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1.
Isr J Health Policy Res ; 11(1): 3, 2022 01 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1613252

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has underscored the changing role of scientists, clinicians, ethicists, and educators in advocacy as they rapidly translate their findings to inform practice and policy. Critical efforts have been directed towards understanding child well-being, especially with pandemic-related educational disruptions. While school closures were part of early widespread public health measures to curb the spread of COVID-19, they have not been without consequences for all children, and especially for children from disadvantaged backgrounds. In a recent Isr J Health Policy Res perspective, Paltiel and colleagues demonstrate the integral role of academic activism to promote child well-being during the pandemic by highlighting work of the multidisciplinary academic group on children and coronavirus (MACC). In this commentary, we explore parallels to MACC's work in an international context by describing the efforts of a multidisciplinary team at Johns Hopkins University in Baltimore, Maryland, United States, to aggregate data, conduct analyses, and offer training tools intended to minimize health and educational inequities for children throughout the COVID-19 pandemic. As both MACC and our work collectively demonstrates, multidisciplinary partnerships and public-facing data-driven initiatives are crucial to advocating for children's equitable access to quality health and education. This will likely not be the last pandemic that children experience in their lifetime. As such, efforts should be made to apply the lessons learned during the current pandemic to strengthen multidisciplinary academic-public partnerships which will continue to play a critical role in the future.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Child Health , Child , Health Policy , Humans , Israel , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , United States
2.
Salud Colect ; 16: e2897, 2020 10 17.
Article in Spanish | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1608979

ABSTRACT

Taking into account the latent threat of future pandemics, the objective of this study is to analyze - particularly with respect to medications - the sustainability of the health system, healthcare coverage, budgetary efficiency, and connections with the pharmaceutical patent system. In this context, the pharmaceutical patent system acts as a determining factor, given that promoting its existence stimulates the production of research, but in turn its existence stands in the way of rapid advancements, primarily due to the development of protective legislation concerning patents, which has largely accommodated the industry. Given that the pharmaceutical industry has managed to extend the duration of patents and avoid the incorporation of generics, our analysis focuses on the influence of pharmaceutical patents; this influence has led to reflection on the possibility of combining efforts by forging alliances between numerous companies and the public sector in order to face the challenges posed by new diseases caused by viruses that give rise to epidemics and pandemics.


Ante la amenaza latente de futuras pandemias, este estudio tiene como objetivo analizar ­desde el eje de los medicamentos­ la sostenibilidad del sistema sanitario, la cobertura, la eficiencia del gasto y su vinculación al sistema de patentes farmacéuticas. En este marco, el sistema de patentes farmacéuticas adquiere un papel determinante, dado que fomentar su existencia estimula la producción de investigación pero, a su vez, su existencia no suscita un rápido avance, debido al desarrollo legislativo protector que han tenido las patentes y que ha dado lugar a un acomodamiento de la industria. Como la industria farmacéutica ha conseguido extender la duración de patentes y evitar la incorporación de genéricos, se analiza la influencia de las patentes farmacéuticas que ha dado lugar a reflexionar acerca de la posibilidad de consorciar esfuerzos realizando alianzas entre varias empresas y el sector público para afrontar los retos que plantean nuevas enfermedades producidas por virus que dan lugar a epidemias y pandemias.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents , Drug Costs , Drug Industry/organization & administration , Health Policy , Health Services Accessibility/organization & administration , Patents as Topic , Virus Diseases/drug therapy , Antiviral Agents/economics , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Drugs, Generic , Global Health , Humans , Pandemics , Program Evaluation , Virus Diseases/economics , Virus Diseases/epidemiology , Virus Diseases/prevention & control
3.
PLoS One ; 17(1): e0262105, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1605301

