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1.
Front Public Health ; 10: 744881, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1775969

ABSTRACT

Background: Salt reduction is a cost-effective, and rather challenging public health strategy for controlling chronic diseases. The AppSalt program is a school-based multi-component mobile health (mhealth) salt reduction program designed to tackle the high salt intake in China. This mixed-methods process evaluation was conducted to investigate the implementation of this program across sites, identify factors associated with the implementation, and collect evidence to optimize the intervention design for future scale-up. Methods: Mixed methods were used sequentially to collect data regarding five process evaluation dimensions: fidelity, dose delivered, dose received, reach, and context. Quantitative data were collected during the intervention process. Participation rate of intervention activities was calculated and compared across cities. The quantitative data was used for the selection of representative intervention participants for the qualitative interviews. Qualitative data were collected in face-to-face semi-structured interviews with purposively selected students (n = 33), adult family members (n = 33), teachers (n = 9), heads of schools (n = 9), key informants from local health, and education departments (n = 8). Thematic analysis technique was applied to analyze the interview transcripts using NVivo. The qualitative data were triangulated with the quantitative data during the interpretation phase. Results: The total number of families recruited for the intervention was 1,124. The overall retention rate of the AppSalt program was 97%. The intervention was implemented to a high level of fidelity against the protocol. About 80% of intervention participants completed all the app-based salt reduction courses, with a significant difference across the three cities (Shijiazhuang: 95%; Luzhou: 73%; Yueyang: 64%). The smartphone app in this program was perceived as a feasible and engaging health education tool by most intervention participants and key stakeholders. Through the interviews with participants and key stakeholders, we identified some barriers to implementing this program at primary schools, including the left-behind children who usually live with their grandparents and have limited access of smartphones; perceived adverse effects of smartphones on children (e.g., eyesight damage); and overlooked health education curriculum at Chinese primary schools. Conclusion: This process evaluation demonstrated the feasibility and acceptability of using smartphone applications delivered through the education system to engage families in China to reduce excessive salt intake. Clinical Trial Registration: The AppSalt study was registered at www.chictr.org.cn, identifier: ChiCTR1800017553. The date of registration is August 3, 2018.


Subject(s)
Sodium Chloride, Dietary , Adult , Child , China , Health Education , Health Promotion/methods , Humans
2.
Front Public Health ; 9: 715403, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1775831

ABSTRACT

Evaluating the success of a public health campaign is critical. It helps policy makers to improve prevention strategies and close existing gaps. For instance, Brazil's "Syphilis No!" campaign reached many people, but how do we analyze its real impact on population awareness? Are epidemiologic variables sufficient? This study examined literature on using of information technology approaches to analyze the impact of public health campaigns. We began the systematic review with 276 papers and narrowed it down to 17, which analyzed campaigns. In addition to epidemiological variables, other types of variables of interest included: level of (i) access to the campaign website, (ii) subject knowledge and awareness, based on questionnaires, (iii) target population's interest, measured from both online search engine and engagement with Social Network Service, and (iv) campaign exposure through advertising, using data from television commercials. Furthermore, we evaluated the impact by considering several dimensions such as: communication, epidemiology, and policy enforcement. Our findings provide researchers with an overview of various dimensions, and variables-of-interest, for measuring public campaign impact, and examples of how and which campaigns have used them.


Subject(s)
Communications Media , Health Promotion/methods , Humans , Information Technology
3.
Int J Drug Policy ; 102: 103607, 2022 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1763693

