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1.
PLoS One ; 17(5): e0268068, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1855024

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic has increased mental stress among the population and, at the same time, has lowered consumer income. Alcohol, non-alcoholic beverages, and tobacco consumption are associated with multiple health conditions but the information on how the consumption pattern of these goods shifted during the pandemic remains limited. OBJECTIVE: To examine the consumer spending on alcohol, non-alcoholic beverages, and tobacco products during the COVID-19 pandemic compared to the pre-pandemic period. DESIGN: An observational study utilizing the expenditures data on alcohol, non-alcoholic beverages, and tobacco between 2017 and 2020 obtained from the US Consumer Expenditure Diary Survey. PARTICIPANTS: 18,808 respondents aged ≥ 21 years who answered the Consumer Expenditure Diary Survey. Main Outcome Measure(s): Bi-weekly expenditure on alcohol, non-alcoholic beverages, and tobacco products. ANALYSIS: Multivariable linear regression models. RESULTS: A total of 18,808 respondents (mean [SD] age = 52.5[16.9] years; 53.8% females) were included. Compared to the pre-pandemic levels, household expenditures on alcohol, non-alcoholic beverages, and tobacco products significantly decreased during the pandemic period by 28.6%, 7.9%, and 15.5%, respectively, after controlling for the state-, individual-, and household-level characteristics. Individual age, race/ethnicity, income, and education were significant predictors of spending. Heterogeneities in expenditures were evident across subgroups, with less educated and low-income households cutting their alcohol expenses while the wealthy and more educated consumers spent more during the pandemic. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS: Household expenditures on alcohol, non-alcoholic beverages, and tobacco products significantly decreased. The results might be beneficial in understanding consumer spending habits concerning risky health behaviors during the period of economic disruption.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Tobacco Products , Alcohol Drinking/epidemiology , Alcoholic Beverages , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Health Expenditures , Health Risk Behaviors , Humans , Male , Multimorbidity , Pandemics
2.
Am J Public Health ; 112(1): 169-178, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1841236

ABSTRACT

Objectives. To assess the association between individual-level adherence to social-distancing and personal hygiene behaviors recommended by public health experts and subsequent risk of COVID-19 diagnosis in the United States. Methods. Data are from waves 7 through 26 (June 10, 2020-April 26, 2021) of the Understanding America Study COVID-19 survey. We used Cox models to assess the relationship between engaging in behaviors considered high risk and risk of COVID-19 diagnosis. Results. Individuals engaging in behaviors indicating lack of adherence to social-distancing guidelines, especially those related to large gatherings or public interactions, had a significantly higher risk of COVID-19 diagnosis than did those who did not engage in these behaviors. Each additional risk behavior was associated with a 9% higher risk of COVID-19 diagnosis (hazard ratio [HR] = 1.09; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.05, 1.13). Results were similar after adjustment for sociodemographic characteristics and local infection rates. Conclusions. Personal mitigation behaviors appear to influence the risk of COVID-19, even in the presence of social factors related to infection risk. Public Health Implications. Our findings emphasize the importance of individual behaviors for preventing COVID-19, which may be relevant in contexts with low vaccination. (Am J Public Health. 2022;112(1):169-178. https://doi.org/10.2105/AJPH.2021.306565).


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , Health Risk Behaviors , Hygiene , Patient Compliance/statistics & numerical data , Physical Distancing , Adult , Aged , Communicable Disease Control/methods , Female , Guidelines as Topic , Humans , Longitudinal Studies , Male , Middle Aged , Proportional Hazards Models , Surveys and Questionnaires , United States/epidemiology
3.
PLoS One ; 16(4): e0251060, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1833536