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the use of a COVID-19 app containing relevant information for healthcare workers (HCWs) in hospitals and to determine user experience. METHODS: A smartphone app (Firstline) was adapted to exclusively contain local COVID-19 policy documents and treatment protocols. This COVID-19 app was offered to all HCWs of a 900-bed tertiary care hospital. App use was evaluated with user analytics and user experience in an online questionnaire. RESULTS: A total number of 1168 HCWs subscribed to the COVID-19 app which was used 3903 times with an average of 1 minute and 20 seconds per session during a three-month period. The number of active users peaked in April 2020 with 1017 users. Users included medical specialists (22.3%), residents (16.5%), nurses (22.2%), management (6.2%) and other (26.5%). Information for HCWs such as when to test for SARS-CoV-2 (1214), latest updates (1181), the COVID-19 telephone list (418) and the SARS-CoV-2 / COVID-19 guideline (280) were the most frequently accessed advice. Seventy-one users with a mean age of 46.1 years from 19 different departments completed the questionnaire. Respondents considered the COVID-19 app clear (54/59; 92%), easy-to-use (46/55; 84%), fast (46/52; 88%), useful (52/56; 93%), and had faith in the information (58/70; 83%). The COVID-19 app was used to quickly look up something (43/68; 63%), when no computer was available (15/68; 22%), look up / dial COVID-related phone numbers (15/68; 22%) or when walking from A to B (11/68; 16%). Few respondents felt app use cost time (5/68; 7%). CONCLUSIONS: Our COVID-19 app proved to be a relatively simple yet innovative tool that was used by HCWs from all disciplines involved in taking care of COVID-19 patients. The up-to-date app was used for different topics and had high user satisfaction amongst questionnaire respondents. An app with local hospital policy could be an invaluable tool during a pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Health Personnel , Hospitals , Mobile Applications , Health Policy , Humans , Information Dissemination , SARS-CoV-2 , Smartphone
4.
Front Public Health ; 9: 756677, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1604956

ABSTRACT

Background: China is generally regarded internationally as an "authoritarian" state. Traditional definitions have assigned many negative connotations surrounding the term of authoritarian. We realize that it might not be considered value-neutral in other countries. But authoritarian in the Chinese context emphasizes more on centralized decision making, collectivism, coordinating all activities of the nation, and public support, which is considered a value-neutral term. Therefore, it is adopted in this paper. We would like to clarify this. Authoritarian governance is considered an important mechanism for developing China's economy and solving social problems. The COVID-19 crisis is no exception. Most of the current research on crisis management and government crises focuses on advanced, democratic countries. However, the consequences of crisis management by authoritarian governments have not been fully appreciated. Although prior research has addressed authoritarian initiatives to manage crises in China, authoritarian interventions have rarely been theorized in public health emergencies. Methods: Based on a literature review and theoretical analysis, we use a descriptive and qualitative approach to assess public health policies and mechanisms from an authoritarian perspective in China. In light of the key events and intervention measures of China's government in response to COVID-19, the strategic practices of the Communist Party of China (CPC) to construct, embody, or set political goals through authoritarian intervention in public health crisis management are discussed. Results: China's government responded to the COVID-19 pandemic with a comprehensive authoritarian intervention, notably by establishing a top-down leadership mechanism, implementing a resolute lockdown, rapidly establishing square cabin hospitals, enhancing cooperation between different government departments, mobilizing a wide range of volunteer resources, enforcing the use of health codes, imposing mandatory quarantine on those returning from abroad, and implementing city-wide nucleic acid testing. These measures ensured that China was able to contain the outbreak quickly and reflect on the unique role of the Chinese authoritarian system in responding to public health crises. Conclusions: Our paper contributes to expanding the existing understanding of the relationship between crisis management and authoritarian system. China's response to COVID-19 exemplifies the unique strengths of authoritarian institutions in public health crisis management, which is a helpful and practical tool to further enhance the CPC's political legitimacy. As a socialist model of crisis management with Chinese characteristics, it may offer desirable experiences and lessons for other countries still ravaged by the epidemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , China , Communicable Disease Control , Health Policy , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
5.
J Prim Care Community Health ; 12: 21501319211069473, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1593650

