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1.
Health Res Policy Syst ; 20(1): 8, 2022 Jan 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1634970

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The INFORMAS [International Network for Food and Obesity/Non-communicable Diseases (NCDs) Research, Monitoring and Action Support] Healthy Food Environment Policy Index (Food-EPI) was developed to evaluate the degree of implementation of widely recommended food environment policies by national governments against international best practice, and has been applied in New Zealand in 2014, 2017 and 2020. This paper outlines the 2020 Food-EPI process and compares policy implementation and recommendations with the 2014 and 2017 Food-EPI. METHODS: In March-April 2020, a national panel of over 50 public health experts participated in Food-EPI. Experts rated the extent of implementation of 47 "good practice" policy and infrastructure support indicators compared to international best practice, using an extensive evidence document verified by government officials. Experts then proposed and prioritized concrete actions needed to address the critical implementation gaps identified. Progress on policy implementation and recommendations made over the three Food-EPIs was compared. RESULTS: In 2020, 60% of the indicators were rated as having "low" or "very little, if any" implementation compared to international benchmarks: less progress than 2017 (47%) and similar to 2014 (61%). Of the nine priority actions proposed in 2014, there was only noticeable action on one (Health Star Ratings). The majority of actions were therefore proposed again in 2017 and 2020. In 2020 the proposed actions were broader, reflecting the need for multisectoral action to improve the food environment, and the need for a mandatory approach in all policy areas. CONCLUSIONS: There has been little to no progress in the past three terms of government (9 years) on the implementation of policies and infrastructure support for healthy food environments, with implementation overall regressing between 2017 and 2020. The proposed actions in 2020 have reflected a growing movement to locate nutrition within the wider context of planetary health and with recognition of the social determinants of health and nutrition, resulting in recommendations that will require the involvement of many government entities to overcome the existing policy inertia. The increase in food insecurity due to COVID-19 lockdowns may provide the impetus to stimulate action on food polices.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Health Promotion , Communicable Disease Control , Health Policy , Humans , New Zealand , Nutrition Policy , SARS-CoV-2
3.
BMJ ; 376: e064225, 2022 01 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1607558
4.
BMC Pregnancy Childbirth ; 22(1): 5, 2022 Jan 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1605314

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The Salud Mesoamérica Initiative (SMI) is a public-private collaboration aimed to improve maternal and child health conditions in the poorest populations of Mesoamerica through a results-based aid mechanism. We assess the impact of SMI on the staffing and availability of equipment and supplies for delivery care, the proportion of institutional deliveries, and the proportion of women who choose a facility other than the one closest to their locality of residence for delivery. METHODS: We used a quasi-experimental design, including baseline and follow-up measurements between 2013 and 2018 in intervention and comparison areas of Guatemala, Nicaragua, and Honduras. We collected information on 8754 births linked to the health facility closest to the mother's locality of residence and the facility where the delivery took place (if attended in a health facility). We fit difference-in-difference models, adjusting for women's characteristics (age, parity, education), household characteristics, exposure to health promotion interventions, health facility level, and country. RESULTS: Equipment, inputs, and staffing of facilities improved after the Initiative in both intervention and comparison areas. After adjustment for covariates, institutional delivery increased between baseline and follow-up by 3.1 percentage points (ß = 0.031, 95% CI -0.03, 0.09) more in intervention areas than in comparison areas. The proportion of women in intervention areas who chose a facility other than their closest one to attend the delivery decreased between baseline and follow-up by 13 percentage points (ß = - 0.130, 95% CI -0.23, - 0.03) more than in the comparison group. CONCLUSIONS: Results indicate that women in intervention areas of SMI are more likely to go to their closest facility to attend delivery after the Initiative has improved facilities' capacity, suggesting that results-based aid initiatives targeting poor populations, like SMI, can increase the use of facilities closest to the place of residence for delivery care services. This should be considered in the design of interventions after the COVID-19 pandemic may have changed health and social conditions.


