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2.
Clin J Am Soc Nephrol ; 17(3): 342-349, 2022 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1714924

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: AKI is a common complication of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and is associated with high mortality. Palliative care, a specialty that supports patients with serious illness, is valuable for these patients but is historically underutilized in AKI. The objectives of this paper are to describe the use of palliative care in patients with AKI and COVID-19 and their subsequent health care utilization. DESIGN, SETTING, PARTICIPANTS, & MEASUREMENTS: We conducted a retrospective analysis of New York University Langone Health electronic health data of COVID-19 hospitalizations between March 2, 2020 and August 25, 2020. Regression models were used to examine characteristics associated with receiving a palliative care consult. RESULTS: Among patients with COVID-19 (n=4276; 40%), those with AKI (n=1310; 31%) were more likely than those without AKI (n=2966; 69%) to receive palliative care (AKI without KRT: adjusted odds ratio, 1.81; 95% confidence interval, 1.40 to 2.33; P<0.001; AKI with KRT: adjusted odds ratio, 2.45; 95% confidence interval, 1.52 to 3.97; P<0.001), even after controlling for markers of critical illness (admission to intensive care units, mechanical ventilation, or modified sequential organ failure assessment score); however, consults came significantly later (10 days from admission versus 5 days; P<0.001). Similarly, 66% of patients initiated on KRT received palliative care versus 37% (P<0.001) of those with AKI not receiving KRT, and timing was also later (12 days from admission versus 9 days; P=0.002). Despite greater use of palliative care, patients with AKI had a significantly longer length of stay, more intensive care unit admissions, and more use of mechanical ventilation. Those with AKI did have a higher frequency of discharges to inpatient hospice (6% versus 3%) and change in code status (34% versus 7%) than those without AKI. CONCLUSIONS: Palliative care was utilized more frequently for patients with AKI and COVID-19 than historically reported in AKI. Despite high mortality, consultation occurred late in the hospital course and was not associated with reduced initiation of life-sustaining interventions. PODCAST: This article contains a podcast at https://www.asn-online.org/media/podcast/CJASN/2022_02_24_CJN11030821.mp3.


Subject(s)
Acute Kidney Injury/therapy , COVID-19/therapy , Health Resources/trends , Palliative Care/trends , Practice Patterns, Physicians'/trends , Acute Kidney Injury/mortality , Acute Kidney Injury/virology , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/virology , Critical Care/trends , Electronic Health Records , Female , Hospital Mortality/trends , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Referral and Consultation/trends , Respiration, Artificial/trends , Retrospective Studies , Risk Assessment , Risk Factors , Time Factors , Treatment Outcome
3.
Pediatr Infect Dis J ; 41(3S): S3-S9, 2022 03 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1679889

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The growth of antimicrobial resistance worldwide has led to increased focus on antimicrobial stewardship (AMS) and infection prevention and control (IPC) measures, although primarily in high-income countries (HIC). We aimed to compare pediatric AMS and IPC resources/activities between low- and middle-income countries (LMIC) and HIC and to determine the barriers and priorities for AMS and IPC in LMIC as assessed by clinicians in those settings. METHODS: An online questionnaire was distributed to clinicians working in HIC and LMIC healthcare facilities in 2020. RESULTS: Participants were from 135 healthcare settings in 39 LMIC and 27 HIC. Formal AMS and IPC programs were less frequent in LMIC than HIC settings (AMS 42% versus 76% and IPC 58% versus 89%). Only 47% of LMIC facilities conducted audits of antibiotic use for pediatric patients, with less reliable availability of World Health Organization Access list antibiotics (29% of LMIC facilities). Hand hygiene promotion was the most common IPC intervention in both LMIC and HIC settings (82% versus 91%), although LMIC hospitals had more limited access to reliable water supply for handwashing and antiseptic hand rub. The greatest perceived barrier to pediatric AMS and IPC in both LMIC and HIC was lack of education: only 17% of LMIC settings had regular/required education on antimicrobial prescribing and only 25% on IPC. CONCLUSIONS: Marked differences exist in availability of AMS and IPC resources in LMIC as compared with HIC. A collaborative international approach is urgently needed to combat antimicrobial resistance, using targeted strategies that address the imbalance in global AMS and IPC resource availability and activities.