ABSTRACT

During the COVID-19 lockdown in the US, many businesses were shut down temporarily. Essential businesses, most prominently grocery stores, remained open to ensure access to food and household essentials. Grocery shopping presents increased potential for COVID-19 infection because customers and store employees are in proximity to each other. This study investigated shoppers' perceptions of COVID-19 infection risks and put them in context by comparing grocery shopping to other activities outside home, and examined whether a proactive preventive action by grocery stores influence shoppers' perceived risk of COVID-19 infection. Our data were obtained via an anonymous online survey distributed between April 2 and 10, 2020 to grocery shoppers in New York State (the most affected by the pandemic at the time of the study) and Washington State (the first affected by the pandemic). We found significant factors associated with high levels of risk perception on grocery shoppers. We identified some effective preventive actions that grocery stores implement to alleviate anxiety and risk perception. We found that people are generally more concerned about in-store grocery shopping relative to other out-of-home activities. Findings suggest that a strict policy requiring grocery store employees to use facemasks and gloves greatly reduced shoppers' perceived risk rating of infection of themselves by 37.5% and store employees by 51.2%. Preventive actions by customers and businesses are critical to reducing the unwitting transmission of COVID-19 as state governments prepare to reopen the economy and relax restrictions on activities outside home.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/psychology , Consumer Behavior/statistics & numerical data , Perception/ethics , Consumer Behavior/economics , Family Characteristics , Food , Food Supply/statistics & numerical data , Health Risk Behaviors , Humans , New York , Perception/physiology , Risk Assessment/methods , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Supermarkets , Surveys and Questionnaires , United States/epidemiology , Washington
4.
PLoS One ; 17(2): e0262659, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1793542

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Little information exists on how COVID-19 testing influences intentions to engage in risky behavior. Understanding the behavioral effects of diagnostic testing may highlight the role of adequate testing on controlling viral transmission. In order to evaluate these effects, simulated scenarios were conducted evaluating participant intentions to self-isolate based on COVID-19 diagnostic testing availability and results. METHODS: Participants from the United States were recruited through an online survey platform (Amazon Mechanical Turk) and randomized to one of three hypothetical scenarios. Each scenario asked participants to imagine having symptoms consistent with COVID-19 along with a clinical diagnosis from their physician. However, scenarios differed in either testing availability (testing available v. unavailable) or testing result (positive v. negative test). The primary outcome was intention to engage in high-risk COVID-19 behaviors, measured using an 11-item mean score (range 1-7) that was pre-registered prior to data collection. Multi-variable linear regression was used to compare the mean composite scores between conditions. The randomized survey was conducted between July 23rd to July 29th, 2020. RESULTS: A total of 1400 participants were recruited through a national, online, opt-in survey. Out of 1194 respondents (41.6% male, 58.4% female) with a median age of 38.5 years, participants who had no testing available in their clinical scenario showed significantly greater intentions to engage in behavior facilitating COVID-19 transmission compared to those who received a positive confirmatory test result scenario (mean absolute difference (SE): 0.14 (0.06), P = 0.016), equating to an 11.1% increase in mean score risky behavior intentions. Intention to engage in behaviors that can spread COVID-19 were also positively associated with male gender, poor health status, and Republican party affiliation. CONCLUSION: Testing availability appears to play an independent role in influencing behaviors facilitating COVID-19 transmission. Such findings shed light on the possible negative externalities of testing unavailability. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Effect of Availability of COVID-19 Testing on Choice to Isolate and Socially Distance, NCT04459520, https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT04459520.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Testing/trends , COVID-19/psychology , Quarantine/psychology , Adolescent , Adult , COVID-19/diagnosis , Female , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Health Risk Behaviors , Humans , Intention , Male , Middle Aged , Physical Distancing , Quarantine/trends , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Surveys and Questionnaires , United States , Young Adult
5.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(6)2022 03 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1760575

ABSTRACT

This study examines the associations between adverse childhood experiences (ACEs), health risk behaviours, and psychological well-being among Lithuanian university students. A cross-sectional survey was carried out with a convenience sample of 393 students (80.7% females and 19.3% males) recruited from mostly undergraduate courses (96.4%) in Lithuanian universities. Participants, aged 18-25 years (21.07 ± 1.53), completed a web-based survey in which they were asked to retrospectively self-report on ACEs while answering questions on health risk behaviours (e.g., smoking, substance use, riding a car with a drunk driver) and psychological well-being. Only 8.7% of the study sample experienced no ACEs, and almost half of the sample (48.9%) experienced ≥4 ACEs. Findings from adjusted models showed that, compared with students with no ACEs, those who experienced ≥4 ACEs had higher odds of lifetime illicit drug use (AOR = 2.73, p < 0.05), riding with a drunk driver (AOR = 2.44, p < 0.05), suicidal ideation before age 18 (AOR = 28.49, p < 0.01) and in the past 12 months (AOR = 5.39, p < 0.01). An increased number of ACEs was also associated with lower psychological well-being (B = -3.94, p < 0.001). Findings from this study have implications for mental health professionals as well as university administrators, as students with a higher number of traumatic experiences may require greater levels of support and services.


