questionnaire presented a two-factor structure-COVID-19-specific precautionary behaviors and conventional health behaviors-with satisfactory fit indices and internal consistency (Cronbach α=.79). The mean score of COVID-19-related health behaviors was 53.77 (SD 8.03), and scores differed significantly (P<.05) with respect to residence, college year, academic major, family economic level, self-reported health status, having a family member or friend infected with coronavirus, and health literacy level. Linear regression analysis showed that health literacy and eHealth literacy were positively associated with COVID-19-specific precautionary behaviors (ßhealth literacy=.149, ßeHealth literacy=.368; P<.001) and conventional health behaviors (ßhealth literacy=.219, ßeHealth literacy=.277; P<.001). CONCLUSIONS: The COVID-19-related health behavior questionnaire was a valid and reliable measure for assessing health behaviors during the pandemic. College students with higher health literacy and eHealth literacy can more actively adopt COVID-19-related health behaviors. Additionally, compared to health literacy, eHealth literacy is more closely related to COVID-19-related health behaviors. Public intervention measures based on health and eHealth literacy are required to promote COVID-19-related health behaviors during the pandemic, which may be helpful to reduce the risk of COVID-19 infection among college students.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Health Behavior , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Health Literacy/statistics & numerical data , Telemedicine/methods , Adolescent , Adult , COVID-19/prevention & control , China/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Internet , Male , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Social Factors , Students , Surveys and Questionnaires , Universities , Young Adult
7.
J Clin Pharm Ther ; 46(6): 1498-1500, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1247224

ABSTRACT

WHAT IS KNOWN AND OBJECTIVE: Preparation of patient-facing materials of a complex topic, such as describing new vaccines for COVID-19, is difficult to accomplish. This study examined the readability of patient information leaflets accompanying approved COVID-19 vaccines. COMMENT: Readability of patient-facing literature by the medicines regulator in the United States and the United Kingdom describing the recently US (FDA) and UK (MHRA) COVID-19 approved vaccines (Pfizer/BioNTech, AstraZeneca, Moderna) was assessed employing 10 metrics. Analyses showed that showed that this material had a Flesch Ease of Reading score of 53.5 and 54, respectively and a Flesch-Kincaid reading age of between 7th and 8th Grade (12-13 year olds) and between 8th and 9th Grade (13-14 year olds), respectively. When compared to a recent study on COVID-19 information on healthcare websites, the vaccine literature readability was favourable. WHAT IS NEW & CONCLUSION: Adoption of readability calculators and scrutiny of materials of their readability will help authors develop materials with improved understanding for COVID-19 vaccine recipients, carers and family, potentially leading to improved health literacy and vaccine uptake.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , COVID-19/prevention & control , Health Literacy/methods , Health Literacy/statistics & numerical data , Pamphlets , Patient Acceptance of Health Care/statistics & numerical data , Comprehension , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
8.
Diabetes Metab Syndr ; 15(3): 1017-1022, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1230439

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND AIM: Understanding people's attitudes towards Covid-19 vaccination is crucial to the successful implementation of a vaccination program. Hence this research study seeks to identify critical factors influencing Indian people's attitudes and intentions to take up Covid-19 vaccinations. METHODS: An online questionnaire was administered to a sample (n = 254) drawn from Indian population, to assess the impact of perceived benefits, risk perceptions, social media exposure, social norms, and trust associated with Covid-19 vaccines on people's attitudes towards Covid-19 vaccines and their intentions to take up the Covid-19 vaccinations. RESULTS: The findings showed that the perceived benefits, social norms, and trust correlated significantly with people's attitudes towards Covid-19 vaccinations. In contrast, risk perceptions and social media exposure showed an insignificant influence on people's attitudes towards Covid-19 vaccinations. Social norms, trust, and people's attitudes towards the Covid-19 vaccinations are significantly correlated with their intentions to take up Covid-19 vaccinations. On the contrary, social media exposure was found to have an insignificant influence on people's intentions to take up Covid-19 vaccinations. CONCLUSION: Participants' intentions to take up Covid-19 vaccinations was influenced mainly by their attitudes and perceptions of Covid-19 vaccines in general, which strongly confirms the importance of various dimensions (perceived benefits, trust, social norms) of Covid-19 vaccines in cultivating Covid-19 vaccination acceptance among participants'.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/therapeutic use , COVID-19/prevention & control , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Intention , Vaccination/psychology , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Attitude to Health , COVID-19/psychology , Female , Health Literacy/statistics & numerical data , Humans , India/epidemiology , Internet , Latent Class Analysis , Male , Middle Aged , Models, Theoretical , Patient Acceptance of Health Care/psychology , Patient Acceptance of Health Care/statistics & numerical data , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Surveys and Questionnaires , Vaccination/statistics & numerical data , Young Adult
9.
Harm Reduct J ; 18(1): 52, 2021 05 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1223771