Subject(s)
Delivery, Obstetric , Health Promotion , Health Services Accessibility , Maternal Health Services , Prenatal Care , Adolescent , Adult , Female , Guatemala , Health Facilities , Honduras , Humans , Middle Aged , Nicaragua , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Outcome , Young Adult
5.
Am J Health Behav ; 45(6): 1059-1078, 2021 11 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1591148

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: COVID-19 has spread globally and infected millions of people, thereby restricting their movement. Quarantine hotels play an important role in protecting people from COVID-19 and contribute to a better quality of life. The objective of this study was to examine the role of quarantine hotels in providing improved quality of life through both medical and hospitality services under one roof to address the COVID-19 situation in Saudi Arabia. METHODS: This study used a quantitative, cross-sectional research design. Data were collected from quarantine hotels in Saudi Arabia using a survey, and analyzed through Partial Least Square (PLS)-Structural Equation Modeling (SEM). RESULTS: Medical service quality, financial savings and convenience had a positive effect on people's attitudes and intention to use quarantine hotels. Similarly, attitude, intention, and hospitality products had a positive effect on health behavior, which favorably affected quality of life. CONCLUSIONS: Medical service quality, financial savings, and convenience, as well as hospitality provided by quarantine hotels, have a positive role in promoting health behavior and quality of life.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Quality of Life , Cross-Sectional Studies , Delivery of Health Care , Health Behavior , Health Promotion , Humans , Quarantine , SARS-CoV-2
6.
Health Promot Int ; 36(6): 1517-1520, 2021 Dec 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1598780
7.
Am J Public Health ; 112(1): 29-33, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1597066

ABSTRACT

Minority populations have been disproportionately affected by the COVID-19 pandemic, and disparities have been noted in vaccine uptake. In the state of Arkansas, health equity strike teams (HESTs) were deployed to address vaccine disparities. A total of 13 470 vaccinations were administered by HESTs to 10 047 eligible people at 45 events. Among these individuals, 5645 (56.2%) were African American, 2547 (25.3%) were White, and 1068 (10.6%) were Hispanic. Vaccination efforts must specifically target populations that have been disproportionately affected by the pandemic. (Am J Public Health. 2022;112(1):29-33. https://doi.org/10.2105/AJPH.2021.306564).


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Health Equity/organization & administration , Healthcare Disparities/ethnology , Vaccination/statistics & numerical data , Adult , Aged , Arkansas , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , Health Promotion/organization & administration , Healthcare Disparities/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Middle Aged , Social Determinants of Health
8.
Am J Health Promot ; 36(2): 232-235, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1582673

ABSTRACT

Each year the editorial team of the American Journal of Health Promotion selects our "Best of the Year List" of health promotion studies from the prior year. This editorial features the Editor's Picks Awards, the Editor in Chief Awards, the Michael P. O'Donnell Award and the Dorothy Nyswander Award for the research and writing published in 2021 in this journal. Our criteria for selection includes: whether the study addresses a topic of timely importance in health promotion, the research question is clearly stated and the methodologies used are well executed; whether the paper is often cited and downloaded; if the study findings offer a unique contribution to the literature; and if the paper is well-written and enjoyable to read. Awardees in 2021 offered new insights into addressing discrimination against race or sexual identity, preferred sources of information about COVID-19 and the impact of community and workplace interventions on healthy lifestyles. This year's award winning research spans from character to culture relative to improving well-being.


Subject(s)
Awards and Prizes , COVID-19 , Health Promotion , Humans , Research Personnel , SARS-CoV-2 , United States
9.
Nutrients ; 14(1)2021 Dec 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1580549

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), the pathogen responsible for the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and the ongoing worldwide pandemic, has cost the lives of almost 5 [...].