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Federally-funded community health centers (CHCs) serve on the front lines of the COVID-19 pandemic, providing essential COVID-19 testing and care for vulnerable patient populations. Overlooked in the scholarly literature is a description of how different characteristics and vulnerabilities shaped COVID-19 care delivery at CHCs in the first year of the pandemic. Our research objective was to identify organization- and state-level factors associated with more or fewer COVID-19 care and testing visits at CHCs in 2020. METHODS: Multilevel random intercept regression models examined associations among organization and state-level predictor variables and the frequency of COVID-19 care and testing visits at CHCs in 2020. The study sample included 1267 CHCs across the 50 states and the District of Columbia. RESULTS: The average CHC provided 932 patient visits for COVID-19-related care in 2020. Yet, the CHC's role in delivering COVID-19 services proved as diverse as the populations and localities CHCs serve. For example, after adjusting for other factors, each percentage-point increase in a CHC's Hispanic patient population size was associated with a 1.3% increase in the frequency of patient visits for COVID-19 care in 2020 (P < .001). Serving a predominantly rural patient population was associated with providing significantly fewer COVID-19-related care visits (P = .002). Operating in a state that enacted a mask-wearing policy in 2020 was associated with a 26.2% lower frequency of COVID-19 testing visits at CHCs in 2020, compared to CHCs operating in states without mask-wearing policies (P = .055). CONCLUSIONS: In response to the pandemic, the federal government legislated funding to help CHCs address challenges associated with COVID-19 and provide services to medically-underserved patient populations. Policymakers will likely need to provide additional support to help CHCs address population-specific vulnerabilities affecting COVID-19 care and testing delivery, especially as highly contagious COVID-19 variants proliferate (eg, Delta and Omicron).


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Testing/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19 , Community Health Centers/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19/drug therapy , Communicable Disease Control/methods , Health Policy , Humans , Masks , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , United States
7.
Am J Nurs ; 122(1): 48-53, 2022 01 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1584032

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT: COVID-19 has accelerated the dialogue surrounding access to health insurance, including the potential for a public option, "Medicare for All," or modification of the 2010 Affordable Care Act. A dizzying array of terms and assertions surround these health policy discussions, as well as misrepresentation and lack of specificity. This article offers a primer on contemporary reform terms and options that are likely to be prominent over the next several years and outlines some health care-related elements of the American Rescue Plan Act, a massive COVID-relief act passed in March 2021. The aim of this nonpartisan overview is to enhance nurses' understanding of these terms as a basis for effective participation in public policy and patient advocacy.


Subject(s)
Communication , Health Care Reform/methods , Health Care Reform/trends , Health Policy , Humans , United States
8.
Isr J Health Policy Res ; 10(1): 66, 2021 12 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1582010

ABSTRACT

For ten years the Israel Journal of Health Policy Research has provided a platform for exchange of knowledge and insights on health policy. It is a unique attempt by scholars and practitioners in one small country to share their knowledge with the world and, in turn to learn from experience elsewhere. Never has this role been as important as during the COVID pandemic, a message that is very clear when we look at failings elsewhere.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Health Policy , Humans , Israel , Research , SARS-CoV-2
9.
Health Res Policy Syst ; 19(1): 152, 2021 Dec 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1577206

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The steady rise in noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) worldwide has been a key global health challenge. Governments have the primary responsibility for taking action to prevent and control NCDs. Given the growing importance of globalization of healthcare as well as the increasing use of soft power, governments need to identify challenges and opportunities to enhance global health diplomacy (GHD) for NCD prevention and control. The purpose of this qualitative research was to explain the challenges and opportunities of GHD for NCDs in Iran. METHODS: This study was conducted in 2020 using a qualitative approach and through in-depth, semi-structured interviews with 21 experts and specialists in related fields such as health policy, healthcare management, epidemiology and other related specialties. The participants were selected from all levels of diplomacy, including global, regional and national levels, with at least 3 years of experience in managerial, executive and scientific activities. Data analysis was performed by content analysis with an inductive approach. Data were analysed using inductive content analysis. RESULTS: The identified challenges were categorized into five main themes, including content challenges, structural challenges, process challenges, governance challenges and cultural challenges. Opportunities extracted from the interviews were also categorized into four main themes, including strong political will, utilizing the capacity of nongovernmental organizations (NGOs), multisectoral collaborations and a well-developed health system. CONCLUSIONS: NCD prevention and control requires a multilateral collaboration-based solution. Recognition of the challenges and opportunities in GHD can help draw significant lessons for building the necessary capacities and implementing more effective policies to prevent and control NCDs.