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Smoking cigarettes worsens COVID-19 outcomes, and news media and health agencies have been communicating about that. However, few studies have examined how these messages affect attitudes, beliefs, and behavioral intentions of people who smoke. These are critical variables that can inform public health campaigns to motivate quitting smoking during the COVID-19 crisis. METHODS: In August 2020, we conducted an online experiment in the U.S. with 1,004 adults who smoke. Participants were randomized to one of four message conditions: COVID-19 risk, smoking risk, combined risk of smoking for COVID-19 severity, or a non-risk control. Outcomes were message reactions (emotions and reactance), attitudes and beliefs (severity, susceptibility, self-efficacy, response efficacy for smoking and COVID-19, and conspiracy beliefs), and behavioral intentions (smoking intentions, COVID-protective intentions, and information-seeking). RESULTS: Multivariate analysis of covariance (MANCOVA) showed that combined risk messages elicited higher perceived severity of smoking-related disease than control messages. Similarly, the combined risk condition resulted in greater intentions to quit smoking in the next month (vs. COVID-19 risk condition) and intentions to reduce smoking in the next 6 months (vs. smoking risk and control; ps < .05). Multivariate logistic regression found that exposure to the combined risk messages (vs. control as referent) was associated with higher odds of mask-wearing intentions in the next 2 weeks (AOR = 1.97). CONCLUSIONS: Health agencies can possibly use messages that communicate about the combined risk of smoking and COVID-19 as a novel strategy to motivate people who smoke to quit and take protective action for COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Smoking Cessation , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Health Promotion/methods , Humans , Intention , Smoking/epidemiology , Smoking Cessation/methods
4.
PLoS One ; 17(3): e0264782, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1759948

ABSTRACT

What types of public health messages are effective at changing people's beliefs and intentions to practice social distancing to slow the spread of COVID-19? We conducted two randomized experiments in summer 2020 that assigned respondents to read a public health message and then measured their beliefs and behavioral intentions across a wide variety of outcomes. Using both a convenience sample and a pre-registered replication with a nationally representative sample of Americans, we find that a message that reframes not social distancing as recklessness rather than bravery and a message that highlights the need for everyone to take action to protect one another are the most effective at increasing beliefs and intentions related to social distancing. These results provide an evidentiary basis for building effective public health campaigns to increase social distancing during flu pandemics.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Health Education/methods , Persuasive Communication , Physical Distancing , Adult , Altruism , Female , Health Promotion/methods , Humans , Male , Risk Reduction Behavior , Self Efficacy , Social Values
5.
BMJ ; 376: o348, 2022 02 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1759333
6.
BMC Womens Health ; 22(1): 77, 2022 03 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1745461

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: One of the leading health indicators during the COVID-19 crisis is health literacy and health-promoting behaviors. The present study aimed to investigate health literacy and health-promoting behaviors among women hospitalized during the COVID-19 pandemic in the southern part of Iran in 2020. METHODS: This descriptive-analytical study encompassed 465 women hospitalized and treated in none teaching hospitals affiliated with the Shiraz University of Medical Sciences. Data collection tools were the Health Literacy for Iranian Adults (HELIA) and Health Promoting Lifestyle Profile II (HPLP-II). The collected data were analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistical methods. RESULTS: The mean scores of the participants' "health literacy" and "health-promoting behaviors" were 64.41 ± 11.31 and 112.23 ± 16.09, respectively, indicating the poor level of health literacy and the average level of health-promoting behaviors. Moreover, there was a significant direct correlation between health literacy and health-promoting behaviors (P < 0.001, r = 0.471). Furthermore, all health literacy dimensions of comprehension (P < 0.001), accessibility (P < 0.001), reading skills (P < 0.001), evaluation (P = 0.002), and decision making and behavior (P = 0.003) were detected as the predictors of health-promoting behaviors. Further, statistically significant relationships were noticed between the mean score of health literacy with age (r = - 0.327, P = 0.007), level of education (F = 3.119, P = 0.002), and place of residence (t = 2.416, P = 0.004) and between health-promoting behaviors with level of education (F = 3.341, P = 0.001) and marital status (F = 2.868, P = 0.02). CONCLUSION: According to the findings, health policymakers should adopt national measures for educational planning to promote health literacy and support health-promoting behaviors to encourage women to adopt a healthy lifestyle.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Health Literacy , Adult , Female , Health Promotion/methods , Humans , Inpatients , Iran , Pandemics
7.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(5)2022 02 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1736900