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/therapy , Diet/methods , Dietary Supplements , Health Promotion/methods , Life Style , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
10.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(24)2021 12 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1572487

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to examine changes in physical activity (PA) and recreational screen time (RST) behaviors from pre-COVID-19 in 2018 to Spring 2020 during the mandatory stay-at-home order in an ethnically/racially, socioeconomically diverse sample of emerging adults. METHODS: Longitudinal data were analyzed from 218 participants (Mage = 24.6 ± 2.0 years) who completed two surveys: EAT 2018 (Eating and Activity over Time) and C-EAT in 2020 (during COVID-19). Repeated ANCOVAs and multiple linear regression models were conducted. RESULTS: Moderate-to-vigorous and total PA decreased (4.7 ± 0.3 to 3.5 ± 0.3 h/week [p < 0.001] and 7.9 ± 0.4 to 5.8 ± 0.4 h/week [p < 0.001], respectively), and RST increased from 26.5 ± 0.9 to 29.4 ± 0.8 h/week (p = 0.003). Perceived lack of neighborhood safety, ethnic/racial minoritized identities, and low socioeconomic status were significant predictors of lower PA and higher RST during COVID-19. For example, low SES was associated with 4.04 fewer hours of total PA compared to high SES (p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Stay-at-home policies may have significantly influenced PA and RST levels in emerging adults with pre-existing disparities exacerbated during this mandatory period of sheltering-in-place. This suggests that the pandemic may have played a role in introducing or magnifying these disparities. Post-pandemic interventions will be needed to reverse trends in PA and RST, with a focus on improving neighborhood safety and meeting the needs of low socioeconomic and ethnic/racial minoritized groups.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adult , Exercise , Health Promotion , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Screen Time , Surveys and Questionnaires , Young Adult
11.
Health Promot Int ; 36(Supplement_1): i24-i38, 2021 Dec 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1569699

ABSTRACT

Community engagement is crucial for controlling disease outbreak and mitigating natural and industrial disasters. The COVID-19 pandemic has reconfirmed the need to elevate community engagement to build equity, trust and sustained action in future health promotion preparedness strategies. Using the health promotion strategy of strengthening community action enhances the opportunity for better outcomes. There is, therefore, a need to improve our understanding of community engagement practices during crises, scale-up good community engagement initiatives, and improve and sustain people-centered approaches to emergency responses. This paper presents five case studies from the United States, Singapore, Sierra Leone, Kenya and South Africa that demonstrate the potential strengths that can be nurtured to build resilience in local communities to help mitigate the impact of disasters and emergencies. The case studies highlight the importance of co-developing relevant education and communication strategies, amplifying the role of community leaders, empowering community members to achieve shared goals, assessing and adapting to changing contexts, pre-planning and readiness for future emergencies and acknowledgement of historic context.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Community Participation , Health Promotion , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , United States
12.
J Christ Nurs ; 39(1): 36-41, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1561288

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT: In the face of a public health emergency, nurses, particularly those serving faith communities, need to understand and live out their roles in adhering to evidence-based practice while demonstrating grace and obedience to Scripture. Serving as public health role models and advocates, nurses in faith communities can inform and support church leaders in following government directives for the common good. Applicable Scripture, ethical, and research considerations are presented.


Subject(s)
Health Promotion , Pandemics , Cooperative Behavior , Humans
13.
J Am Pharm Assoc (2003) ; 62(1): 286-287, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1519779

ABSTRACT

Vaccines to help prevent COVID-19 disease have evoked myriad human emotions. Attitudes of the public toward vaccination can be grouped into hundreds of categories. Pharmacists need to recognize the many elements of what may be termed "vaccine humanity," a complex tangle of human responses. Vaccine humanity applies to all vaccines, not just COVID-19 vaccines. Many of the emotions (pro and con) exhibited toward COVID-19 vaccines were also expressed (pro and con) with Edward Jenner's smallpox vaccine in the 1800s. New disease, new vaccines, same humanity. Human behaviors to seek or decline vaccination typically pivot on several core elements: perceptions of susceptibility to disease, seriousness of the disease, benefits of vaccination, and barriers (e.g., safety concerns, distance, costs, uncertainty). The pharmacist who contributes the time to listen and explain--listen and explain--listen and explain performs a vital clinical service: enabling vaccinations that promote health and prevent disease.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Vaccines , COVID-19 Vaccines , Health Promotion , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination
14.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(21)2021 10 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1512278

