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1.
J Korean Med Sci ; 36(43): e294, 2021 Nov 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1506223

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: In Korea, the first community outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) occurred in Daegu on February 18, 2020. This study was performed to investigate the prevalence of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) antibodies in healthcare workers (HCWs) at 6 major hospitals in Daegu. METHODS: Blood specimens of 2,935 HCWs at 6 major hospitals in Daegu from January 2021 to February 2021 were collected. Every specimen was tested for antibody against SARS-CoV-2 using both Elecsys Anti-SARS-CoV-2 electrochemiluminescence immunoassay (Roche Diagnostics, Rotkreuz, Switzerland) and R-FIND COVID-19 IgG/M/A enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kit (SG medical Inc., Seoul, Korea) as screening tests. If 1 or more of these screening test results was positive, 2 additional antibody tests were performed using Abbott Anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgG assay (Abbott, Abbott Park, IL, USA) and cPass SARS-CoV-2 Neutralization Antibody Detection Kit (GenScript USA Inc., Piscataway, NJ, USA). If 2 or more of the total 4 test results were positive, it was determined as positive for the antibody against SARS-CoV-2. RESULTS: According to the criteria of SARS-CoV-2 antibody positivity determination, 12 subjects were determined as positive. The overall positive rate of the SARS-CoV-2 antibody was 0.41% (12/2,935). Of the 12 subjects determined as positive, 7 were diagnosed with COVID-19, and the remaining 5 were nondiagnosed cases of COVID-19. CONCLUSION: In early 2021, the overall seroprevalence of SARS-CoV-2 antibody among HCW located in Daegu was 0.41%, and 0.17% excluding COVID-19 confirmed subjects. These results were not particularly high compared with the general public and were much lower than HCWs in other countries.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/immunology , Health Personnel/statistics & numerical data , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Adult , Aged , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antibody Specificity , COVID-19/epidemiology , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Female , Hospitals , Humans , Immunoglobulin A/blood , Immunoglobulin M/blood , Male , Middle Aged , Prevalence , Republic of Korea/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2
2.
PLoS Med ; 18(11): e1003823, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1504361

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Healthcare workers (HCWs) and ethnic minority groups are at increased risk of COVID-19 infection and adverse outcomes. Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) vaccination is now available for frontline UK HCWs; however, demographic/occupational associations with vaccine uptake in this cohort are unknown. We sought to establish these associations in a large UK hospital workforce. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We conducted cross-sectional surveillance examining vaccine uptake amongst all staff at University Hospitals of Leicester NHS Trust. We examined proportions of vaccinated staff stratified by demographic factors, occupation, and previous COVID-19 test results (serology/PCR) and used logistic regression to identify predictors of vaccination status after adjustment for confounders. We included 19,044 HCWs; 12,278 (64.5%) had received SARS-CoV-2 vaccination. Compared to White HCWs (70.9% vaccinated), a significantly smaller proportion of ethnic minority HCWs were vaccinated (South Asian, 58.5%; Black, 36.8%; p < 0.001 for both). After adjustment for age, sex, ethnicity, deprivation, occupation, SARS-CoV-2 serology/PCR results, and COVID-19-related work absences, factors found to be negatively associated with vaccine uptake were younger age, female sex, increased deprivation, pregnancy, and belonging to any non-White ethnic group (Black: adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 0.30, 95% CI 0.26-0.34, p < 0.001; South Asian: aOR 0.67, 95% CI 0.62-0.72, p < 0.001). Those who had previously had confirmed COVID-19 (by PCR) were less likely to be vaccinated than those who had tested negative. Limitations include data being from a single centre, lack of data on staff vaccinated outside the hospital system, and that staff may have taken up vaccination following data extraction. CONCLUSIONS: Ethnic minority HCWs and those from more deprived areas as well as younger staff and female staff are less likely to take up SARS-CoV-2 vaccination. These findings have major implications for the delivery of SARS-CoV-2 vaccination programmes, in HCWs and the wider population, and should inform the national vaccination programme to prevent the disparities of the pandemic from widening.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/pharmacology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Health Personnel/statistics & numerical data , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Vaccination/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19/epidemiology , Delivery of Health Care/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Minority Groups , United Kingdom/epidemiology
3.
PLoS Med ; 18(11): e1003826, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1502048

