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2.
PLoS One ; 16(12): e0261286, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1581754

ABSTRACT

The Government of Pakistan has established Adult Vaccination Counters (AVCs) to immunize general population with COVID-19 vaccine. Different brands of COVID-19 vaccines have different protocols. It is important that the knowledge and skills of the vaccination staff at AVCs should be accurate. To assess this, a cross-sectional study was conducted in all 15 AVCs at Khyber Pakhtunkhwa's provincial capital in May 2021, using the simulated client approach. Structured open-ended and simulated scenario-based questions were used to collect data from the vaccination staff of AVCs. This study showed that 53.3% of the AVCs had at most three out of four brands of COVID-19 vaccines. 60% of the AVCs did not have the mechanism to track client's vaccine first dose, date, and brand. Only 66.7% of the AVCs had a complete knowledge of all the available vaccines. 86.7% and 80% of the AVCs knew the correct duration and administration of the same brand of COVID-19 vaccine's second dose respectively. At the client's end, 6.7% were aware about the brand of administered COVID-19 vaccine. 46.7% were advised about the date of the second shot of vaccination. Only 13.3% of the clients were informed about the procedure of getting an official vaccination certificate. It was concluded that the knowledge and skill of the vaccination staff at AVCs is inadequate. Every vaccine has a different protocol in terms of number of doses and duration. AVCs must have a tracking system to inoculate the second dose with the same brand as the first dose. There is a need for rigorous monitoring and training of the COVID-19 vaccination staff on various protocols of vaccine to prevent losing public's trust.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , Clinical Competence/statistics & numerical data , Health Personnel/education , Adult , COVID-19/immunology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pakistan , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Vaccination , Vaccines/administration & dosage
3.
J Prim Health Care ; 13(4): 359-369, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1550421

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND CONTEXT Globally, the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has highlighted the need for better interprofessional collaboration and teamwork. When disciplines have worked together to undertake testing, deliver care and administer vaccines, progress against COVID-19 has been made. Yet, teamwork has often not happened, wasting precious resources and stretching health-care workforces. Continuing to train health professionals during the pandemic is challenging, particularly delivering interprofessional education that often uses face-to-face delivery methods to optimise interactional learning. Yet, continuing to offer interprofessional education throughout the pandemic is critical to ensure a collaboration-ready health workforce. One example is continuing the established INVOLVE (Interprofessional Visits to Learn Interprofessional Values through Patient Experience) interprofessional education initiative. ASSESSMENT OF PROBLEM Educators have not always prioritised interprofessional education during the pandemic, despite its immediate and long-term benefits. The INVOLVE interprofessional education initiative, usually delivered face-to-face, was at risk of cancellation. RESULTS A quality improvement analysis of the strategies used to continue INVOLVE demonstrated that it is possible to deliver interprofessional education within the constraints of a pandemic by using innovative online and hybrid educational strategies. Educators and students demonstrated flexibility in responding to the sudden changes in teaching and learning modalities. STRATEGIES When pandemic alert levels change, interprofessional educators and administrators can now choose from a repertoire of teaching approaches. LESSONS Four key lessons have improved the performance and resilience of INVOLVE: hold the vision to continue interprofessional education; be nimble; use technology appropriately; and there will be silver linings and unexpected benefits to the changes.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Health Personnel/education , Humans , Interprofessional Education , Interprofessional Relations , Pandemics/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2
4.
Int J Prison Health ; ahead-of-print(ahead-of-print)2021 08 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1501266