ABSTRACT

Total Worker Health® (TWH), an initiative of the U.S. National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, is defined as policies, programs, and practices that integrate protection from work-related health and safety hazards by promoting efforts that advance worker well-being. Interventions that apply the TWH paradigm improve workplace health more rapidly than wellness programs alone. Evidence of the barriers and facilitators to the adoption, implementation, and long-term maintenance of TWH programs is limited. Dissemination and implementation (D&I) science, the study of methods and strategies for bridging the gap between public health research and practice, can help address these system-, setting-, and worker-level factors to increase the uptake, impact, and sustainment of TWH activities. The purpose of this paper is to draw upon a synthesis of existing D&I science literature to provide TWH researchers and practitioners with: (1) an overview of D&I science; (2) a plain language explanation of key concepts in D&I science; (3) a case study example of moving a TWH intervention down the research-to-practice pipeline; and (4) a discussion of future opportunities for conducting D&I science in complex and dynamic workplace settings to increase worker safety, health, and well-being.


Subject(s)
Occupational Health , Health Promotion , Implementation Science , Public Health , Workplace
15.
Nihon Eiseigaku Zasshi ; 76(0)2021.
Article in Japanese | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1506199

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: In this study, we aimed to clarify the transition to the implementation of smoking prohibition at eating and drinking establishments one year before and after April 2020, the time when they became "nonsmoking" in principle following the implementation of the amendment bill for the Health Promotion Act of Japan. METHODS: The total number of nonsmoking/smoking eating and drinking establishments by industry were obtained using the data from "Tabelog®." The number of people who tested positive for COVID-19 by the polymerase chain reaction test on the day of the survey nationwide and the bankruptcy status of the companies (eating and drinking establishments, etc.) for each month were ascertained. RESULTS: In 2020, a state of emergency was declared owing to the increase in the number of people positive for COVID-19, and many eating and drinking establishments went bankrupt. Despite these circumstances, the number of nonsmoking eating and drinking establishments exceeded that of smoking establishments in March 2020 and continued to increase thereafter. Additionally, the number of nonsmoking "restaurants" increased and exceeded that of smoking restaurants in June 2020. The number of nonsmoking "cafes" already exceeded that of smoking "cafes" at the beginning of this survey and continued to increase. The number of nonsmoking "bars" increased, but that of smoking "bars" remained high. CONCLUSION: It is necessary to promote measures against passive smoking while paying attention to the trends for different types of eating and drinking establishments, rather than considering all establishments together.


Subject(s)
Public Policy/legislation & jurisprudence , Restaurants/legislation & jurisprudence , Smoking/legislation & jurisprudence , Tobacco Smoke Pollution/prevention & control , COVID-19 , Health Promotion , Humans , Japan , Public Policy/trends , Restaurants/statistics & numerical data , SARS-CoV-2 , Smoking Prevention/statistics & numerical data
16.
Hum Resour Health ; 19(1): 136, 2021 11 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1505543

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Health care workers (HCWs) are among the high-risk groups in contracting and dying from COVID-19. World Health Organization estimates that over 10,000 HCWs in Africa have been infected with COVID-19 making it a significant occupational health hazard to HCWs. In Ghana, over 100 HCWs have already been infected and dozen others died from the virus. Acceptability and uptake of the COVID-19 vaccine is therefore critical to promote health and safety of HCWs as the country battles out of a third wave of the pandemic. OBJECTIVE: The study sought to ascertain the correlates of HCWs likelihood of participating in a COVID-19 vaccine trial and accepting the vaccine when given the opportunity. METHODS: The study was a web-based cross-sectional survey among HCWs (n = 1605) in all sixteen (16) administrative regions in Ghana. Data were analyzed with STATA statistical analysis software (version 14). Chi-square (X2) and Fisher's exact tests were used to test for differences in categorical variables; bivariate probit regression analysis with Average Marginal Effect (AME) was employed to ascertain the determinants of HCWs' likelihood of participating in a COVID-19 vaccine trial and taking the vaccine. RESULTS: It was found that 48% of HCWs will participate in a COVID-19 vaccine trial when given the opportunity; 70% will accept the COVID-19 vaccine; younger HCWs (AME = 0.28, SE = 0.16, p < 0.1), non-Christians (AME = 21, SE = 0.09, p < 0.05) and those who worked in faith-based health facilities (AME = 18, SE = 0.07, p < 0.05) were more likely to participate in a COVID-19 vaccine trial. Female HCWs (AME = - 11, SE = 0.04, p < 0.05) and those with lower educational qualification were less likely to accept a COVID-19 vaccine (AME = - 0.16, SE = 0.08, p < 0.1). Reasons cited for unwillingness to participate in a COVID-19 vaccine trial or uptake the vaccine were mainly fear, safety concerns, mistrust, uncertainty, spiritual and religious beliefs. CONCLUSIONS: Acceptance of the COVID-19 vaccine appear to be high among HCWs; conversely, willingness to volunteer for the vaccine trial was low. Continuous targeted and integrated public health education for HCWs will enhance vaccine acceptability to promote safety and population health in the global south as Ghana intensifies efforts to produce COVID-19 vaccines locally.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Vaccines , COVID-19 Vaccines , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Ghana , Health Personnel , Health Promotion , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
17.
BMJ Open ; 11(9): e051209, 2021 09 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1495465