Subject(s)
Diplomacy , Noncommunicable Diseases , Global Health , Health Policy , Humans , Iran , Noncommunicable Diseases/prevention & control
10.
Health Res Policy Syst ; 19(1): 153, 2021 Dec 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1577205

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Globally, policy-makers face challenges to using evidence in health decision-making, particularly lack of interaction between research and policy. Knowledge-brokering mechanisms can fill research-policy gaps and facilitate evidence-informed policy-making. In Myanmar, the need to promote evidence-informed policy is significant, and thus a mechanism was set up for this purpose. This paper discusses lessons learned from the development of the Knowledge Broker Group-Myanmar (KBG-M), supported by the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health's Applied Mental Health Research Group (JHU) and Community Partners International (CPI). METHODS: Sixteen stakeholders were interviewed to explore challenges in formulating evidence-informed policy. Two workshops were held: the first to further understand the needs of policy-makers and discuss knowledge-brokering approaches, and the second to co-create the KBG-M structure and process. The KBG-M was then envisioned as an independent body, with former officials of the Ministry of Health and Sports (MoHS) and representatives from the nongovernmental sector actively engaging in the health sector, with an official collaboration with the MoHS. RESULTS: A development task force that served as an advisory committee was established. Then, steps were taken to establish the KBG-M and obtain official recognition from the MoHS. Finally, when the technical agreement with the MoHS was nearly complete, the process stopped because of the military coup on 1 February 2021, and is now on hold indefinitely. CONCLUSIONS: Learning from this process may be helpful for future or current knowledge-brokering efforts, particularly in fragile, conflict-affected settings. Experienced and committed advisory committee members enhanced stakeholder relationships. Responsive coordination mechanisms allowed for adjustments to a changing bureaucratic landscape. Coordination with similar initiatives avoided overlap and identified areas needing technical support. Recommendations to continue the work of the KBG-M itself or similar platforms include the following: increase resilience to contextual changes by ensuring diverse partnerships, maintain advisory committee members experienced and influential in the policy-making process, ensure strong organizational and funding support for effective functioning and sustainability, have budget and timeline flexibility to allow sufficient time and resources for establishment, organize ongoing needs assessments to identify areas needing technical support and to develop responsive corrective approaches, and conduct information sharing and collaboration between stakeholders to ensure alignment.


Subject(s)
Health Policy , Policy Making , Administrative Personnel , Humans , Myanmar , Public Health
11.
J Med Internet Res ; 23(2): e26081, 2021 02 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1575190

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic has had profound and differential impacts on metropolitan areas across the United States and around the world. Within the United States, metropolitan areas that were hit earliest with the pandemic and reacted with scientifically based health policy were able to contain the virus by late spring. For other areas that kept businesses open, the first wave in the United States hit in mid-summer. As the weather turns colder, universities resume classes, and people tire of lockdowns, a second wave is ascending in both metropolitan and rural areas. It becomes more obvious that additional SARS-CoV-2 surveillance is needed at the local level to track recent shifts in the pandemic, rates of increase, and persistence. OBJECTIVE: The goal of this study is to provide advanced surveillance metrics for COVID-19 transmission that account for speed, acceleration, jerk and persistence, and weekly shifts, to better understand and manage risk in metropolitan areas. Existing surveillance measures coupled with our dynamic metrics of transmission will inform health policy to control the COVID-19 pandemic until, and after, an effective vaccine is developed. Here, we provide values for novel indicators to measure COVID-19 transmission at the metropolitan area level. METHODS: Using a longitudinal trend analysis study design, we extracted 260 days of COVID-19 data from public health registries. We used an empirical difference equation to measure the daily number of cases in the 25 largest US metropolitan areas as a function of the prior number of cases and weekly shift variables based on a dynamic panel data model that was estimated using the generalized method of moments approach by implementing the Arellano-Bond estimator in R. RESULTS: Minneapolis and Chicago have the greatest average number of daily new positive results per standardized 100,000 population (which we refer to as speed). Extreme behavior in Minneapolis showed an increase in speed from 17 to 30 (67%) in 1 week. The jerk and acceleration calculated for these areas also showed extreme behavior. The dynamic panel data model shows that Minneapolis, Chicago, and Detroit have the largest persistence effects, meaning that new cases pertaining to a specific week are statistically attributable to new cases from the prior week. CONCLUSIONS: Three of the metropolitan areas with historically early and harsh winters have the highest persistence effects out of the top 25 most populous metropolitan areas in the United States at the beginning of their cold weather season. With these persistence effects, and with indoor activities becoming more popular as the weather gets colder, stringent COVID-19 regulations will be more important than ever to flatten the second wave of the pandemic. As colder weather grips more of the nation, southern metropolitan areas may also see large spikes in the number of cases.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Communicable Disease Control , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/transmission , Health Policy , Humans , Longitudinal Studies , Models, Statistical , Pandemics , Public Health , Public Health Surveillance , Registries , SARS-CoV-2 , United States/epidemiology
12.
Rev Med Virol ; 31(5): 1-8, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1574179