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Older adults from minority ethnic backgrounds are at increased risk of contracting COVID-19 and developing severe infection and have increased risk of mortality. Whilst an age-based vaccination approach prioritising older groups is being implemented worldwide, vaccine hesitancy is high amongst minority ethnic groups. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We conducted a systematic review and convergent synthesis to systematically examine perceptions of vaccinations amongst older adults from minority ethnic backgrounds. We included studies that reported on perceptions, beliefs, and attitudes towards vaccinations in older adults aged ≥65 years from a minority ethnic background. We excluded studies of vaccinations in investigation or development, studies focused on specific medical conditions, studies where ethnic background or age group was unidentifiable, systematic reviews, editorials, and conference abstracts. We searched MEDLINE, Embase, Virtual Health Library, Web of Science, Cochrane Library, medRxiv, and PROSPERO databases from inception to 15 July 2021. Risk of bias for studies was assessed using the Mixed Methods Appraisal Tool. The quality of evidence of collective outcomes was estimated using the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation-Confidence in the Evidence from Reviews of Qualitative research (GRADE-CERQual) framework. A total of 28 eligible studies conducted between 1997 and 2020 were included in the final analysis (17 quantitative surveys, 8 focus group or interview studies, 2 mixed methods studies, and 1 case-control study). The majority were US studies in English or Spanish, except for 6 studies set in Hong Kong, 2 studies in Japan, 1 study in Brazil, and 1 multi-centre study (including China, Indonesia, Turkey, South Korea, Greece, UK, Brazil, and Nigeria). In total, 28,262 individuals with an estimated mean age of 69.8 years were included, 63.2% of whom were female. We summarised the common concepts and themes across studies and populations using a convergent synthesis analysis. Thirteen themes categorised as barriers or facilitators were identified and grouped into structural factors-healthcare provider and system related, patient related, and policy and operational-and were analysed by minority ethnic group. The main limitation of the study was the predominance of studies from the US and East Asia. CONCLUSIONS: In this systematic review, we found that factors influencing vaccination uptake involve healthcare provider and system, patient-related, and governance-level factors that are specific to the older ethnic minority community being served. The evidence included in this review is supported by high or moderate certainty and can be translated to practice and policy. A tailored, multi-level approach combining increased education, access, and culturally competent discussions with trusted healthcare professionals to address health beliefs can maximise the potential impact of widespread vaccination policies.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Health Personnel/statistics & numerical data , Minority Groups , Vaccination/statistics & numerical data , Aged , Ethnic Groups , Humans , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity
4.
Ann Med ; 53(1): 1956-1959, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1500884

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To determine the seroprevalence of SARS-CoV-2 antibodies in eye healthcare workers (EHCW) in the largest ophthalmology centre in Guatemala and factors associated with antibody positivity. METHODS: We conducted a cross sectional sero-survey in all the staff at the largest ophthalmology centre in Guatemala. Serum samples were collected and tested for total antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 employing Roche Elecsys Anti-SARS-CoV-2 Immunoassay. Results were reported as reactive or non-reactive. According to patient exposure the staff were divided into low risk (technicians, domestic and administrative staff) and high risk (nurses, ophthalmologists, anaesthesiologists, and optometrists). Among those with positive antibodies, they were given a survey that included demographic characteristics, COVID-19 exposure, and related symptomatology. Logistic regression was used to determine the factors associated with antibody positivity. RESULTS: On November 25th a total of 94 healthcare workers were sero-surveyed, mean age was 34.15 years (±8.41), most (57.44%) were females. Seroprevalence was 18%, the majority (77%) were in the low-risk group; while 64% at high-risk, tested negative. Those at low exposure, were five times more likely to have antibodies than those at high exposure (OR:5.69; 95% CI 1.69-19.13). Age and gender were not associated to seropositivity. CONCLUSIONS: We found a similar seroprevalence of SARS-CoV-2 antibodies in EHCW to what has been reported in other healthcare groups. Seropositivity was higher among HCW with fewer patient exposure, hence the probability of community transmission.Key messagesEven though eye healthcare workers are believed to be at higher risk of infection, the prevalence of antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 in this group is comparable to what has been reported previously in other healthcare groups.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19/epidemiology , Health Personnel/statistics & numerical data , Ophthalmologists/statistics & numerical data , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Biomarkers/blood , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/transmission , COVID-19/virology , COVID-19 Testing , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Guatemala/epidemiology , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Ophthalmologists/psychology , Ophthalmology , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Seroepidemiologic Studies , Serologic Tests
5.
J Infect Dis ; 224(8): 1325-1332, 2021 Oct 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1493826