Subject(s)
Antimicrobial Stewardship/standards , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Infection Control/methods , Pediatrics/standards , Developed Countries , Developing Countries , Health Facilities/statistics & numerical data , Health Resources/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Surveys and Questionnaires
4.
J Health Care Poor Underserved ; 33(1): 506-516, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1686067

ABSTRACT

A state-academic-community partnership formed in response to the mental health needs fueled by the COVID-19 pandemic and the disproportionate effects on marginalized communities. Taking a community-partnered approach and using a health equity lens, the partnership developed a website to guide users through digital mental health resources, prioritizing accessibility, engagement, and community needs.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Mental Health , Health Resources , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
6.
PLoS One ; 17(2): e0261904, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1674004

ABSTRACT

The need for resilient health systems is recognized as important for the attainment of health outcomes, given the current shocks to health services. Resilience has been defined as the capacity to "prepare and effectively respond to crises; maintain core functions; and, informed by lessons learnt, reorganize if conditions require it". There is however a recognized dichotomy between its conceptualization in literature, and its application in practice. We propose two mutually reinforcing categories of resilience, representing resilience targeted at potentially known shocks, and the inherent health system resilience, needed to respond to unpredictable shock events. We determined capacities for each of these categories, and explored this methodological proposition by computing country-specific scores against each capacity, for the 47 Member States of the WHO African Region. We assessed face validity of the computed index, to ensure derived values were representative of the different elements of resilience, and were predictive of health outcomes, and computed bias-corrected non-parametric confidence intervals of the emergency preparedness and response (EPR) and inherent system resilience (ISR) sub-indices, as well as the overall resilience index, using 1000 bootstrap replicates. We also explored the internal consistency and scale reliability of the index, by calculating Cronbach alphas for the various proposed capacities and their corresponding attributes. We computed overall resilience to be 48.4 out of a possible 100 in the 47 assessed countries, with generally lower levels of ISR. For ISR, the capacities were weakest for transformation capacity, followed by mobilization of resources, awareness of own capacities, self-regulation and finally diversity of services respectively. This paper aims to contribute to the growing body of empirical evidence on health systems and service resilience, which is of great importance to the functionality and performance of health systems, particularly in the context of COVID-19. It provides a methodological reflection for monitoring health system resilience, revealing areas of improvement in the provision of essential health services during shock events, and builds a case for the need for mechanisms, at country level, that address both specific and non-specific shocks to the health system, ultimately for the attainment of improved health outcomes.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Delivery of Health Care/standards , Disaster Planning/methods , Health Resources/statistics & numerical data , Health Services Needs and Demand , Medical Assistance/standards , Resilience, Psychological , Africa/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/transmission , COVID-19/virology , Humans , Reproducibility of Results , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , World Health Organization
7.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 1849, 2022 02 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1671632

ABSTRACT

India is a hotspot of the COVID-19 crisis. During the first wave, several lockdowns (L) and gradual unlock (UL) phases were implemented by the government of India (GOI) to curb the virus spread. These phases witnessed many challenges and various day-to-day developments such as virus spread and resource management. Twitter, a social media platform, was extensively used by citizens to react to these events and related topics that varied temporally and geographically. Analyzing these variations can be a potent tool for informed decision-making. This paper attempts to capture these spatiotemporal variations of citizen reactions by predicting and analyzing the sentiments of geotagged tweets during L and UL phases. Various sentiment analysis based studies on the related subject have been done; however, its integration with location intelligence for decision making remains a research gap. The sentiments were predicted through a proposed hybrid Deep Learning (DL) model which leverages the strengths of BiLSTM and CNN model classes. The model was trained on a freely available Sentiment140 dataset and was tested over manually annotated COVID-19 related tweets from India. The model classified the tweets with high accuracy of around 90%, and analysis of geotagged tweets during L and UL phases reveal significant geographical variations. The findings as a decision support system can aid in analyzing citizen reactions toward the resources and events during an ongoing pandemic. The system can have various applications such as resource planning, crowd management, policy formulation, vaccination, prompt response, etc.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Communicable Disease Control/methods , Decision Support Techniques , Deep Learning , Social Media , Spatio-Temporal Analysis , COVID-19/epidemiology , Datasets as Topic , Decision Making , Female , Health Policy , Health Resources , Humans , India/epidemiology , Male , Pandemics , Vaccination
8.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(3)2022 Jan 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1648281