ABSTRACT

There are significant gaps in knowledge about the synergistic and disparate burden of health disparities associated with cardiovascular health issues, poorer mental health outcomes, and suboptimal HIV-care management on the health of older Latinos living with HIV (OLLWH). This pilot study sought to evaluate the feasibility and acceptability of an innovative application of an already established health-promotion intervention-Happy Older Latinos are Active (HOLA)-among this marginalized population. Eighteen self-identified Latino men with an undetectable HIV viral load and documented risk of cardiometabolic disease participated in this study. Although the attrition rate of 22% was higher than expected, participants attended 77% of the sessions and almost 95% of the virtual walks. Participants reported high satisfaction with the intervention, as evident by self-report quantitative (CSQ-8; M = 31, SD = 1.5) and qualitative metrics. Participants appreciated bonding with the community health worker and their peers to reduce social isolation. Results indicate that the HOLA intervention is an innovative way of delivering a health promotion intervention adapted to meet the diverse needs and circumstances of OLLWH, is feasible and acceptable, and has the potential to have positive effects on the health of OLLWH.


Subject(s)
Cardiovascular Diseases , HIV Infections , Cardiovascular Diseases/prevention & control , Feasibility Studies , HIV Infections/prevention & control , Health Promotion/methods , Humans , Pilot Projects
8.
Glob Health Promot ; 28(1): 3-4, 2021 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1724311
9.
PLoS One ; 17(2): e0263016, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1674008

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Substance use among adolescents in the U.S. is associated with adverse physical and mental health outcomes in the long-term. Universal youth-focused substance use prevention programs have demonstrated effectiveness but are often not sustainable due to the significant amount of time, effort, and resources required. We describe a trial protocol for a brief, low-participant-burden intervention to improve substance use-specific parent-child communication through the promotion of family meals and increased parental engagement. METHODS: This study is a parallel-group randomized controlled trial designed to assess the efficacy of a 13-week intervention. A total of 500 dyads of parents and their 5th-7th grade children are recruited from across Massachusetts. Dyads are randomized to the intervention or attention-control condition using block urn randomization, based on child grade, gender, and school. Parents/guardians in the substance use preventive intervention arm receive a short handbook, attend two meetings with an interventionist, and receive two SMS messages per week. Parents/guardians in the control arm receive the same dose but with content focused on nutrition, physical activity, and weight stigma. Participant dyads submit videos of family meals, audio recordings of prompted conversations, and quantitative surveys over an 18-month period (baseline, 3, 6, 12, 18 months post-intervention). The primary outcomes measure the quantity and quality of parent-child substance use conversations and proximal child indicators (i.e., substance use attitudes and expectancies, affiliation with substance-using peers, and intentions and willingness to use substances). The secondary outcome is child substance use initiation. DISCUSSION: This is a novel, brief, communication-focused intervention for parents/guardians that was designed to reduce participant burden. The intervention has the potential to improve parent-child engagement and communication and conversations about substance use specifically and decrease child substance use risk factors and substance use initiation. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT03925220. Registered on 24 April 2019.


Subject(s)
Communication , Health Promotion/methods , Parent-Child Relations , Parents/psychology , Pediatric Obesity/prevention & control , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic/statistics & numerical data , Substance-Related Disorders/prevention & control , Adolescent , Case-Control Studies , Crisis Intervention , Humans , Meals , Pediatric Obesity/psychology , Substance-Related Disorders/psychology
10.
PLoS One ; 17(2): e0262905, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1666763