Subject(s)
Adverse Childhood Experiences , Adolescent , Adult , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Health Risk Behaviors , Humans , Lithuania/epidemiology , Male , Retrospective Studies , Students/psychology , Universities , Young Adult
6.
PLoS One ; 17(3): e0265680, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1745304

ABSTRACT

Epidemiological evidence and recommendations from the World Health Organization suggest that close face-to-face interactions pose a particular coronavirus transmission risk. The real-life prevalence and nature of such high-risk contacts are understudied, however. Here, we video-observed high-risk contacts in outdoor public places in Amsterdam, the Netherlands, during the COVID-19 pandemic. We found that high-risk contacts were relatively uncommon: Of the 7,813 individuals observed, only 20 (0.26%) displayed high-risk contacts. Further, we qualitatively examined the 20 high-risk contacts identified and found that they occurred disproportionally between affiliated persons engaged in affiliative behaviors. We discuss the potential public health implications of the relatively low incident rate of high-risk contacts.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/transmission , Health Risk Behaviors , Risk-Taking , Video Recording/methods , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cities/epidemiology , Humans , Interpersonal Relations , Netherlands/epidemiology
8.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 70(42): 1459-1465, 2021 Oct 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1485568

ABSTRACT

In the United States, 10% of HIV infections diagnosed in 2018 were attributed to unsafe injection drug use or male-to-male sexual contact among persons who inject drugs (PWID) (1). In 2017, among PWID or men who have sex with men and who inject drugs (MSM-ID), 76% of those who received a diagnosis of HIV infection lived in urban areas* (2). To monitor the prevalence of HIV infection and associated behaviors among persons who reported injecting drugs in the past 12 months, including MSM-ID, CDC's National HIV Behavioral Surveillance (NHBS) conducts interviews and HIV testing among populations of persons at high risk for HIV infection (MSM, PWID, and heterosexually active adults at increased risk for HIV infection) in selected metropolitan statistical areas (MSAs) (3). The estimated HIV infection prevalence among PWID in 23 MSAs surveyed in 2018 was 7%. Among HIV-negative PWID, an estimated 26% receptively shared syringes and 68% had condomless vaginal sex during the preceding 12 months. During the same period, 57% had been tested for HIV infection, and 55% received syringes from a syringe services program (SSP). While overall SSP use did not significantly change since 2015, a substantial decrease in SSP use occurred among Black PWID, and HIV prevalence among Black PWID was higher than that among Hispanic and White PWID. These findings underscore the importance of continuing and expanding HIV prevention programs and community-based strategies for PWID, such as those provided by SSPs, especially following service disruptions created by the COVID-19 pandemic (4). Efforts are needed to ensure that PWID have low-barrier access to comprehensive and integrated needs-based SSPs (where legally permissible) that include provision of sterile syringes and safe syringe disposal, HIV and hepatitis C virus (HCV) testing and referrals to HIV and HCV treatment, HIV preexposure prophylaxis, and treatment for substance use and mental health disorders.


Subject(s)
Drug Users/psychology , HIV Infections/epidemiology , Health Risk Behaviors , Substance Abuse, Intravenous/epidemiology , Urban Population/statistics & numerical data , Adolescent , Adult , Drug Users/statistics & numerical data , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , United States/epidemiology , Young Adult
9.
PLoS One ; 16(10): e0258349, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1468171

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: People with severe mental ill health (SMI) experience a mortality gap of 15-20 years. COVID-19 has amplified population health inequalities, and there is concern that people with SMI will be disproportionately affected. Understanding how health risk behaviours have changed during the pandemic is important when developing strategies to mitigate future increases in health inequalities. METHODS: We sampled from an existing cohort of people with SMI. Researchers contacted participants by phone or post to invite them to take part in a survey about how the pandemic had affected them. We asked people about their health risk behaviours and how these had changed during the pandemic. We created an index of changed behaviours, comprising dietary factors, smoking, lack of exercise, and drinking patterns. By creating data linkages, we compared their responses during pandemic restrictions to responses they gave prior to the pandemic. OUTCOMES: 367 people provided health risk data. The mean age of the participants was 50.5 (range = 20 to 86, SD ± 15.69) with 51.0% male and 77.4% white British. 47.5% of participants reported taking less physical activity during the pandemic and of those who smoke 54.5% reported smoking more heavily. Self-reported deterioration in physical health was significantly associated with an increase in health risk behaviours (adjusted OR for physical health 1.59, 95%CI 1.22-2.07; adjusted OR for Age 0.99, 95%CI 0.98-1.00). INTERPRETATION: COVID-19 is likely to amplify health inequalities for people with SMI. Health services should target health risk behaviours for people with SMI to mitigate the immediate and long lasting impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Health Risk Behaviors , Mental Health , Mentally Ill Persons/psychology , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Cohort Studies , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Young Adult
10.
AIDS Behav ; 26(4): 1095-1109, 2022 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1439733