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: In this work, the authors present some of the key results found during early efforts to model the COVID-19 outbreak inside a UK prison. In particular, this study describes outputs from an idealised disease model that simulates the dynamics of a COVID-19 outbreak in a prison setting when varying levels of social interventions are in place, and a Monte Carlo-based model that assesses the reduction in risk of case importation, resulting from a process that requires incoming prisoners to undergo a period of self-isolation prior to admission into the general prison population. DESIGN/METHODOLOGY/APPROACH: Prisons, typically containing large populations confined in a small space with high degrees of mixing, have long been known to be especially susceptible to disease outbreaks. In an attempt to meet rising pressures from the emerging COVID-19 situation in early 2020, modellers for Public Health England's Joint Modelling Cell were asked to produce some rapid response work that sought to inform the approaches that Her Majesty's Prison and Probation Service (HMPPS) might take to reduce the risk of case importation and sustained transmission in prison environments. FINDINGS: Key results show that deploying social interventions has the potential to considerably reduce the total number of infections, while such actions could also reduce the probability that an initial infection will propagate into a prison-wide outbreak. For example, modelling showed that a 50% reduction in the risk of transmission (compared to an unmitigated outbreak) could deliver a 98% decrease in total number of cases, while this reduction could also result in 86.8% of outbreaks subsiding before more than five persons have become infected. Furthermore, this study also found that requiring new arrivals to self-isolate for 10 and 14 days prior to admission could detect up to 98% and 99% of incoming infections, respectively. RESEARCH LIMITATIONS/IMPLICATIONS: In this paper we have presented models which allow for the studying of COVID-19 in a prison scenario, while also allowing for the assessment of proposed social interventions. By publishing these works, the authors hope these methods might aid in the management of prisoners across additional scenarios and even during subsequent disease outbreaks. Such methods as described may also be readily applied use in other closed community settings. ORIGINALITY/VALUE: These works went towards informing HMPPS on the impacts that the described strategies might have during COVID-19 outbreaks inside UK prisons. The works described herein are readily amendable to the study of a range of addition outbreak scenarios. There is also room for these methods to be further developed and built upon which the timeliness of the original project did not permit.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Disaster Planning/organization & administration , Disease Outbreaks/prevention & control , Prisoners/statistics & numerical data , Prisons/organization & administration , COVID-19/epidemiology , Disease Outbreaks/statistics & numerical data , Forecasting , Health Personnel/education , Humans , United Kingdom
7.
Clin Teach ; 18(6): 630-640, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1367366

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The Clinical Teacher Training (CTT) programme was originally developed as an interprofessional, blended learning programme, to support health professionals working across health services within Australia, although it has also been delivered internationally. With the disruption of COVID-19, we rapidly moved to 'online only' delivery. We sought to modify the programme, ensuring that the constructivist paradigms important for our learner experience through the original blended format were maintained in the online platform. APPROACH: Consisting of 10 modules on a range of topics, the new CTT online only programme was facilitated online across 6 weeks with asynchronous and synchronous assessable activities, and provision of peer and facilitator feedback. The learning outcomes for each module were similar to the 'blended learning' format. The new programme was delivered three times throughout 2020 and completed by a total of 208 health professionals from across 10 metropolitan and rural health districts. EVALUATION: The focus of our evaluation was on the programme's final 2020 iteration, for which we had ethics approval. Participants (n = 59) were from diverse health professions, across five metropolitan and rural health districts. We prioritised the learner experience in constructing our evaluation strategy. Quantitative and qualitative data were collected by post-course questionnaire and analysed using descriptive statistics and thematic analysis. Twenty participants (34%) responded to the post-course questionnaire. Participants valued the structure, topics, clear outcomes, timeframe, online resources, small group activities, feedback and the flexibility and accessibility afforded by online only delivery. However, participants identified a need for additional 'real-time' engagement in activities. Faculty were surprised by the time required to adequately facilitate online learning, and similarly, valued the real-time interactions. IMPLICATIONS: The online only CTT programme provided an excellent, scalable framework to ensure continued provision of a relevant and accessible training resource for clinicians working in metropolitan and regional/rural health services. Learner-reported achievement of programme learning outcomes was not negatively impacted by online only delivery. Balancing these resource advantages with learner preferences and our desire to build active teaching networks, we will continue to host the majority of the programme online, while offering short face-to-face sessions within local contexts.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Teacher Training , Health Occupations , Health Personnel/education , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
8.
Pan Afr Med J ; 39: 82, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1357663