ABSTRACT

Religious responses to COVID-19 as portrayed in a major news source raise the issue of conflict or cooperation between religious bodies and public health authorities. We compared articles in the New York Times relating to religion and COVID-19 with the COVID-19 statements posted on 63 faith-based organizations' web sites, and with the guidance documents published by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and World Health Organization (WHO) specifically for religious bodies. We used computational text analysis to identify and compare sentiments and topics in the three bodies of text. Sentiment analysis showed consistent positive values for faith-based organizations' texts throughout the period. The initial negative sentiment of religion-COVID-19 coverage in the New York Times rose over the period and eventually converged with the consistently positive sentiment of faith-based documents. In our topic modelling analysis, rank order and regression analysis showed that topic prevalence was similar in the faith-based and public health sources, and both showed statistically significant differences from the New York Times. We conclude that there is evidence of both narratives and counter-narratives, and that these showed demonstrable shifts over time. Text analysis of public documents shows alignment of the interests of public health and religious bodies, which can be discerned for the benefit of communities if parties are trusted and religious messages are consistent with public health communications.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Health Promotion/methods , Narration , Pandemics/prevention & control , Religion and Science , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/virology , Humans , New York/epidemiology , Newspapers as Topic , Public Health , Social Media
11.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(2)2022 01 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1629843

ABSTRACT

On the general labor market, social firms provide 30-50% of people with different types of disabilities the opportunity to gain employment. However, the topic of workplace health promotion (WHP), needs for improvement and accompanied challenges are neglected in the current research and were the focus of the present study. Therefore, data triangulation was used between July and December 2020 by combining three focus groups with employees (n = 14 employees) with 16 interviews with supervisors from several social firms in Northern Germany (e.g., from catering, cleaning or bicycle repair sectors). 17 semi-structured telephone interviews with experts in the field of WHP or social firms were added. All approaches were audio-taped, transcribed and anonymized. To analyze the data, Mayring's qualitative content analysis was used. The results indicated that several offers for WHP, including sport, nutrition and relaxation, were offered, as well as those on smoking cessation, cooperation with external organizations or training and education offers. Needs for improvement were stated referring to additional sport offers, support for implementing a healthy diet, offers for relaxation, financial incentives or collaborations with external organizations. A low take-up of offers; a lack of resources, structures or management support; compatibility of offers with work time and organization; challenges with available trainings or the consideration of individual needs and capacities were highlighted as challenges. Overall, there is a need for further interventional and longitudinal research on WHP in social firms.


Subject(s)
Occupational Health , Workplace , Employment , Germany , Health Promotion/methods , Humans , Motivation
13.
BMJ ; 376: e064225, 2022 01 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1607558
14.
Nutrients ; 14(1)2021 Dec 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1580549

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), the pathogen responsible for the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and the ongoing worldwide pandemic, has cost the lives of almost 5 [...].


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/therapy , Diet/methods , Dietary Supplements , Health Promotion/methods , Life Style , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
16.
Nutrients ; 13(11)2021 Nov 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1542681

ABSTRACT

Nutrition interventions can support Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples to reduce their risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). This review examines nutritional interventions aiming to improve CVD outcomes and appraises peer-reviewed interventions using an Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Quality Appraisal Tool. Five electronic databases and grey literature were searched, applying no time limit. Two reviewers completed the screening, data extraction and quality assessment independently. The study quality was assessed using the South Australian Health and Medical Research Institute and the Centre of Research Excellence in Aboriginal Chronic Disease Knowledge Translation and Exchange Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Quality Appraisal Tool (QAT). Twenty-one nutrition programs were included in this review. Twelve reported on anthropometric measurements, ten on biochemical and/or hematological measurements and sixteen on other outcome domains. Most programs reported improvements in measurable CVD risk factors, including reduced body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), weight, blood pressure and improved lipid profiles. Most programs performed well at community engagement and capacity strengthening, but many lacked the inclusion of Indigenous research paradigms, governance and strengths-based approaches. This review highlights the need for contemporary nutrition programs aimed at improving cardiovascular health outcomes to include additional key cultural components.