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) provides a highly variable cycle threshold (Ct) value that cannot distinguish viral infectivity. Subgenomic ribonucleic acid (sgRNA) has been used to monitor active replication. Given the importance of long RT-PCR positivity and the need for work reincorporation and discontinuing isolation, we studied the functionality of normalized viral loads (NVLs) for patient monitoring and sgRNA for viral infectivity detection. METHODS: The NVLs measured through the Nucleocapsid and RNA-dependent-RNA-polymerase genes and sgRNA RT-PCRs were performed in 2 consecutive swabs from 84 healthcare workers. RESULTS: The NVLs provided similar and accurate quantities of both genes of SARS-CoV-2 at 2 different timepoints of infection, overcoming Ct-value and swab collection variability. Among SARS-CoV-2-positive samples, 51.19% were sgRNA-positive in the 1st RT-PCR and 5.95% in the 2nd RT-PCR. All sgRNA-positive samples had >4 log10 RNA copies/1000 cells, whereas samples with ≤1 log10 NVLs were sgRNA-negative. Although NVLs were positive until 29 days after symptom onset, 84.1% of sgRNA-positive samples were from the first 7 days, which correlated with viral culture viability. Multivariate analyses showed that sgRNA, NVLs, and days of symptoms were significantly associated (P < .001). CONCLUSIONS: The NVLs and sgRNA are 2 rapid accessible techniques that could be easily implemented in routine hospital practice providing a useful proxy for viral infectivity and coronavirus disease 2019 patient follow-up.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Viral Load/standards , Adult , Aftercare/standards , COVID-19/therapy , COVID-19/transmission , COVID-19/virology , COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing/statistics & numerical data , Clinical Decision-Making/methods , Epidemiological Monitoring , Female , Health Personnel/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Nasopharynx/pathology , Nasopharynx/virology , RNA, Viral/isolation & purification , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity
6.
J Environ Public Health ; 2021: 9081491, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1484111

ABSTRACT

Background: This study was conducted to evaluate the anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgM and IgG antibodies among healthcare workers in Guilan. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted on 503 healthcare workers. Between April and May 2020, blood samples were collected from the healthcare workers of Razi Hospital in Rasht, Guilan, Iran. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was used for the detection and quantitation of anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgM/IgG antibodies by using kits made by Pishtaz Teb Company, Tehran, Iran. Results: From a total of 503 participants, the result of the anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgM antibody test was positive in 28 subjects (5.6%) and the anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgG antibody test was positive in171 subjects (34%). Participants in the age group of 35-54 years were significantly more likely to have a positive anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibody test than the age group of 20-34 years (odds ratio = 1.53, 95% CI: 1.04-2.25, P=0.029). Also, physicians were significantly more likely to have a positive antibody test than office workers (odds ratio = 1.92, 95% CI: 1.04-3.54, P=0.037). The wide range of symptoms was significantly associated with the positive anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibody test. The most significant association was observed between fever and a positive anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibody test (odds ratio = 3.03, 95% CI: 2.06-4.44, P < 0.001). Conclusion: The results of the current study indicated that the seroprevalence of COVID-19 was high among healthcare workers of Guilan Province. It seems that this finding was due to the earlier exposure to COVID-19 and the lack of awareness and preparedness to deal with the pandemic in Iran, compared to other countries.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19 , Health Personnel , SARS-CoV-2 , Adult , Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/immunology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Health Personnel/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Iran/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Seroepidemiologic Studies , Young Adult
8.
Microbiol Spectr ; 9(2): e0090421, 2021 10 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1476401

ABSTRACT

Most individuals seroconvert after infection with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), but being seronegative is observed in 1 to 9%. We aimed to investigate the risk factors associated with being seronegative following PCR-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection. In a prospective cohort study, we screened health care workers (HCW) in the Capital Region of Denmark for SARS-CoV-2 antibodies. We performed three rounds of screening from April to October 2020 using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) method targeting SARS-CoV-2 total antibodies. Data on all participants' PCR for SARS-CoV-2 RNA were captured from national registries. The Kaplan-Meier method and Cox proportional hazards models were applied to investigate the probability of being seronegative and the related risk factors, respectively. Of 36,583 HCW, 866 (2.4%) had a positive PCR before or during the study period. The median (interquartile range [IQR]) age of 866 HCW was 42 (31 to 53) years, and 666 (77%) were female. After a median of 132 (range, 35 to 180) days, 21 (2.4%) of 866 were seronegative. In a multivariable model, independent risk factors for being seronegative were self-reported asymptomatic or mild infection hazard ratio (HR) of 6.6 (95% confidence interval [CI], 2.6 to 17; P < 0.001) and body mass index (BMI) of ≥30, HR 3.1 (95% CI, 1.1 to 8.8; P = 0.039). Only a few (2.4%) HCW were not seropositive. Asymptomatic or mild infection as well as a BMI above 30 were associated with being seronegative. Since the presence of antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 reduces the risk of reinfection, efforts to protect HCW with risk factors for being seronegative may be needed in future COVID-19 surges. IMPORTANCE Most individuals seroconvert after infection with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), but negative serology is observed in 1 to 9%. We found that asymptomatic or mild infection as well as a BMI above 30 were associated with being seronegative. Since the presence of antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 reduces the risk of reinfection, efforts to protect HCW with risk factors for being seronegative may be needed in future COVID-19 surges.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19 Serological Testing , Health Personnel/statistics & numerical data , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Adult , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing , Cohort Studies , Coronavirus Nucleocapsid Proteins/immunology , Denmark , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Phosphoproteins/immunology , Polymerase Chain Reaction , RNA, Viral/analysis , Seroconversion , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology
9.
J Healthc Manag ; 66(4): 304-322, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1475893