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 was declared a Public Health Emergency of International Concern (PHEIC) in January 2020 and a pandemic in March 2020. Botswana reported its first case on 30th March 2020 and as of 31st January 2021 had 21,293 cases and 46 deaths. The University of Botswana Public Health Medicine Unit has made significant contributions to the national preparedness and response to COVID-19. The program alumni and Public Health Medicine residents have and continue to provide key technical support to the Ministry of Health and Wellness across the major pillars of COVID-19. This includes key roles in national and subnational coordination and planning, surveillance, case investigations and rapid response teams, points of entry, travel and transportation, infection prevention and control and case management. The unit is thus supporting the country in achieving the World Health Organization (WHO) primary objective of limiting human-to-human transmission, optimal care of the affected and maintaining essential services during the outbreak. The Public Health Medicine Unit has played a key role in capacity building including early rapid COVID-19 training of healthcare workers across the country. Furthermore faculty members and residents are involved in several COVID-19 research projects and collaborations.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Health Personnel/education , Public Health/education , Botswana/epidemiology , Capacity Building , Disease Outbreaks , Humans , Universities
9.
Int J Prison Health ; ahead-of-print(ahead-of-print)2021 08 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1337316

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: In this work, the authors present some of the key results found during early efforts to model the COVID-19 outbreak inside a UK prison. In particular, this study describes outputs from an idealised disease model that simulates the dynamics of a COVID-19 outbreak in a prison setting when varying levels of social interventions are in place, and a Monte Carlo-based model that assesses the reduction in risk of case importation, resulting from a process that requires incoming prisoners to undergo a period of self-isolation prior to admission into the general prison population. DESIGN/METHODOLOGY/APPROACH: Prisons, typically containing large populations confined in a small space with high degrees of mixing, have long been known to be especially susceptible to disease outbreaks. In an attempt to meet rising pressures from the emerging COVID-19 situation in early 2020, modellers for Public Health England's Joint Modelling Cell were asked to produce some rapid response work that sought to inform the approaches that Her Majesty's Prison and Probation Service (HMPPS) might take to reduce the risk of case importation and sustained transmission in prison environments. FINDINGS: Key results show that deploying social interventions has the potential to considerably reduce the total number of infections, while such actions could also reduce the probability that an initial infection will propagate into a prison-wide outbreak. For example, modelling showed that a 50% reduction in the risk of transmission (compared to an unmitigated outbreak) could deliver a 98% decrease in total number of cases, while this reduction could also result in 86.8% of outbreaks subsiding before more than five persons have become infected. Furthermore, this study also found that requiring new arrivals to self-isolate for 10 and 14 days prior to admission could detect up to 98% and 99% of incoming infections, respectively. RESEARCH LIMITATIONS/IMPLICATIONS: In this paper we have presented models which allow for the studying of COVID-19 in a prison scenario, while also allowing for the assessment of proposed social interventions. By publishing these works, the authors hope these methods might aid in the management of prisoners across additional scenarios and even during subsequent disease outbreaks. Such methods as described may also be readily applied use in other closed community settings. ORIGINALITY/VALUE: These works went towards informing HMPPS on the impacts that the described strategies might have during COVID-19 outbreaks inside UK prisons. The works described herein are readily amendable to the study of a range of addition outbreak scenarios. There is also room for these methods to be further developed and built upon which the timeliness of the original project did not permit.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Disaster Planning/organization & administration , Disease Outbreaks/prevention & control , Prisoners/statistics & numerical data , Prisons/organization & administration , COVID-19/epidemiology , Disease Outbreaks/statistics & numerical data , Forecasting , Health Personnel/education , Humans , United Kingdom
10.
Nurse Educ ; 46(4): E50-E54, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1331618