ABSTRACT

The disruption in healthcare attention to people with alcohol dependence, along with psychological decompensation as a consequence of lockdown derived from the COVID-19 pandemic could have a negative impact on people who suffer from alcohol abuse disorder. Observational real world data pre-post study included 9966 men aged >16 years registered as having the diagnosis of alcohol abuse disorder in the electronic medical records (EMR) of the Aragon Regional Health Service (Spain). Clinical (Glutamate-oxaloacetate -GOT-, Glutamate pyruvate -GPT-, creatinine, glomerular filtration, systolic blood pressure -SBP-, diastolic blood pressure -DBP-, total cholesterol, LDL, HDL, triglycerides, and body mass index -BMI-), pharmacological (dose per inhabitant per day, DHD, of drugs used in addictive disorders, benzodiazepines and antidepressants) and health resource use variables (primary and specialized care) were considered. A Student's t-test for matched samples was performed to analyze the changes in clinical variables between alcohol abuse disorder patients with and without COVID-19. Only creatinine and LDL showed a significant but clinically irrelevant change six months after the end of the strict lockdown. The total number of DHDs for all drugs included in the study (except for benzodiazepines), decreased. In the same way, the use of health services by these patients also decreased. The impact of COVID-19 among this group of patients has been moderate. The reorganization of health and social services after the declaration of the state of alarm in our country made possible the maintenance of care for this vulnerable population.


Subject(s)
Alcoholism , COVID-19 , Pharmaceutical Preparations , Adolescent , Alcoholism/epidemiology , Communicable Disease Control , Health Resources , Humans , Male , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
9.
PLoS One ; 16(12): e0260798, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1599553

ABSTRACT

Despite remarkable academic efforts, why Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) post-implementation success occurs still remains elusive. A reason for this shortage may be the insufficient addressing of an ERP-specific interior boundary condition, i.e., the multi-stakeholder perspective, in explaining this phenomenon. This issue may entail a gap between how ERP success is supposed to occur and how ERP success may actually occur, leading to theoretical inconsistency when investigating its causal roots. Through a case-based, inductive approach, this manuscript presents an ERP success causal network that embeds the overlooked boundary condition and offers a theoretical explanation of why the most relevant observed causal relationships may occur. The results provide a deeper understanding of the ERP success causal mechanisms and informative managerial suggestions to steer ERP initiatives towards long-haul success.


Subject(s)
Delivery of Health Care, Integrated/organization & administration , Efficiency, Organizational/standards , Financial Management, Hospital/methods , Health Care Rationing/standards , Health Resources/organization & administration , Hospital Information Systems/standards , Resource Allocation/methods , Humans , Planning Techniques , Software
10.
Glob Health Sci Pract ; 9(4): 793-803, 2021 12 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1599447

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: In 2011, the Ministry of Health in Malawi developed and institutionalized a resource-tracking process, known as resource mapping (RM), to collect information on planned funding flows across the health sector to support resource allocation and mobilization decisions. We analyze the RM process and tools and describe key uses of the data for health financing decision making to achieve universal health coverage (UHC). METHODS: We applied a case study approach, written as a collaboration between policy makers who have led the RM process in Malawi and the implementation team who have developed tools, collected data, and reported results over the period. It draws on our experiences in conducting RM in Malawi to document the RM process and data, key uses of data, implementation challenges, and lessons learned. We conducted a gray literature review to understand rounds of RM in which we did not participate. Finally, we conducted a search of published literature to situate our work in the international health resource-tracking literature. RESULTS: The RM exercise in Malawi is iteratively designed around the needs of the end users and policy priorities of the government, which in turn drives institutionalization of the exercise. We describe 4 ways in which RM data has been used, including national and district planning and budgeting; prioritization and coordination of existing funds by estimating resource availability; mobilization of new resources by conducting financial gap analysis against costed national strategic plans; and generation of evidence to support the national response to the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic. DISCUSSION: To achieve UHC goals in Malawi, RM has equipped the government and development partners with critical data used for resource mobilization and coordination decisions. Lessons learned from RM in Malawi may be applicable to other countries starting or refining their own health resource-tracking exercise.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Health Resources , Decision Making , Humans , Malawi , SARS-CoV-2
11.
J Med Microbiol ; 70(12)2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1570171