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The conceptualisation of healthy ageing phenotype (HAP) and the availability of a tentative panel for HAP biomarkers raise the need to test the efficacy of potential interventions to promote health in older adults. This study protocol reports the methodology for a 24-week programme to explore the holistic influence of the yoga-based intervention on the (bio)markers of HAP. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: The study is a two-armed, randomised waitlist controlled trial with blinded outcome assessors and multiple primary outcomes. We aim to recruit 250 subjects, aged 60-80 years from the residential communities and old age clubs in Bangalore city, India, who will undergo randomisation into intervention or control arms (1:1). The intervention will include a yoga-based programme tailored for the older adults, 1 hour per day for 6 days a week, spread for 24 weeks. Data would be collected at the baseline and post-intervention, the 24th week. The multiple primary outcomes of the study are the (bio)markers of HAP: glycated haemoglobin, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), systolic blood pressure, and forced expiratory volume in 1 s for physiological and metabolic health; Digit Symbol Substitution Test, Trail Making Tests A and B for cognition; hand grip strength and gait speed for physical capability; loneliness for social well-being and WHO Quality of Life Instrument-Short Form for quality of life. The secondary outcomes include inflammatory markers, tumour necrosis factor-alpha receptor II, C reactive protein, interleukin 6 and serum Klotho levels. Analyses will be by intention-to-treat and the holistic impact of yoga on HAP will be assessed using global statistical test. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: The study is approved by the Institutional Ethics Committee of Swami Vivekananda Yoga Anusandhana Samsthana University, Bangalore (ID: RES/IEC-SVYASA/143/2019). Written informed consent will be obtained from each participant prior to inclusion. Results will be available through research articles and conferences. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: CTRI/2021/02/031373.


Subject(s)
Healthy Aging , Yoga , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Hand Strength , Health Promotion , Humans , India , Middle Aged , Phenotype , Quality of Life , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic
18.
Acta odontol. Colomb. (En linea) ; 11(1): 71-82, 2021. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS (Americas) | ID: covidwho-1498038

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: describir las aplicaciones de la teleodontología para la atención de pacientes durante y posterior a la pandemia de la COVID-19. Método: la búsqueda de artículos sobre teleodontología se realizó en las bases de datos PubMed, EMBASE, EBSCO, SCOPUS, ClinicalKey y LILACS, para identificar estudios publicados en inglés, español y portugués; se incluyeron estudios que contenían las palabras claves teleodontología y COVID-19, publicados desde enero a diciembre de 2020 y que estuvieran completos. La calidad de los artículos se evaluó según las directrices PRISMA-P. Resultados: se identificaron 49 artículos y se incluyeron 14 para la evaluación. De estos estudios, dos eran descriptivos (test de diagnóstico), seis eran estudios descriptivos de corte transversal, cinco eran pruebas pilotos; se identificó, además, un estudio de diseño retrospectivo. Se presenta la teleodontología como alternativa para diagnósticos y tratamientos de enfermedades bucales en tiempos de pandemia, mediante uso de dispositivos móviles, teleorientación y fotografías. La mayoría de los estudios presentaron un riesgo de sesgo de moderado a alto. Conclusión: la teleodontología es una herramienta tecnológica remota para apoyar la orientación, educación y tratamiento, que permite consolidar información de manera sincrónica y asincrónica sin la necesidad del contacto directo entre odontólogo y paciente.