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Health care professionals need to recognize trauma exposure and provide trauma-informed care. There is a concomitant need to develop resilience when working in this context. PROBLEM: We recognized the need to educate future health care professionals to provide trauma-informed care, develop resilience skills, and collaborate with other disciplines to provide this care. APPROACH: We used a systematic instructional design process and an interprofessional approach to design and deliver the course. We utilized a range of resources and approached the course from micro, meso, and macro perspectives. OUTCOMES: Through purposeful design, we developed a course that was well-aligned with our objectives. Assessments provided documentation that students achieved the learning outcomes. CONCLUSIONS: The course educated future health care professionals on trauma-informed care. Students gained valuable experience that will help them contribute to interprofessional teams in the future. Students also practiced resilience techniques essential for health care professionals.


Subject(s)
Health Personnel , Interprofessional Relations , Patient Care , Teaching , Wounds and Injuries , Attitude of Health Personnel , Health Personnel/education , Humans , Patient Care/methods , Patient Care/psychology , Patient Care Team , Wounds and Injuries/psychology
11.
Natl Med J India ; 33(6): 349-357, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1332193

ABSTRACT

Covid-19 infection has placed health systems under unprecedented strain and foresight for preparedness is the key factor to avert disaster. Every facility that provides obstetric service needs a certain level of preparedness to be able to handle at least Covid-suspect pregnant women awaiting test reports, who need to be managed as Covid-positive patients till reports are available. Thus, these facilities need to have triage areas and Covid-suspect labour rooms. Healthcare facilities can have designated areas for Covid-positive patients or have referral linkages with designated Covid-positive hospitals. Preparation includes structural reorganization with setting up a Covid-suspect and Covid-positive facility in adequate space, as well as extensive training of staff about infection control practices and rational use of personal protective equipment (PPE). A systematic approach involving five essential steps of making standard operating procedures, infrastructural reorganization for a triage area and a Covid-suspect labour ward, procurement of PPE, managing the personnel and instituting appropriate infection control practices can ensure uninterrupted services to patients without compromising the safety of healthcare providers.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Infection Control/organization & administration , Obstetrics and Gynecology Department, Hospital/organization & administration , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/prevention & control , Triage/organization & administration , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , COVID-19 Testing/standards , Disinfection/organization & administration , Disinfection/standards , Female , Health Personnel/education , Health Personnel/psychology , Health Personnel/standards , Humans , Infection Control/standards , Infectious Disease Transmission, Patient-to-Professional/prevention & control , Obstetrics and Gynecology Department, Hospital/standards , Occupational Stress/prevention & control , Occupational Stress/psychology , Pandemics/prevention & control , Personal Protective Equipment/standards , Postnatal Care/organization & administration , Postnatal Care/standards , Practice Guidelines as Topic , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/diagnosis , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/epidemiology , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/virology , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Triage/standards
12.
PLoS One ; 16(7): e0241734, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1325370

ABSTRACT

Personal protective equipment (PPE) is crucially important to the safety of both patients and medical personnel, particularly in the event of an infectious pandemic. As the incidence of Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) increases exponentially in the United States and many parts of the world, healthcare provider demand for these necessities is currently outpacing supply. In the midst of the current pandemic, there has been a concerted effort to identify viable ways to conserve PPE, including decontamination after use. In this study, we outline a procedure by which PPE may be decontaminated using ultraviolet (UV) radiation in biosafety cabinets (BSCs), a common element of many academic, public health, and hospital laboratories. According to the literature, effective decontamination of N95 respirator masks or surgical masks requires UV-C doses of greater than 1 Jcm-2, which was achieved after 4.3 hours per side when placing the N95 at the bottom of the BSCs tested in this study. We then demonstrated complete inactivation of the human coronavirus NL63 on N95 mask material after 15 minutes of UV-C exposure at 61 cm (232 µWcm-2). Our results provide support to healthcare organizations looking for methods to extend their reserves of PPE.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Containment of Biohazards/methods , Decontamination/methods , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2/radiation effects , Ultraviolet Rays , COVID-19/transmission , COVID-19/virology , Dose-Response Relationship, Radiation , Equipment Reuse , Health Personnel/education , Humans , Laboratories/organization & administration , Masks/virology , N95 Respirators/virology , Radiometry/statistics & numerical data , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , SARS-CoV-2/physiology
13.
J Am Geriatr Soc ; 69(10): 2716-2721, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1325028