ABSTRACT

Introduction. During the early days of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in Singapore, Tan Tock Seng Hospital implemented an enhanced pneumonia surveillance (EPS) programme enrolling all patients who were admitted from the Emergency Department (ED) with a diagnosis of pneumonia but not meeting the prevalent COVID-19 suspect case definition.Hypothesis/Gap Statement. There is a paucity of data supporting the implementation of such a programme.Aims. To compare and contrast our hospital-resource utilization of an EPS programme for COVID-19 infection detection with a suitable comparison group.Methodology. We enrolled all patients admitted under the EPS programme from TTSH's ED from 7 February 2020 (date of EPS implementation) to 20 March 2020 (date of study ethics application) inclusive. We designated a comparison cohort over a similar duration the preceding year. Relevant demographic and clinical data were extracted from the electronic medical records.Results. There was a 3.2 times higher incidence of patients with an admitting diagnosis of pneumonia from the ED in the EPS cohort compared to the comparison cohort (P<0.001). However, there was no significant difference in the median length of stay of 7 days (P=0.160). Within the EPS cohort, stroke and fluid overload occur more frequently as alternative primary diagnoses.Conclusions. Our study successfully evaluated our hospital-resource utilization demanded by our EPS programme in relation to an appropriate comparison group. This helps to inform strategic use of hospital resources to meet the needs of both COVID-19 related services and essential 'peace-time' healthcare services concurrently.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Epidemiological Monitoring , Health Resources/organization & administration , Pneumonia , Emergency Service, Hospital , Hospitalization , Hospitals , Humans , Pandemics , Pneumonia/diagnosis , Pneumonia/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , Singapore
12.
Endocr Metab Immune Disord Drug Targets ; 21(10): 1775-1780, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1562450

ABSTRACT

In late 2019, SARS-COV-2 disease was firstly discovered in Wuhan, China and then it infected millions of people worldwide. Later, the World Health Organization (WHO) described COVID-19 as the first pandemic invading the world in the 21st century. The WHO has declared that the emerging infection will last long enough to force adjustments not only in people's lifestyles but also in the health care system. This amendment is expected to spread through many medical practices and specialties. A lot of diagnostic and therapeutic modalities have been proposed for COVID-19 management. The best strategy for the management of patients requires a multi-disciplinary team approach with correct decisions regarding the right timing of each modality of treatment. The participating multidisciplinary team for COVID-19 management includes six infectious diseases experts in Tanta University; one critical care management expert, an emergency medicine expert and two pharmacists in Tanta University. In this review, we reported our multi-disciplinary team experience with up to date literature guidance to propose a valid protocol for the management of COVID-19 patients in a limited resources setting.


Subject(s)
Academic Medical Centers/methods , COVID-19/prevention & control , Developing Countries , Disease Management , Health Resources , Patient Care Team , Academic Medical Centers/economics , COVID-19/economics , COVID-19/epidemiology , Developing Countries/economics , Egypt/epidemiology , Health Resources/economics , Humans , Patient Care Team/economics
13.
PLoS Med ; 18(11): e1003869, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1542164

ABSTRACT

Salim Abdool Karim, Segenet Kelemu and Cheryl Baxter discuss COVID-19 impacts and adaptations in Africa.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Sustainable Development , Africa/epidemiology , Food Security , Food Supply , Health Resources , Humans
16.
Parkinsonism Relat Disord ; 93: 97-102, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1536977