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: People who inject drugs may be particularly vulnerable to the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) due to underlying health problems, stigma and social vulnerabilities. Harm reduction services, including needle exchange programs (NEP), have been subjected to varying degrees of disruption in the world, especially in the beginning of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. Compared to responses in other countries, Sweden's initial strategy toward limiting the spread and impact of COVID-19 was less restrictive to its citizens with no imposed general societal lockdown. In this study, we investigate changes in drug use patterns, utilization of NEP associated health services, COVID-19 health literacy and the prevalence of SARS-CoV-2 antibodies among NEP clients in Stockholm during the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: NEP visits and services provided (needles/syringes, HIV and hepatitis C tests and treatment, naloxone distributed) and overall mortality among NEP clients between January 1 and October 31, 2020, were used for trend analyses in comparison with corresponding 2019 data. Between July 27 and October 2, 2020, NEP clients (n = 232) responded to a 27 item COVID-19 Health Literacy Questionnaire. SARS CoV-2 IgG antibody tests (n = 779) were performed between June 15 and October 31, 2020. RESULTS: During the COVID-19 pandemic number of clients, client visits, naloxone distribution and HCV tests remained stable compared to 2019, while distribution of needles/syringes increased (p < 0.0001); number of HIV tests and HCV treatments decreased (p < 0.05); and mortality decreased (< 0.01). Overall, the level of health literacy concerning transmission routes and protective measures was high. SARS-CoV-2 antibody prevalence was 5.4% (95% CI 4.0-7.2). CONCLUSIONS: The Stockholm NEP managed to maintain a high level of clients and services during the pandemic. In general, COVID-19 health literacy was adequate and the overall SARS-CoV-2 antibody prevalence was low compared to the general population, which highlights a need for prioritized and targeted COVID-19 vaccination among PWID.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Harm Reduction , Health Literacy/statistics & numerical data , Needle-Exchange Programs/statistics & numerical data , Substance Abuse, Intravenous/epidemiology , Adult , COVID-19/diagnosis , Comorbidity , Female , Humans , Male , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Sweden/epidemiology
10.
Diabetes Metab Syndr ; 15(3): 987-992, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1213148

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The success of the COVID-19 vaccination program is dependent on people's knowledge and attitude regarding the vaccination program. Higher vaccine acceptance can be ensured by strengthening the facilitators and limiting the barriers being observed among the general population. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Indexed study is a cross-sectional web-based survey using a pre-validated questionnaire to assess knowledge, barriers and facilitators of COVID-19 vaccine and vaccination programme administered on adults across India using a Google online survey platform. RESULTS: A total of 1294 responses (age: 38.02 ± 13.34 years) were collected. Most of the participants had limited knowledge regarding the eligibility of vaccines in vulnerable population groups such as people with allergies (57.89%) and immune-compromised patients (62.98%), pregnant and lactating women (41.89%) and patients with chronic illness (34.78%). Older participants (>45 years) were more willing to take the COVID-19 vaccine (p < 0.001) as they believed the vaccine is not harmful and considered it as societal responsibility. Younger participants (<45 years) and those residing in urban settings raised concerns on the availability of the vaccine and authenticity of the vaccine (p < 0.001). CONCLUSION: There is a scope for improvement in people's knowledge regarding COVID-19 vaccine and the vaccination programme by addressing the barriers and facilitators which can improve the participants' turnover at vaccination centres.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/therapeutic use , COVID-19/prevention & control , Communication Barriers , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Health Literacy , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/psychology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Health Literacy/organization & administration , Health Literacy/statistics & numerical data , Humans , India/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Patient Acceptance of Health Care/psychology , Patient Acceptance of Health Care/statistics & numerical data , Pregnancy , Preventive Health Services/organization & administration , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Surveys and Questionnaires , Vaccination/psychology , Vaccination/statistics & numerical data , Young Adult
11.
Diabetes Metab Syndr ; 15(3): 919-925, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1193288