Objective: to describe the applications of teleodontology for patient care during and after the COVID-19 pandemic. Method: the search for articles on teleodontology was carried out in the PubMed, EMBASE, EBSCO, SCOPUS, ClinicalKey and LILACS databases to identify studies published in English, Spanish and Portuguese; Studies that contained the keywords teleodontology and COVID-19, published from January to December 2020 and that were complete, were included. The quality of the articles was evaluated according to the PRISMA-P guidelines. Results: 49 articles were identified and 14 were included for evaluation. Of these studies, two were descriptive (diagnostic tests), six were descriptive cross-sectional studies, five were pilot tests; In addition, a retrospective design study was identified. Teleodontology is presented as an alternative for diagnosing and treating oral diseases in times of pandemic, through the use of mobile devices, remote orientation and photographs. Most of the studies were at moderate to high risk of bias. Conclusion: teleodontology is the remote tool to support remote guidance, education and treatment through technology, allowing the consolidation of information synchronously and asynchronously without the need for direct contact between dentist and patient


Subject(s)
Humans , Coronavirus Infections , Teledentistry , Telemedicine , Remote Consultation , Diagnosis , Health Promotion
19.
BMC Public Health ; 21(1): 1799, 2021 10 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1465316

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Technical information regarding health-related advances is sometimes esoteric for the general public. News media, therefore, plays a key role in public health promotion via health information conveyance. In this study, we use China as a sample country and analyze the claims and frames in news coverage of health-related advances, with special focus on news coverage of the development and performance of newly developed or tested drugs. METHODS: A keyword search was performed to retrieve news articles from four representative news agencies in China. In total, 3029 news reports were retrieved, of which 128 were selected for further analysis. RESULTS: Four aspects of news coverage of drug development were identified: (1) the characteristics of new drugs covered, (2) the sources of information, (3) the accuracy of health information in newspapers, and (4) textual features of news coverage. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings reveal that guidelines should be established to facilitate more systematic news reporting on health-related advances. Additionally, literacy among the general public and professionalism in health information conveyance should be promoted to negate the "illusion of knowing" about health-related advances.


Subject(s)
Mass Media , Pharmaceutical Preparations , China , Health Promotion , Humans , Public Health
20.
J Med Libr Assoc ; 109(3): 422-431, 2021 Jul 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1463960

ABSTRACT

Objective: The COVID-19 pandemic highlights the public's need for quality health information that is understandable. This study aimed to identify (1) the extent to which COVID-19 messaging by state public health departments is understandable, actionable, and clear; (2) whether materials produced by public health departments are easily readable; (3) relationships between material type and understandability, actionability, clarity, and reading grade level; and (4) potential strategies to improve public health messaging around COVID-19. Methods: Based on US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention statistics from June 30, 2020, we identified the ten states with the most COVID-19 cases and selected forty-two materials (i.e., webpages, infographics, and videos) related to COVID-19 prevention according to predefined eligibility criteria. We applied three validated health literacy tools (i.e., Patient Education Materials Assessment Tool, CDC Clear Communication Index, and Flesch-Kincaid Grade Level) to assess material understandability, actionability, clarity, and readability. We also analyzed correlations between scores on the three health literacy tools and material types. Results: Overall, COVID-19 materials had high understandability and actionability but could be improved in terms of clarity and readability. Material type was significantly correlated with understandability, actionability, and clarity. Infographics and videos received higher scores on all tools. Conclusions: Based on our findings, we recommend public health entities apply a combination of these tools when developing health information materials to improve their understandability, actionability, and clarity. We also recommend using infographics and videos when possible, taking a human-centered approach to information design, and providing multiple modes and platforms for information delivery.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Health Education/methods , Health Literacy , Health Promotion/methods , Information Dissemination/methods , Public Health/education , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , State Government , United States
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