Subject(s)
Cardiovascular Diseases/prevention & control , Diet, Healthy/methods , Health Promotion/methods , Australia , Cardiovascular Diseases/ethnology , Diet, Healthy/ethnology , Health Services, Indigenous , Heart Disease Risk Factors , Humans , Outcome Assessment, Health Care , Program Evaluation
18.
J Med Libr Assoc ; 109(3): 422-431, 2021 Jul 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1463960

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The COVID-19 pandemic highlights the public's need for quality health information that is understandable. This study aimed to identify (1) the extent to which COVID-19 messaging by state public health departments is understandable, actionable, and clear; (2) whether materials produced by public health departments are easily readable; (3) relationships between material type and understandability, actionability, clarity, and reading grade level; and (4) potential strategies to improve public health messaging around COVID-19. METHODS: Based on US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention statistics from June 30, 2020, we identified the ten states with the most COVID-19 cases and selected forty-two materials (i.e., webpages, infographics, and videos) related to COVID-19 prevention according to predefined eligibility criteria. We applied three validated health literacy tools (i.e., Patient Education Materials Assessment Tool, CDC Clear Communication Index, and Flesch-Kincaid Grade Level) to assess material understandability, actionability, clarity, and readability. We also analyzed correlations between scores on the three health literacy tools and material types. RESULTS: Overall, COVID-19 materials had high understandability and actionability but could be improved in terms of clarity and readability. Material type was significantly correlated with understandability, actionability, and clarity. Infographics and videos received higher scores on all tools. CONCLUSIONS: Based on our findings, we recommend public health entities apply a combination of these tools when developing health information materials to improve their understandability, actionability, and clarity. We also recommend using infographics and videos when possible, taking a human-centered approach to information design, and providing multiple modes and platforms for information delivery.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Health Education/methods , Health Literacy , Health Promotion/methods , Information Dissemination/methods , Public Health/education , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , State Government , United States
19.
PLoS Med ; 18(10): e1003779, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1463302

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Older adults, including those with long-term conditions (LTCs), are vulnerable to social isolation. They are likely to have become more socially isolated during the Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, often due to advice to "shield" to protect them from infection. This places them at particular risk of depression and loneliness. There is a need for brief scalable psychosocial interventions to mitigate the psychological impacts of social isolation. Behavioural activation (BA) is a credible candidate intervention, but a trial is needed. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We undertook an external pilot parallel randomised trial (ISRCTN94091479) designed to test recruitment, retention and engagement with, and the acceptability and preliminary effects of the intervention. Participants aged ≥65 years with 2 or more LTCs were recruited in primary care and randomised by computer and with concealed allocation between June and October 2020. BA was offered to intervention participants (n = 47), and control participants received usual primary care (n = 49). Assessment of outcome was made blind to treatment allocation. The primary outcome was depression severity (measured using the Patient Health Questionnaire 9 (PHQ-9)). We also measured health-related quality of life (measured by the Short Form (SF)-12v2 mental component scale (MCS) and physical component scale (PCS)), anxiety (measured by the Generalised Anxiety Disorder 7 (GAD-7)), perceived social and emotional loneliness (measured by the De Jong Gierveld Scale: 11-item loneliness scale). Outcome was measured at 1 and 3 months. The mean age of participants was aged 74 years (standard deviation (SD) 5.5) and they were mostly White (n = 92, 95.8%), and approximately two-thirds of the sample were female (n = 59, 61.5%). Remote recruitment was possible, and 45/47 (95.7%) randomised to the intervention completed 1 or more sessions (median 6 sessions) out of 8. A total of 90 (93.8%) completed the 1-month follow-up, and 86 (89.6%) completed the 3-month follow-up, with similar rates for control (1 month: 45/49 and 3 months 44/49) and intervention (1 month: 45/47and 3 months: 42/47) follow-up. Between-group comparisons were made using a confidence interval (CI) approach, and by adjusting for the covariate of interest at baseline. At 1 month (the primary clinical outcome point), the median number of completed sessions for people receiving the BA intervention was 3, and almost all participants were still receiving the BA intervention. The between-group comparison for the primary clinical outcome at 1 month was an adjusted between-group mean difference of -0.50 PHQ-9 points (95% CI -2.01 to 1.01), but only a small number of participants had completed the intervention at this point. At 3 months, the PHQ-9 adjusted mean difference (AMD) was 0.19 (95% CI -1.36 to 1.75). When we examined loneliness, the adjusted between-group difference in the De Jong Gierveld Loneliness Scale at 1 month was 0.28 (95% CI -0.51 to 1.06) and at 3 months -0.87 (95% CI -1.56 to -0.18), suggesting evidence of benefit of the intervention at this time point. For anxiety, the GAD adjusted between-group difference at 1 month was 0.20 (-1.33, 1.73) and at 3 months 0.31 (-1.08, 1.70). For the SF-12 (physical component score), the adjusted between-group difference at 1 month was 0.34 (-4.17, 4.85) and at 3 months 0.11 (-4.46, 4.67). For the SF-12 (mental component score), the adjusted between-group difference at 1 month was 1.91 (-2.64, 5.15) and at 3 months 1.26 (-2.64, 5.15). Participants who withdrew had minimal depressive symptoms at entry. There were no adverse events. The Behavioural Activation in Social Isolation (BASIL) study had 2 main limitations. First, we found that the intervention was still being delivered at the prespecified primary outcome point, and this fed into the design of the main trial where a primary outcome of 3 months is now collected. Second, this was a pilot trial and was not designed to test between-group differences with high levels of statistical power. Type 2 errors are likely to have occurred, and a larger trial is now underway to test for robust effects and replicate signals of effectiveness in important secondary outcomes such as loneliness. CONCLUSIONS: In this study, we observed that BA is a credible intervention to mitigate the psychological impacts of COVID-19 isolation for older adults. We demonstrated that it is feasible to undertake a trial of BA. The intervention can be delivered remotely and at scale, but should be reserved for older adults with evidence of depressive symptoms. The significant reduction in loneliness is unlikely to be a chance finding, and replication will be explored in a fully powered randomised controlled trial (RCT). TRIAL REGISTRATION: ISRCTN94091479.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/psychology , Depression/prevention & control , Health Promotion/methods , Health Services for the Aged , Loneliness , Pandemics , Social Isolation , Aged , Exercise , Female , Health Behavior , Humans , Internet , Male , Pilot Projects , Program Evaluation , SARS-CoV-2 , Social Participation , State Medicine , United Kingdom
20.
Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act ; 17(1): 51, 2020 04 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1455978