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: There seems to be hesitation in the general population in accepting COVID 19 vaccine because of associated myths and/or misinformation. This study is dedicated to develop and validate a tool to interpret vaccine acceptance and/or hesitancy by assessing the knowledge, attitude, practices, and concerns regarding the COVID vaccine. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Mixed methods study design was used. In phase 1, the questionnaire was developed through literature review, focus group discussion, expert evaluation, and pre-testing. In phase 2, the validity of the questionnaire was obtained by conducting a cross-sectional survey on 201 participants. The construct validity was established via principal component analysis. Cronbach's alpha value was used to assess the reliability of the questionnaire. RESULTS: The 39-item questionnaire to assess the knowledge, attitude, practices, and concerns regarding the COVID-19 vaccine was developed. The Cronbach's alpha value of the questionnaire was 0.86 suggesting a good internal consistency. CONCLUSION: The developed tool is valid to assess the knowledge, attitude, practices and concerns regarding the COVID-19 vaccine acceptance and/or hesitancy. It has the potential utility for healthcare workers and government authorities to further build vaccine literacy.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/therapeutic use , COVID-19/prevention & control , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Surveys and Questionnaires , Vaccination , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/psychology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Health Literacy/organization & administration , Health Literacy/standards , Health Literacy/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Pandemics , Patient Acceptance of Health Care/psychology , Patient Acceptance of Health Care/statistics & numerical data , Perception , Psychometrics/methods , Reproducibility of Results , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Surveys and Questionnaires/standards , Vaccination/psychology , Vaccination/statistics & numerical data
12.
J Med Internet Res ; 23(5): e25600, 2021 05 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1171268

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: During the COVID-19 pandemic, the internet has significantly spread information, providing people with knowledge and advice about health protection regarding COVID-19. While a previous study demonstrated that health and eHealth literacy are related to COVID-19 prevention behaviors, few studies have focused on the relationship between health literacy, eHealth literacy, and COVID-19-related health behaviors. The latter includes not only preventative behaviors but also conventional health behaviors. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to develop and verify a COVID-19-related health behavior questionnaire, explore its status and structure, and examine the associations between these behaviors and participants' health literacy and eHealth literacy. METHODS: A snowball sampling method was adopted to recruit participants to complete anonymous cross-sectional questionnaire surveys online that assessed sociodemographic information, self-reported coronavirus knowledge, health literacy, eHealth literacy, and COVID-19-related health behaviors. RESULTS: Of 1873 college students who were recruited, 781 (41.7%) had adequate health literacy; the mean eHealth literacy score was 30.16 (SD 6.31). The COVID-19-related health behavior questionnaire presented a two-factor structure-COVID-19-specific precautionary behaviors and conventional health behaviors-with satisfactory fit indices and internal consistency (Cronbach α=.79). The mean score of COVID-19-related health behaviors was 53.77 (SD 8.03), and scores differed significantly (P<.05) with respect to residence, college year, academic major, family economic level, self-reported health status, having a family member or friend infected with coronavirus, and health literacy level. Linear regression analysis showed that health literacy and eHealth literacy were positively associated with COVID-19-specific precautionary behaviors (ßhealth literacy=.149, ßeHealth literacy=.368; P<.001) and conventional health behaviors (ßhealth literacy=.219, ßeHealth literacy=.277; P<.001). CONCLUSIONS: The COVID-19-related health behavior questionnaire was a valid and reliable measure for assessing health behaviors during the pandemic. College students with higher health literacy and eHealth literacy can more actively adopt COVID-19-related health behaviors. Additionally, compared to health literacy, eHealth literacy is more closely related to COVID-19-related health behaviors. Public intervention measures based on health and eHealth literacy are required to promote COVID-19-related health behaviors during the pandemic, which may be helpful to reduce the risk of COVID-19 infection among college students.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Health Behavior , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Health Literacy/statistics & numerical data , Telemedicine/methods , Adolescent , Adult , COVID-19/prevention & control , China/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Internet , Male , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Social Factors , Students , Surveys and Questionnaires , Universities , Young Adult
13.
Ann Med ; 53(1): 581-586, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1171161