ABSTRACT

During the COVID-19 pandemic, frontline nursing home staff faced extraordinary stressors including high infection and mortality rates and ever-changing and sometimes conflicting federal and state regulations. To support nursing homes in evidence-based infection control practices, the Massachusetts Senior Care Association and Hebrew SeniorLife partnered with the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality AHRQ ECHO National Nursing Home COVID-19 Action Network (the network). This educational program provided 16 weeks of free weekly virtual sessions to 295 eligible nursing homes, grouped into nine cohorts of 30-33 nursing homes. Eighty-three percent of eligible nursing homes in Massachusetts participated in the Network, and Hebrew SeniorLife's Training Center served the vast majority. Each cohort was led by geriatrics clinicians and nursing home leaders, and coaches trained in quality improvement. The interactive sessions provided timely updates on COVID-19 infection control best practices to improve care and also created a peer-to-peer learning community to share ongoing challenges and potential solutions. The weekly Network meetings were a source of connection, emotional support, and validation and may be a valuable mechanism to support resilience and well-being for nursing home staff.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Health Personnel , Nursing Homes , Online Social Networking , Resilience, Psychological , Skilled Nursing Facilities , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/psychology , Education, Distance/methods , Evidence-Based Practice/education , Health Personnel/education , Health Personnel/psychology , Humans , Infection Control/methods , Massachusetts/epidemiology , Nursing Homes/standards , Nursing Homes/trends , Quality Improvement/organization & administration , SARS-CoV-2 , Skilled Nursing Facilities/standards , Skilled Nursing Facilities/trends , Social Support
16.
Acad Med ; 96(10): 1379-1382, 2021 10 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1320332

ABSTRACT

The world's health care providers have realized that being agile in their thinking and growth in times of rapid change is paramount and that continuing education can be a key facet of the future of health care. As the world recovers from the COVID-19 pandemic, educators at academic health centers are faced with a crucial question: How can continuing professional development (CPD) within teams and health systems be improved so that health care providers will be ready for the next disruption? How can new information about the next disruption be collected and disseminated so that interprofessional teams will be able to effectively and efficiently manage a new disease, new information, or new procedures and keep themselves safe? Unlike undergraduate and graduate/postgraduate education, CPD does not always have an identified educational home and has had uneven and limited innovation during the pandemic. In this commentary, the authors explore the barriers to change in this sector and propose 4 principles that may serve to guide a way forward: identifying a home for interprofessional continuing education at academic health centers, improving workplace-based learning, enhancing assessment for individuals within health care teams, and creating a culture of continuous learning that promotes population health.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/physiopathology , COVID-19/therapy , Curriculum , Education, Medical, Continuing/organization & administration , Health Personnel/education , Pandemics/prevention & control , Adult , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2
17.
PLoS One ; 16(7): e0253491, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1304456