ABSTRACT

EXECUTIVE SUMMARY: While the COVID-19 pandemic has added stressors to the lives of healthcare workers, it is unclear which factors represent the most useful targets for interventions to mitigate employee distress across the entire healthcare team. A survey was distributed to employees of a large healthcare system in the Southeastern United States, and 1,130 respondents participated. The survey measured overall distress using the 9-item Well-Being Index (WBI), work-related factors, moral distress, resilience, and organizational-level factors. Respondents were also asked to identify major work, clinical, and nonwork stressors. Multivariate regression was used to evaluate associations between employee characteristics and WBI distress score. Overall, 82% of employees reported high distress (WBI ≥ 2), with nurses, clinical support staff, and advanced practice providers reporting the highest average scores. Factors associated with higher distress included increased job demands or responsibilities, heavy workload or long hours, higher frequency of moral distress, and loneliness or social isolation. Factors associated with lower distress were perceived organizational support, work control, perceived fairness of salary cuts, and resilience. Most factors significantly associated with distress-heavy workloads and long hours, increased job demands, and moral distress, in particular-were work-related, indicating that efforts can be made to mitigate them. Resilience explained a small portion of the variance in distress relative to other work-related factors. Ensuring appropriate staffing levels may represent the single largest opportunity to significantly move the needle on distress. However, the financial impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on the healthcare system may represent a barrier to addressing these stressors.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Health Personnel/psychology , Job Satisfaction , Occupational Stress , Patient Care Team , Stress, Psychological , Workload/psychology , Adult , Female , Health Personnel/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Surveys and Questionnaires , Workload/statistics & numerical data
10.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 6032, 2021 10 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1469967

ABSTRACT

Vaccine breakthrough SARS-CoV-2 infection has been monitored in 3720 healthcare workers receiving 2 doses of BNT162b2. SARS-CoV-2 infection is detected in 33 subjects, with a 100-day cumulative incidence of 0.93%. Vaccine protection against acquisition of SARS-CoV-2 infection is 83% (95%CI: 58-93%) in the overall population and 93% (95%CI: 69-99%) in SARS-CoV-2-experienced subjects, when compared with a non-vaccinated control group from the same Institution, in which SARS-CoV-2 infection occurs in 20/346 subjects (100-day cumulative incidence: 5.78%). The infection is symptomatic in 16 (48%) vaccinated subjects vs 17 (85%) controls (p = 0.01). All analyzed patients, in whom the amount of viral RNA was sufficient for genome sequencing, results infected by the alpha variant. Antibody and T-cell responses are not reduced in subjects with breakthrough infection. Evidence of virus transmission, determined by contact tracing, is observed in two (6.1%) cases. This real-world data support the protective effect of BNT162b2 vaccine. A triple antigenic exposure, such as two-dose vaccine schedule in experienced subjects, may confer a higher protection.


Subject(s)
Asymptomatic Infections/epidemiology , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , COVID-19/diagnosis , Health Personnel/statistics & numerical data , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/virology , COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing/statistics & numerical data , Case-Control Studies , Female , Humans , Immunization Schedule , Incidence , Male , Prospective Studies , RNA, Viral/genetics , RNA, Viral/isolation & purification , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Severity of Illness Index
11.
CMAJ Open ; 9(4): E929-E939, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1468744