ABSTRACT

Although coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a pandemic, it has several specificities influencing its outcomes due to the entwinement of several factors, which anthropologists have called "syndemics". Drawing upon Singer and Clair's syndemics model, I focus on synergistic interaction among chronic kidney disease (CKD), diabetes, and COVID-19 in Pakistan. I argue that over 36 million people in Pakistan are standing at a higher risk of contracting COVID-19, developing severe complications, and losing their lives. These two diseases, but several other socio-cultural, economic, and political factors contributing to structured vulnerabilities, would function as confounders. To deal with the critical effects of these syndemics the government needs appropriate policies and their implementation during the pandemic and post-pandemic. To eliminate or at least minimize various vulnerabilities, Pakistan needs drastic changes, especially to overcome (formal) illiteracy, unemployment, poverty, gender difference, and rural and urban difference.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiology , Pandemics/prevention & control , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/epidemiology , Syndemic , COVID-19/prevention & control , Climate Change/economics , Climate Change/statistics & numerical data , Confounding Factors, Epidemiologic , Developing Countries/economics , Developing Countries/statistics & numerical data , Diabetes Mellitus/economics , Diabetes Mellitus/prevention & control , Food Supply/economics , Food Supply/statistics & numerical data , Health Literacy/economics , Health Literacy/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Pakistan/epidemiology , Pandemics/economics , Politics , Poverty/economics , Poverty/statistics & numerical data , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/economics , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/prevention & control , Unemployment/statistics & numerical data
15.
BMJ Health Care Inform ; 28(1)2021 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1123602

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Identifying those individuals requiring medical care is a basic tenet of the pandemic response. Here, we examine the COVID-19 community triage pathways employed by four nations, specifically comparing the safety and efficacy of national online 'symptom checkers' used within the triage pathway. METHODS: A simulation study was conducted on current, nationwide, patient-led symptom checkers from four countries (Singapore, Japan, USA and UK). 52 cases were simulated to approximate typical COVID-19 presentations (mild, moderate, severe and critical) and COVID-19 mimickers (eg, sepsis and bacterial pneumonia). The same simulations were applied to each of the four country's symptom checkers, and the recommendations to refer on for medical care or to stay home were recorded and compared. RESULTS: The symptom checkers from Singapore and Japan advised onward healthcare contact for the majority of simulations (88% and 77%, respectively). The USA and UK symptom checkers triaged 38% and 44% of cases to healthcare contact, respectively. Both the US and UK symptom checkers consistently failed to identify severe COVID-19, bacterial pneumonia and sepsis, triaging such cases to stay home. CONCLUSION: Our results suggest that whilst 'symptom checkers' may be of use to the healthcare COVID-19 response, there is the potential for such patient-led assessment tools to worsen outcomes by delaying appropriate clinical assessment. The key features of the well-performing symptom checkers are discussed.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , Public Health Informatics/organization & administration , Symptom Assessment/methods , Triage/organization & administration , Diagnostic Self Evaluation , Health Literacy/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Japan , Singapore
16.
Inform Health Soc Care ; 46(3): 244-255, 2021 Sep 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1099519

ABSTRACT

To survey the health-seeking behaviors and perspectives of the Egyptian population toward the COVID-19 pandemic. A descriptive survey was designed and disseminated via social media platforms. The survey consisted of 32 questions addressing respondent's demographics, knowledge, practice, and attitude toward the COVID-19 pandemic. A total of 25,994 Egyptians participated in the survey from the 29 Egyptian governorates. More than 99% of the respondents were aware of the COVID-19 pandemic. Responses showed split opinions regarding whether people should wear gloves or masks to prevent COVID-19 infection (47.7% and 49.5% replied with "False", respectively). Almost one-quarter (23.1%) of the respondents went to crowded places during the last 14 days. Calling the emergency hotline and self-isolation at home were the most frequent practices to deal with COVID-19 symptoms (34.1% and 44.5%, respectively). A total of 85% of respondents reported their confidence in the Egyptian healthcare system to win the battle against COVID-19 despite the challenges. A vast majority of this large population sample reported reasonable knowledge levels and potentially appropriate practices toward COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Anxiety/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Health Literacy/statistics & numerical data , Information Seeking Behavior , Anxiety/psychology , COVID-19/psychology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Egypt , Health Behavior , Humans
17.
PLoS One ; 16(2): e0246405, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1076267