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Understanding how to create and deliver effective physical activity (PA) messages for and to various population subgroups may play a role in increasing population PA levels. This scoping review aimed to provide an overview of what is known about PA messaging and highlight key research gaps. METHODS: We followed a 5-stage protocol proposed by Arksey & O'Malley and the Preferred Reporting Items For Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) extension for scoping reviews checklist. Stage 1: research questions were identified. Stage 2: we identified relevant studies by searching electronic databases, contacting existing networks and hand searching reference lists. Stage 3: studies were screened in Covidence™ software. Stage 4: study data were extracted and charted. Stage 5: findings from included studies were collated, summarised and reported in two ways: (1) a descriptive numerical analysis providing insight into extent, nature and distribution of the included studies, and (2) a narrative summary summarizing the evidence reviewed organised by messaging concepts and by population subgroup. RESULTS: A total of 9525 references were imported into Covidence™ for screening. Of these, 123 studies were included in final analysis. We found that PA messaging evidence is complex and multidimensional in nature, with numerous concepts to consider when creating or evaluating messages. The extent to which these different PA messaging concepts have been researched is variable. Where research has accumulated and evidence is consistent, it supports the following: (1) PA messages should be framed positively and highlight short-term outcomes specifically relating to social and mental health, (2) message content should be tailored or targeted to intended recipient(s), and (3) when developing messages, formative research, psychological theory and/or social marketing principles should be used. CONCLUSION: While it is unlikely to address global inactivity on its own, PA messaging may play a valuable role improving population PA levels. However, it is a complex and multidimensional concept and greater understanding is still needed. We present a synthesis of the existing evidence, highlighting key areas where evidence has accumulated and where gaps lie, as well as recommendations for PA messaging to different population subgroups.


Subject(s)
Exercise/psychology , Health Communication , Health Promotion/methods , Communications Media , Humans , Public Health/trends
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