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Health care workers have a critical role in the pandemic response to COVID-19 and may be at increased risk of infection. The objective of this study was to assess the seroprevalence of SARS-CoV-2 immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies among health care workers during and after the first wave of the pandemic. METHODS: We conducted a prospective multicentre cohort study involving health care workers in Ontario, Canada, to detect IgG antibodies against SARS-CoV-2. Blood samples and self-reported questionnaires were obtained at enrolment, at 6 weeks and at 12 weeks. A community hospital, tertiary care pediatric hospital and a combined adult-pediatric academic health centre enrolled participants from Apr. 1 to Nov. 13, 2020. Predictors of seropositivity were evaluated using a multivariable logistic regression, adjusted for clustering by hospital site. RESULTS: Among the 1062 health care workers participating, the median age was 40 years, and 834 (78.5%) were female. Overall, 57 (5.4%) were seropositive at any time point (2.5% when participants with prior infection confirmed by polymerase chain reaction testing were excluded). Seroprevalence was higher among those who had a known unprotected exposure to a patient with COVID-19 (p < 0.001) and those who had been contacted by public health because of a nonhospital exposure (p = 0.003). Providing direct care to patients with COVID-19 or working on a unit with a COVID-19 outbreak was not associated with higher seroprevalence. In multivariable logistic regression, presence of symptomatic contacts in the household was the strongest predictor of seropositivity (adjusted odds ratio 7.15, 95% confidence interval 5.42-9.41). INTERPRETATION: Health care workers exposed to household risk factors were more likely to be seropositive than those not exposed, highlighting the need to emphasize the importance of public health measures both inside and outside of the hospital.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19/immunology , Health Personnel/statistics & numerical data , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Adult , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/transmission , Cohort Studies , Female , Humans , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Logistic Models , Male , Middle Aged , Occupational Exposure/statistics & numerical data , Ontario/epidemiology , Prospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Seroepidemiologic Studies , Tertiary Care Centers
12.
Int J Prison Health ; ahead-of-print(ahead-of-print)2021 05 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1467474

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: In this paper, the authors present insights and findings drawn from the authors' experiences of containing a severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) outbreak in a large prison in northern Italy.Within penitentiaries, close-quarter living is ripe terrain for outbreaks of disease among detainees and staff. If left unchecked, these outbreaks can easily spill over the prison walls to threaten the general public. Moreover, these risks are heightened by preexisting environmental conditions, especially overcrowding. It is thus paramount to establish effective protocols for prevention, early detection and outbreak management. The purpose of this article is to document a strategy that been at least partially successful in reducing the damage that could potentially be caused by a sustained SARS-CoV-2 outbreak within a correctional facility. DESIGN/METHODOLOGY/APPROACH: The authors conducted a retrospective analysis on patients' and health-care workers' medical records to obtain demographic and clinical information. Descriptive data analysis was then carried out. FINDINGS: In total, the authors tested 453 people with oropharyngeal swabs from March 15, 2020, to June 30, 2020. Of these people, 58 were positive and 395 were negative, with a prevalence of 12.8%.Of the 453 patients, 60 were health workers: 24 tested positive for SARS-CoV2 ribonucleic acid (RNA); 18 developed symptoms; and three needed hospitalization.Among patients in detention, 34 resulted positive for SARS-CoV-2 RNA. Two were hospitalized and later died. Both had severe preexisting conditions; they were aged 76 and 59 years old, respectively. ORIGINALITY/VALUE: In this study, the authors describe the design and effective implementation of prevention and containment measures against SARS-CoV-2 within the walls of a correctional facility. The authors describe how they rapidly created clean confinement sections to isolate cases in an environment designed for security at the expense of virus containment and how educational efforts have played a vital role in their strategy.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Infection Control/organization & administration , Prisons/organization & administration , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/physiopathology , Female , Health Personnel/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Prisoners/statistics & numerical data , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Socioeconomic Factors
13.
Front Health Serv Manage ; 38(1): 27-31, 2021 Oct 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1455387

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY: Critical access hospitals (CAHs) serve their rural communities as the main access points and communication centers for healthcare, typically with very limited financial, staffing, and support resources. Local residents rely on their CAHs as the only providers for many miles around. When the COVID-19 pandemic hit in early 2020, CAH leaders had to rethink operations and priorities, both internally with staffs and externally with community leaders and organizations. Few critical care beds were available when the need was greatest. Testing was problematic, and cultural barriers complicated care. Now, as virus variants strike where vaccination numbers are low, CAH leaders remain wary of financial hits to elective procedure income, limited resources, and added stress for their staffs. Working with community service organizations and larger regional healthcare centers is a crucial strategy for CAHs as they address care delivery issues and ensure that their caregivers can do their jobs now and in the future.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/therapy , Critical Care/organization & administration , Delivery of Health Care/organization & administration , Health Personnel/psychology , Health Personnel/statistics & numerical data , Hospital Administrators/psychology , Rural Health Services/organization & administration , Adult , Animals , Attitude of Health Personnel , Female , Hospital Administration , Humans , Illinois , Leadership , Male , Middle Aged , Organizational Objectives , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
14.
J Med Virol ; 93(10): 5969-5976, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1453609