ABSTRACT

The aim of this study was to examine aspects of children's health literacy; the information sources they were accessing, their information preferences, their perceived understanding of and their reported information needs in relation to COVID-19. An online survey for children aged 7-12 years of age and parent/caregivers from the UK, Sweden, Brazil, Spain, Canada and Australia was conducted between 6th of April and the 1st of June 2020. The surveys included demographic questions and both closed and open questions focussing on access to and understanding of COVID-19 information. Descriptive statistics and qualitative content analysis procedures were conducted. The findings show that parents are the main source of information for children during the pandemic in most countries (89%, n = 347), except in Sweden where school was the main source of information. However, in many cases parents chose to shield, filter or adapt their child's access to information about COVID-19, especially in relation to the death rates within each country. Despite this, children in this study reported knowing that COVID-19 was deadly and spreads quickly. This paper argues for a community rather than individual approach to addressing children's health literacy needs during a pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/mortality , Health Literacy/statistics & numerical data , Australia/epidemiology , Brazil/epidemiology , COVID-19/psychology , COVID-19/transmission , Canada/epidemiology , Child , Child Health , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Male , Online Systems , Pandemics/statistics & numerical data , Spain/epidemiology , Surveys and Questionnaires , Sweden/epidemiology , United Kingdom/epidemiology
18.
Disaster Med Public Health Prep ; 14(3): 387-390, 2020 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1030339

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic is a disaster of unprecedented proportions with global repercussions. Psychological preparedness, the primed cognitive awareness and anticipation of dealing with emotional responses in an adverse situation, has assumed a compelling relevance during a health disaster of this magnitude. METHODS: An anonymized eSurvey was conducted in India to assess psychological preparedness toward the ongoing pandemic with a focus on knowledge, management of own and others' emotional response, and anticipatory coping mechanisms among the survey population. An adapted version of the qualitative Psychological Preparedness for Natural Disaster Scale validated by the World Health Organization was widely circulated over the Internet and various social media platforms for assessment. Results are expressed as median ± standard deviation. Descriptive statistics were used and figures downloaded from surveymonkey.com. RESULTS: Of the 1120 respondents (M:F 1.7:1, age 35 years ±14.1), most expressed a high level of perceived knowledge and confidence of managing COVID-19, such as awareness of the symptoms of the illness (95.1%), actions needed (94.4%), hospital to report to (88.9%), and emergency contact number (89.1%). A majority (95%) monitored regularly the news bulletins and scientific journals regarding COVID-19. However, nearly one-third (29.2%) could not assess their likelihood of developing COVID-19, and 17.5% were unaware of the difference between a mild and severe infection. Twenty-three percent (23.3%) were unfamiliar with the materials needed in an acute illness situation. CONCLUSION: Psychological disaster preparedness is reasonable, although lacking in specific domains. Timely but focused interventions can be a cost-efficient administrative exercise, which federal agencies may prioritize working on.


Subject(s)
Adaptation, Psychological , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Health Literacy/standards , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Stress, Psychological/psychology , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/psychology , Female , Health Literacy/statistics & numerical data , Humans , India/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics/statistics & numerical data , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/psychology , Surveys and Questionnaires
19.
J Med Internet Res ; 22(10): e19684, 2020 10 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1024458