ABSTRACT

There are challenges related to collaboration among health professionals in resource-limited settings. Continuing Interprofessional Education initiatives grounded on workplace dynamics, structure and the prevailing attitudes and biases of targeted health professionals may be a vehicle to develop collaboration among health professionals. Workplace dynamics are revealed as health professionals interact. We argue that insights into the interaction patterns of health professionals in the workplace could provide guidance for improving the design and value of CIPE initiative. The study was conducted through rapid ethnography and data were collected from non-participant observations. The data were transcribed and analysed through an inductive iterative process. Appropriate ethical principles were applied throughout the study. Three themes emerged namely "Formed professional identities influencing interprofessional interaction", "Diversity in communication networks and approaches" and "Professional practice and care in resource limited contexts". This study revealed poor interaction patterns among health professionals within the workplace. These poor interaction patterns were catalyzed by the pervasive professional hierarchy, the protracted health professional shortages, limited understanding of professional roles and the lack of a common language of communication among the health professionals. Several recommendations were made regarding the design and development of Continuing Interprofessional Education initiatives for resource-limited settings.


Subject(s)
Health Personnel/education , Interprofessional Education/methods , Cooperative Behavior , Curriculum , Humans , Interprofessional Relations , Qualitative Research
18.
Arch Virol ; 166(9): 2487-2493, 2021 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1298567

ABSTRACT

The safety of personal protective equipment (PPE) is very important, and so is the choice of materials used. The ability of electrostatic charges (ESCs) generated from the friction of engineered materials to attract or repel viruses has a significant impact on their applications. This study examined the ESCs generated on the surface of PPE used by healthcare workers to enhance their potential effectiveness in protecting the wearer from viruses. This is a crucial consideration for the newly emerged severe acute respiratory syndrome corona virus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), which has a negative charge. The magnitudes and signs of generated ESCs on the surfaces of the PPE were determined experimentally using an Ultra Stable Surface DC Voltmeter. The high negative ESCs acquired by the polyethylene disposable cap and facemask are expected to repel negatively charged viruses and prevent them from adhering to the outer layer of the material. Also, the choice of polypropylene for facemasks and gowns is excellent because it is an aggressively negatively charged material in the triboelectric series. This property guarantees that facemasks and gowns can repel viruses from the wearer. However, the positive ESCs generated on latex glove surfaces are of great concern because they can attract negatively charged viruses and create a source of infection. In conclusion, it is necessary to ensure that PPE be made of materials whose surfaces develop a negative ESC to repel viruses, as well as to select polyethylene gloves.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Health Personnel/education , Personal Protective Equipment/virology , SARS-CoV-2/chemistry , COVID-19/transmission , Hair/chemistry , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Humans , Latex/chemistry , Materials Testing , Polyethylene/chemistry , Polypropylenes/chemistry , Skin/chemistry , Static Electricity
19.
Acad Med ; 96(11): 1524-1528, 2021 11 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1298990

ABSTRACT

The role that resistance plays in medicine and medical education is ill-defined. Although physicians and students have been involved in protests related to the COVID-19 pandemic, structural racism, police brutality, and gender inequity, resistance has not been prominent in medical education's discourses, and medical education has not supported students' role and responsibility in developing professional approaches to resistance. While learners should not pick and choose what aspects of medical education they engage with, neither should their moral agency and integrity be compromised. To that end, the authors argue for professional resistance to become a part of medical education. This article sets out a rationale for a more explicit and critical recognition of the role of resistance in medical education by exploring its conceptual basis, its place both in training and practice, and the ways in which medical education might more actively embrace and situate resistance as a core aspect of professional practice. The authors suggest different strategies that medical educators can employ to embrace resistance in medical education and propose a set of principles for resistance in medicine and medical education. Embracing resistance as part of medical education requires a shift in attention away from training physicians solely to replicate and sustain existing systems and practices and toward developing their ability and responsibility to resist situations, structures, and acts that are oppressive, harmful, or unjust.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/psychology , Education, Medical/methods , Health Personnel/education , Professional Practice/ethics , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , Concept Formation/ethics , Female , Gender-Based Violence/prevention & control , Gender-Based Violence/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Male , Physicians/statistics & numerical data , Racism/prevention & control , Racism/statistics & numerical data , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Social Responsibility , Students, Medical/statistics & numerical data
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