ABSTRACT

In-house assays for the diagnosis of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) by quantitative reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR), are feasible alternatives, particularly in developing countries. Cycle threshold (Ct ) values obtained by qRT-PCR were compared with clinical and laboratory data from saliva of inpatients with COVID-19 and asymptomatic health workers (AHW) were studied. Saliva specimens from 58 inpatients confirmed by qRT-PCR for SARS-CoV-2 using nasopharyngeal specimens, and 105 AHW were studied by qRT-PCR using three sets of primers for the N (N1, N2, and N3) gene of SARS-CoV-2, according to the CDC Diagnostic Panel protocol, showing a positivity of 88% for inpatients and 8% for AHW. Bivariate analysis revealed an association between Ct < 38.0 values for N2 and mechanical ventilation assistance among patients (p = .013). In addition, values of aspartate-transaminase, lactate dehydrogenase, and ferritin showed significant correlations with Ct values of N1 and N3 genes in inpatients. Therefore, our results show that Ct values correlate with some relevant clinical data for inpatients with COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19/diagnosis , Health Personnel/statistics & numerical data , Inpatients/statistics & numerical data , Adult , Aged , Asymptomatic Infections , Biomarkers/blood , Coronavirus Nucleocapsid Proteins/genetics , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Phosphoproteins/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Saliva/virology , Severity of Illness Index
15.
Int Marit Health ; 72(3): 228-236, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1450928

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: A hyperbaric oxygen (HBO) treatment session carries a high risk for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) transmission since patients stay in a closed area for 2 hours. The primary aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of the preventive measures taken in the HBO centre. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This study evaluated the measures taken during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic for multiplace hyperbaric chamber operated in department (Health Sciences University-Gulhane Research and Training Hospital, Ankara, Turkey) between March 16th, 2020 and December 31st, 2020. The medical records of patients who underwent HBO treatment during this period were evaluated retrospectively. Their demographic attributes, the presence of risk factors, HBO indications, HBO session data, and COVID-19 inquiry forms were analysed. RESULTS: A total of 122 patients underwent HBO treatment, and 150 people were subjected to pressure tolerance test (PTT). No COVID-19 case was treated with HBO in our department. The hyperbaric chamber was operated 608 times in total. Of these, 9.7% (n = 59) procedures were carried out under emergency conditions, and 10% (n = 61) were PTTs. Accordingly, 59.8% (n = 73) of the HBO-treated patients were considered at risk for a severe clinical presentation of SARS-CoV-2. SARS-CoV-2 was detected in 5.7% (n = 7) of the HBO-treated patients during the HBO treatment period. Besides, two inside attendants (14.3%) were diagnosed with COVID-19. There were only two concurrent cases in the same session among SARS-CoV-2 positive cases. The records revealed that these patients were sitting three seats away from each other. Another patient was sitting in between the two infected patients but was not diagnosed with SARS-CoV-2. CONCLUSIONS: There is no clear evidence that these two patients infected each other; on the contrary, since no other patient was infected with SARS-CoV-2 in the same session, we may suspect that the infections were coincidental. The measures taken in our department seem to suffice in preventing in-session transmission of COVID-19 and similar infectious diseases in an HBO centre.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/transmission , Hyperbaric Oxygenation , Occupational Exposure/prevention & control , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , Child, Preschool , Female , Health Facilities , Health Personnel/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Turkey
16.
Pan Afr Med J ; 40: 10, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1449275

ABSTRACT

Introduction: healthcare workers are at higher risk of COVID-19 infection with ease of infection transmissibility to coworkers and patients. Vaccine hesitancy rates of 56% and up to 25% have been reported among healthcare workers in US and China respectively. Vaccination is known as the most effective strategy to combat infectious diseases. Acceptance of the COVID-19 vaccine plays a major role in combating the pandemic. This study assessed the sociodemographic factors associated with COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy among healthcare workers in Abia State. Methods: a cross-sectional study among 422 healthcare workers was conducted in Abia State with an online-based questionnaire. The questionnaire extracted information on socio-demographics and willingness to take vaccine uptake. Descriptive statistics was used to calculate frequencies and proportions. Bivariate analysis was used to test the association between the socio-demographic factors and the outcome variable (vaccine hesitancy). Logistic regression was conducted to identify the predictors of COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy. The level of significance was 5%. Results: mean age of the respondents was 40.6 ± 9.5 years and 67.1% were females The COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy rate was 50.5% (95%CI: 45.6%-55.3%). Socio-demographic factors included age, marital status, location of practice, profession, and income. Vaccine Hesitancy was predicted significantly by younger age (aOR=9.34, 95%CI:2.01-43.39), marital status (single) (aOR=4.97, 95%CI:1.46-16.97), lower income (aOR=2.84, 95%CI:1.32-6.08), and profession - Doctor (aOR=0.28, 95%CI:0.11-0.70), Nurse (aOR=0.31, 95%CI:0.15-0.64) and other allied health professionals (aOR=0.22, 95%CI:0.10-0.44). Conclusion: COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy was high among healthcare workers. Significant sociodemographic predictors influence the uptake of the COVID-19 vaccine. We recommend that the Federal and State Ministries of Health conduct awareness campaigns targeting the younger age group, singles, lower income class, and non-clinical staff.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , Health Personnel/statistics & numerical data , Vaccination Refusal/statistics & numerical data , Vaccination/statistics & numerical data , Adult , Age Factors , COVID-19/prevention & control , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Income , Male , Marital Status , Middle Aged , Nigeria , Surveys and Questionnaires , Young Adult
17.
BMC Pregnancy Childbirth ; 21(1): 670, 2021 Oct 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1448217