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Since its outbreak in January 2020, COVID-19 has quickly spread worldwide and has become a global pandemic. Social media platforms have been recognized as important tools for health-promoting practices in public health, and the use of social media is widespread among the public. However, little is known about the effects of social media use on health promotion during a pandemic such as COVID-19. OBJECTIVE: In this study, we aimed to explore the predictive role of social media use on public preventive behaviors in China during the COVID-19 pandemic and how disease knowledge and eHealth literacy moderated the relationship between social media use and preventive behaviors. METHODS: A national web-based cross-sectional survey was conducted by a proportionate probability sampling among 802 Chinese internet users ("netizens") in February 2020. Descriptive statistics, Pearson correlations, and hierarchical multiple regressions were employed to examine and explore the relationships among all the variables. RESULTS: Almost half the 802 study participants were male (416, 51.9%), and the average age of the participants was 32.65 years. Most of the 802 participants had high education levels (624, 77.7%), had high income >¥5000 (US $736.29) (525, 65.3%), were married (496, 61.8%), and were in good health (486, 60.6%). The average time of social media use was approximately 2 to 3 hours per day (mean 2.34 hours, SD 1.11), and the most frequently used media types were public social media (mean score 4.49/5, SD 0.78) and aggregated social media (mean score 4.07/5, SD 1.07). Social media use frequency (ß=.20, P<.001) rather than time significantly predicted preventive behaviors for COVID-19. Respondents were also equipped with high levels of disease knowledge (mean score 8.15/10, SD 1.43) and eHealth literacy (mean score 3.79/5, SD 0.59). Disease knowledge (ß=.11, P=.001) and eHealth literacy (ß=.27, P<.001) were also significant predictors of preventive behaviors. Furthermore, eHealth literacy (P=.038) and disease knowledge (P=.03) positively moderated the relationship between social media use frequency and preventive behaviors, while eHealth literacy (ß=.07) affected this relationship positively and disease knowledge (ß=-.07) affected it negatively. Different social media types differed in predicting an individual's preventive behaviors for COVID-19. Aggregated social media (ß=.22, P<.001) was the best predictor, followed by public social media (ß=.14, P<.001) and professional social media (ß=.11, P=.002). However, official social media (ß=.02, P=.597) was an insignificant predictor. CONCLUSIONS: Social media is an effective tool to promote behaviors to prevent COVID-19 among the public. Health literacy is essential for promotion of individual health and influences the extent to which the public engages in preventive behaviors during a pandemic. Our results not only enrich the theoretical paradigm of public health management and health communication but also have practical implications in pandemic control for China and other countries.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Health Behavior , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Health Literacy/statistics & numerical data , Health Surveys , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Social Media , Telemedicine/statistics & numerical data , Adult , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , China/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Health Communication , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Sampling Studies , Young Adult
20.
Public Health Res Pract ; 30(4)2020 Dec 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1016462

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To explore the variation in understanding of, attitudes towards, and uptake of, health advice on coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) during the 2020 pandemic stage 3 restrictions ('lockdown') by health literacy in the Australian population. STUDY DESIGN: National cross-sectional community survey. SETTING: Australian general public. PARTICIPANTS: Adults aged over 18 years (N = 4362). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Knowledge, attitudes and behaviours related to COVID-19; health literacy and sociodemographic factors. RESULTS: People with inadequate health literacy had poorer understanding of COVID-19 symptoms (49% vs 68%; p < 0.001), were less able to identify behaviours to prevent infection (59%% vs 72% p < 0.001), and experienced more difficulty finding information and understanding government messaging about COVID-19 than people with adequate health literacy. People with inadequate health literacy were less likely to rate social distancing as important (6.1 vs 6.5; p < 0.001) and reported more difficulty with remembering and accessing medicines since lockdown (3.6 vs 2.7; p < 0.001). People with lower health literacy were also more likely to endorse misinformed beliefs about COVID-19 and vaccinations (in general) than those with adequate health literacy. The same pattern of results was observed among people who primarily speak a language other than English at home. CONCLUSION: Our findings show that there are important disparities in COVID-19-related knowledge, attitudes and behaviours according to people's health literacy and language. These have the potential to undermine efforts to reduce viral transmission and may lead to social inequalities in health outcomes in Australia. People with the greatest burden of chronic disease are most disadvantaged, and are also most likely to experience severe disease and die from COVID-19. Addressing the health literacy, language and cultural needs of the community in public health messaging about COVID-19 must now be a priority in Australia.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Health Literacy/statistics & numerical data , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Australia/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/psychology , Chronic Disease/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Health Behavior , Healthcare Disparities/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Physical Distancing , SARS-CoV-2 , Surveys and Questionnaires , Vulnerable Populations/statistics & numerical data , Young Adult
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