ABSTRACT

Inequalities in mental healthcare and lack of social support during the COVID-19 pandemic have lowered quality of life and increased overall burden of disease in people with Parkinson's (PWP). Although the pandemic has brought attention to these inequalities, they are long standing and will persist unless addressed. Lack of awareness of mental health issues is a major barrier and even when recognized disparities based on race, gender, and socioeconomic factors limit access to already scarce resources. Stigma regarding mental illness is highly prevalent and is a major barrier even when adequate care exists. Limited access to mental healthcare during the pandemic and in general increases the burden on caregivers and families. Historically, initiatives to improve mental healthcare for PWP focused on interventions designed for specialty and academic centers generally located in large metropolitan areas, which has created unintended geographic disparities in access. In order to address these issues this point of view suggests a community-based wellness model to extend the reach of mental healthcare resources for PWP.


Subject(s)
Healthcare Disparities/trends , Mental Disorders/therapy , Mental Health/trends , Parkinson Disease/therapy , Social Support/trends , Health Resources/trends , Humans , Mental Disorders/epidemiology , Mental Disorders/psychology , Parkinson Disease/epidemiology , Parkinson Disease/psychology , Social Support/psychology
18.
Surg Clin North Am ; 102(1): 169-180, 2022 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1517479

ABSTRACT

Mass casualty incidents are increasingly common. They are defined by large numbers of patients arriving nearly simultaneously, overwhelming available resources needed for optimal care. They require rapid mobilization of resources to provide optimal outcomes and limit disability and death. Because the mechanism of injury in a mass casualty incident is often traumatic in nature, surgeons should be aware of the critical role they play in planning and response. The coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic is a notable, resulting in a sustained surge of critically ill patients. Initial response requires local mobilization of resources; large-scale events potentially require a national response.


Subject(s)
Civil Defense , Emergency Medical Services , Health Resources , Mass Casualty Incidents , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Decision Trees , Humans , Triage
20.
South Med J ; 114(9): 597-602, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1478683

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) threatens vulnerable patient populations, resulting in immense pressures at the local, regional, national, and international levels to contain the virus. Laboratory-based studies demonstrate that masks may offer benefit in reducing the spread of droplet-based illnesses, but few data are available to assess mask effects via executive order on a population basis. We assess the effects of a county-wide mask order on per-population mortality, intensive care unit (ICU) utilization, and ventilator utilization in Bexar County, Texas. METHODS: We used publicly reported county-level data to perform a mixed-methods before-and-after analysis along with other sources of public data for analyses of covariance. We used a least-squares regression analysis to adjust for confounders. A Texas state-level mask order was issued on July 3, 2020, followed by a Bexar County-level order on July 15, 2020. We defined the control period as June 2 to July 2 and the postmask order period as July 8, 2020-August 12, 2020, with a 5-day gap to account for the median incubation period for cases; longer periods of 7 and 10 days were used for hospitalization and ICU admission/death, respectively. Data are reported on a per-100,000 population basis using respective US Census Bureau-reported populations. RESULTS: From June 2, 2020 through August 12, 2020, there were 40,771 reported cases of COVID-19 within Bexar County, with 470 total deaths. The average number of new cases per day within the county was 565.4 (95% confidence interval [CI] 394.6-736.2). The average number of positive hospitalized patients was 754.1 (95% CI 657.2-851.0), in the ICU was 273.1 (95% CI 238.2-308.0), and on a ventilator was 170.5 (95% CI 146.4-194.6). The average deaths per day was 6.5 (95% CI 4.4-8.6). All of the measured outcomes were higher on average in the postmask period as were covariables included in the adjusted model. When adjusting for traffic activity, total statewide caseload, public health complaints, and mean temperature, the daily caseload, hospital bed occupancy, ICU bed occupancy, ventilator occupancy, and daily mortality remained higher in the postmask period. CONCLUSIONS: There was no reduction in per-population daily mortality, hospital bed, ICU bed, or ventilator occupancy of COVID-19-positive patients attributable to the implementation of a mask-wearing mandate.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/prevention & control , Communicable Disease Control/legislation & jurisprudence , Health Resources/statistics & numerical data , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Communicable Disease Control/methods , Health Plan Implementation , Health Policy , Humans , Local Government , Masks , SARS-CoV-2 , Texas/epidemiology
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