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus currently cause a lot of pressure on the health system. Accordingly, many changes occurred in the way of providing health care, including pregnancy and childbirth care. To our knowledge, no studies on experiences of maternity care Providers during the COVID-19 Pandemic have been published in Iran. We aimed to discover their experiences on pregnancy and childbirth care during the current COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: This study was a qualitative research performed with a descriptive phenomenological approach. The used sampling method was purposive sampling by taking the maximum variation possible into account, which continued until data saturation. Accordingly, in-depth and semi-structured interviews were conducted by including 12 participants, as 4 gynecologists, 6 midwives working in the hospitals and private offices, and 2 midwives working in the health centers. Data were analyzed using Colaizzi's seven stage method with MAXQDA10 software. RESULTS: Data analysis led to the extraction of 3 themes, 9 categories, and 25 subcategories. The themes were as follows: "Fear of Disease", "Burnout", and "Lessons Learned from the COVID-19 Pandemic", respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Maternal health care providers experience emotional and psychological stress and work challenges during the current COVID-19 pandemic. Therefore, comprehensive support should be provided for the protection of their physical and mental health statuses. By working as a team, utilizing the capacity of telemedicine to care and follow up mothers, and providing maternity care at home, some emerged challenges to maternal care services can be overcome.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/psychology , Health Personnel/psychology , Maternal Health Services/statistics & numerical data , Perinatal Care/statistics & numerical data , Adult , Burnout, Psychological/psychology , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , Emotions/physiology , Female , Gynecology/statistics & numerical data , Health Personnel/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Interviews as Topic , Iran/epidemiology , Maternal Health Services/trends , Middle Aged , Midwifery/statistics & numerical data , Perinatal Care/organization & administration , Phobic Disorders/psychology , Pregnancy , Qualitative Research , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Stress, Psychological/psychology , Telemedicine/methods
18.
Microbiol Spectr ; 9(2): e0039121, 2021 10 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1443360

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) antibodies are an excellent indicator of past COVID-19 infection. As the COVID-19 pandemic progresses, retained sensitivity over time is an important quality in an antibody assay that is to be used for the purpose of population seroprevalence studies. We compared 5,788 health care worker (HCW) serum samples by using two serological assays (Abbott SARS-CoV-2 anti-nucleocapsid immunoglobulin G (IgG) and Roche anti-SARS-CoV-2 anti-nucleocapsid total antibody) and a subset of samples (all Abbott assay positive or grayzone, n = 485) on Wantai SARS-CoV-2 anti-spike antibody enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). For 367 samples from HCW with a previous PCR-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection, we correlated the timing of infection with assay results. Overall, seroprevalence was 4.2% on Abbott and 9.5% on Roche. Of those with previously confirmed infection, 41% (150/367) and 95% (348/367) tested positive on Abbott and Roche, respectively. At 21 weeks (150 days) after confirmed infection, positivity on Abbott started to decline. Roche positivity was retained for the entire study period (33 weeks). Factors associated (P ≤ 0.050) with Abbott seronegativity in those with previous PCR-confirmed infection included sex (odds ratio [OR], 0.30 male ; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.15 to 0.60), symptom severity (OR 0.19 severe symptoms; 95% CI, 0.05 to 0.61), ethnicity (OR, 0.28 Asian ethnicity; 95% CI, 0.12 to 0.60), and time since PCR diagnosis (OR, 2.06 for infection 6 months previously; 95% CI, 1.01 to 4.30). Wantai detected all previously confirmed infections. In our population, Roche detected antibodies up to at least 7 months after natural infection with SARS-CoV-2. This finding indicates that the Roche total antibody assay is better suited than Abbott IgG assay to population-based studies. Wantai demonstrated high sensitivity, but sample selection was biased. The relationship between serological response and functional immunity to SARS-CoV-2 infection needs to be delineated. IMPORTANCE As the COVID-19 pandemic progresses, retained sensitivity over time is an important quality in an antibody assay that is to be used for the purpose of population seroprevalence studies. There is a relative paucity of published literature in this field to help guide public health specialists when planning seroprevalence studies. In this study, we compared results of 5,788 health care worker blood samples tested by using two assays (Roche and Elecsys, anti-nucleocapsid antibody) and by testing a subset on a third assay (Wantai enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay [ELISA] anti-spike antibody). We found significant differences in the performance of these assays, especially with distance in time from PCR-confirmed COVID-19 infection, and we feel these results may significantly impact the choice of assay for others conducting similar studies.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19 Serological Testing/methods , COVID-19/diagnosis , Coronavirus Nucleocapsid Proteins/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Adult , Cross-Sectional Studies , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Female , Health Personnel/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Male , Middle Aged , Phosphoproteins/immunology , Sensitivity and Specificity , Seroepidemiologic Studies , Young Adult
19.
J Nerv Ment Dis ; 209(10): 720-726, 2021 10 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1440683