ABSTRACT

The spread of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and the resulting disease COVID-19 has killed over 2 million people as of 22 January 2021. We have used a modified susceptible, infected, recovered epidemiological model to predict how the spread of the virus in France will vary depending on the public health strategies adopted, including anti-COVID-19 vaccination. Our prediction model indicates that the French authorities' adoption of a gradual release from lockdown could lead in March 2021 to a virus prevalence similar to that before lockdown. However, a massive vaccination campaign initiated in January 2021 and the continuation of public health measures over several months could curb the spread of virus and thus relieve the load on hospitals.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/transmission , Communicable Disease Control/methods , Health Policy , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , France/epidemiology , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Public Health/legislation & jurisprudence , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Young Adult
13.
PLoS One ; 16(3): e0248387, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1573672

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: The study aims to investigate GPs' experiences of how UK COVID-19 policies have affected the management and safety of complex elderly patients, who suffer from multimorbidity, at the primary care level in North West London (NWL). DESIGN: This is a service evaluation adopting a qualitative approach. SETTING: Individual semi-structured interviews were conducted between 6 and 22 May 2020, 2 months after the introduction of the UK COVID-19 Action Plan, allowing GPs to adapt to the new changes and reflect on their impact. PARTICIPANTS: Fourteen GPs working in NWL were interviewed, until data saturation was reached. OUTCOME MEASURES: The impact of COVID-19 policies on the management and safety of complex elderly patients in primary care from the GPs' perspective. RESULTS: Participants' average experience was fourteen years working in primary care for the NHS. They stated that COVID-19 policies have affected primary care at three levels, patients' behaviour, work conditions, and clinical practice. GPs reflected on the impact through five major themes; four of which have been adapted from the Safety Attitudes Questionnaire (SAQ) framework, changes in primary care (at the three levels mentioned above), involvement of GPs in policy making, communication and coordination (with patients and in between medical teams), stressors and worries; in addition to a fifth theme to conclude the GPs' suggestions for improvement (either proposed mitigation strategies, or existing actions that showed relative success). A participant used an expression of "infodemic" to describe the GPs' everyday pressure of receiving new policy updates with their subsequent changes in practice. CONCLUSION: The COVID-19 pandemic has affected all levels of the health system in the UK, particularly primary care. Based on the GPs' perspective in NWL, changes to practice have offered opportunities to maintain safe healthcare as well as possible drawbacks that should be of concern.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , General Practitioners/psychology , Patient Safety , Primary Health Care , Aged , Attitude of Health Personnel , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/virology , Health Policy , Humans , Interviews as Topic , Pandemics , Policy Making , Qualitative Research , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , United Kingdom/epidemiology
14.
PLoS One ; 16(12): e0261115, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1574235