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT: The coronavirus pandemic (COVID-19) is predicted to increase burnout in health professionals (HPs), but little is known about moral injury (MI) in this context. We administered the Moral Injury Symptoms Scale for Health Professionals (MISS-HP) and the abbreviated Maslach Burnout Inventory via online survey to a global sample of 1831 HPs in April and October 2020. Mean MISS-HP increased from 27.4 (SD, 11.6) in April to 36.4 (SD, 13.8) in October (p < 0.001), with an accompanying increase in personal accomplishment (April: 4.7; SD, 3.1; October: 9.3; SD, 3.1; p < 0.001) and no change in other burnout subscales. In April, 26.7% of respondents reported at least moderate functional impairment from MI, increasing to 45.7% in October (p < 0.001). Predictors of MISS-HP included younger age and being a nurse. Odds of functional impairment were higher in respondents who were widowed, divorced, never married, or had direct experience caring for patients with COVID-19. COVID-19 has increased MI but not burnout in HPs; younger or unmarried individuals, nurses, and frontline workers may benefit from targeted outreach to reduce downstream effects of MI, depression, and/or posttraumatic stress disorder.


Subject(s)
Burnout, Professional/psychology , COVID-19/psychology , Health Personnel/psychology , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/psychology , Adult , Aged , Burnout, Professional/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Health Personnel/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2 , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/epidemiology , Surveys and Questionnaires , Young Adult
20.
Microbiol Spectr ; 9(2): e0108221, 2021 10 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1434911

ABSTRACT

We describe the results of testing health care workers, from a tertiary care hospital in Japan that had experienced a coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outbreak during the first peak of the pandemic, for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2)-specific antibody seroconversion. Using two chemiluminescent immunoassays and a confirmatory surrogate virus neutralization test, serological testing revealed that a surprising 42% of overlooked COVID-19 diagnoses (27/64 cases) occurred when case detection relied solely on SARS-CoV-2 nucleic acid amplification testing (NAAT). Our results suggest that the NAAT-positive population is only the tip of the iceberg and the portion left undetected might potentially have led to silent transmissions and triggered the spread. A questionnaire-based risk assessment was further indicative of exposures to specific aerosol-generating procedures (i.e., noninvasive ventilation and airway suctioning) having mediated transmission and served as the origins of the outbreak. Our observations are supportive of a multitiered testing approach, including the use of serological diagnostics, in order to accomplish exhaustive case detection along the whole COVID-19 spectrum. IMPORTANCE We describe the results of testing frontline health care workers, from a hospital in Japan that had experienced a COVID-19 outbreak, for SARS-CoV-2-specific antibodies. Antibody testing revealed that a surprising 42% of overlooked COVID-19 diagnoses occurred when case detection relied solely on PCR-based viral detection. COVID-19 clusters have been continuously striking the health care system around the globe. Our findings illustrate that such clusters are lined with hidden infections eluding detection with diagnostic PCR and that the cluster burden in total is more immense than actually recognized. The mainstays of diagnosing infectious diseases, including COVID-19, generally consist of two approaches, one aiming to detect molecular fragments of the invading pathogen and the other to measure immune responses of the host. Considering antibody testing as one trustworthy option to test our way through the pandemic can aid in the exhaustive case detection of COVID-19 patients with variable presentations.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19 Serological Testing/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cross Infection/epidemiology , Health Personnel/statistics & numerical data , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Adult , Antibodies, Viral/blood , Cost of Illness , Female , Humans , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Japan/epidemiology , Male , Neutralization Tests , Occupational Exposure , Risk Assessment , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Seroconversion , Surveys and Questionnaires , Tertiary Care Centers
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