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The United States is experiencing a drug addiction and overdose crisis, made worse by the COVID-19 pandemic. Relative to other types of health services, addiction treatment and overdose prevention services are particularly vulnerable to disaster-related disruptions for multiple reasons including fragmentation from the general medical system and stigma, which may lead decisionmakers and providers to de-prioritize these services during disasters. In response to the COVID-19 pandemic, U.S. states implemented multiple policies designed to mitigate disruptions to addiction treatment and overdose prevention services, for example policies expanding access to addiction treatment delivered via telehealth and policies designed to support continuity of naloxone distribution programs. There is limited evidence on the effects of these policies on addiction treatment and overdose. This evidence is needed to inform state policy design in future disasters, as well as to inform decisions regarding whether to sustain these policies post-pandemic. METHODS: The overall study uses a concurrent-embedded design. Aims 1-2 use difference-in-differences analyses of large-scale observational databases to examine how state policies designed to mitigate the effects of the COVID-19 pandemic on health services delivery influenced addiction treatment delivery and overdose during the pandemic. Aim 3 uses a qualitative embedded multiple case study approach, in which we characterize local implementation of the state policies of interest; most public health disaster policies are enacted at the state level but implemented at the local level by healthcare systems and local public health authorities. DISCUSSION: Triangulation of results across methods will yield robust understanding of whether and how state disaster-response policies influenced drug addiction treatment and overdose during the COVID-19 pandemic. Results will inform policy enactment and implementation in future public health disasters. Results will also inform decisions about whether to sustain COVID-19 pandemic-related changes to policies governing delivery addiction and overdose prevention services long-term.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Delivery of Health Care/methods , Drug Overdose/drug therapy , Substance-Related Disorders/therapy , Disasters , Drug Overdose/mortality , Health Policy , Health Services , Humans , Outcome and Process Assessment, Health Care , United States
16.
Value Health ; 24(11): 1551-1569, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1557697

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: The COVID-19 pandemic has had a major impact on our society, with drastic policy restrictions being implemented to contain the spread of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2. This study aimed to provide an overview of the available evidence on the cost-effectiveness of various coronavirus disease 2019 policy measures. METHODS: A systematic literature search was conducted in PubMed, Embase, and Web of Science. Health economic evaluations considering both costs and outcomes were included. Their quality was comprehensively assessed using the Consensus Health Economic Criteria checklist. Next, the quality of the epidemiological models was evaluated. RESULTS: A total of 3688 articles were identified (March 2021), of which 23 were included. The studies were heterogeneous with regard to methodological quality, contextual factors, strategies' content, adopted perspective, applied models, and outcomes used. Overall, testing/screening, social distancing, personal protective equipment, quarantine/isolation, and hygienic measures were found to be cost-effective. Furthermore, the most optimal choice and combination of strategies depended on the reproduction number and context. With a rising reproduction number, extending the testing strategy and early implementation of combined multiple restriction measures are most efficient. CONCLUSIONS: The quality assessment highlighted numerous flaws and limitations in the study approaches; hence, their results should be interpreted with caution because the specific context (country, target group, etc) is a key driver for cost-effectiveness. Finally, including a societal perspective in future evaluations is key because this pandemic has an indirect impact on the onset and treatment of other conditions and on our global economy.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/economics , Cost-Benefit Analysis/standards , Health Policy/economics , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Cost-Benefit Analysis/trends , Health Policy/trends , Humans
18.
Health Policy ; 126(1): 1-6, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1549805

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic is a catastrophe. It was also preventable. The potential impacts of a novel pathogen were foreseen and for decades scientists and commentators around the world warned of the threat. Most governments and global institutions failed to heed the warnings or to pay enough attention to risks emerging at the interface of human, animal, and environmental health. We were not ready for COVID-19, and people, economies, and governments around the world have suffered as a result. We must learn from these experiences now and implement transformational changes so that we can prevent future crises, and if and when emergencies do emerge, we can respond in more timely, robust and equitable ways, and minimize immediate and longer-term impacts. In 2020-21 the Pan-European Commission on Health and Sustainable Development assessed the challenges posed by COVID-19 in the WHO European region and the lessons from the response. The Commissioners have addressed health in its entirety, analyzing the interactions between health and sustainable development and considering how other policy priorities can contribute to achieving both. The Commission's final report makes a series of policy recommendations that are evidence-informed and above all actionable. Adopting them would achieve seven key objectives and help build truly sustainable health systems and fairer societies.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Government , Health Policy , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2
19.
Pan Afr Med J ; 40: 51, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1547785

ABSTRACT

Implementing health-system strengthening policies remains a challenge in Africa. Past successes, predictable but unanticipated flaws, underutilization of health services, traditional medicine, global inequity and poor practice by local stakeholders are some of the reasons many African countries have made little progress towards attaining global health goals. As a result, Africa has the highest disease burden despite multiple efforts from the global health community. These raise the question: what has to change so that health systems strengthening efforts in Africa are successful?


Subject(s)
Delivery of Health Care/organization & administration , Global Health , Health Policy , Africa , Health Services Misuse , Humans , Implementation Science
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