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and associated social responses may uniquely affect people living with HIV (PLHIV). SARS-CoV-2 antibody testing and a cross-sectional survey on COVID-19's socio-behavioral impacts were conducted among a large PLHIV cohort in Hanoi, Vietnam. We examined anonymous antibody test results for 1243 PLHIV (99.8%) from whom plasma was obtained and completed surveys were collected in June/July 2020, just after the end of the first COVID-19 outbreak and nationwide lockdown. Three participants (0.2%) tested positive for anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgG antibodies. HIV treatment was generally maintained without antiretroviral therapy interruption, but COVID-19 had substantial impacts on economic security and risky health behaviors among PLHIV, which may have amplified psychological stress. These findings highlight the need for continuous monitoring of COVID-19's impacts on PLHIV and for efforts to mitigate these impacts.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , HIV Infections , COVID-19/epidemiology , Communicable Disease Control , Continuity of Patient Care , Cross-Sectional Studies , HIV Infections/complications , HIV Infections/drug therapy , HIV Infections/epidemiology , Health Risk Behaviors , Humans , Mental Health , SARS-CoV-2 , Vietnam/epidemiology
11.
J Infect Dev Ctries ; 15(8): 1107-1116, 2021 08 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1405476

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: National strategies to control COVID-19 pandemic consisted mostly of social distancing measures such as lockdowns, curfews, and stay-home guidelines, personal protection such as hand hygiene and mask wearing, as well as contact tracing, isolation and quarantine. Whilst policy interventions were broadly similar across the globe, there were some differences in individual and community responses. This study explored community responses to COVID-19 containment measures in different countries and synthesized a model. This exaplains the community response to pandemic containment measures in the local context, so as to be suitably prepared for future interventions and research. METHODOLOGY: A mutlinational study was conducted from April-June 2020 involving researchers from 12 countries (Japan, Austria, U.S., Taiwan, India, Sudan, Indonesia, Malaysia, Philippines, Myanmar, Vietnam and Thailand). Steps in this research consisted of carrying out open-ended questionnaires, qualitative analyses in NVivo, and a multinational meeting to reflect, exchange, and validate results. Lastly, a commuinty response model was synthesized from multinational experiences. RESULTS: Effective communication is key in promoting collective action for preventing virus transmission. Health literacy, habits and social norms in different populations are core components of public health interventions. To enable people to stay home while sustaining livelihoods, economic and social support are essential. Countries could benefit from previous pandemic experience in their community response. Whilst contact tracing and isolation are crucial intervention components, issues of privacy and human rights need to be considered. CONCLUSIONS: Understanding community responses to containment policies will help in ending current and future pandemics in the world.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Communicable Disease Control/statistics & numerical data , Internationality , Public Health/statistics & numerical data , Communicable Disease Control/methods , Contact Tracing , Health Risk Behaviors , Humans , Public Health/methods , Quarantine
12.
J Community Psychol ; 50(2): 1102-1110, 2022 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1404566

ABSTRACT

Changes in routines and habits, fear of contamination from the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) virus, and economic crisis have resulted in significant impacts upon individuals' lives, health, and risk behaviors. The present study aims to analyze health risk behaviors and gender differences of Portuguese adults before and during the COVID-19 pandemic. A quantitative analysis using SPSS v. 26 software presents the evaluation of 5746 responses (M = 48.5 years, SD = 14.3), of which 67.7% were female. t Test was used to study differences in means before and during the pandemic and analysis of variance test to analyze gender differences. In the comparative study before and during the pandemic showed a decrease in the number of meals per day, physical activity and perception of sleep quality; an increase in tobacco use, beer consumption, and media use (TV, mobile phone, social networks, and online games). Gender differences study demonstrated that the number of meals per day suffered a decrease from pre to pandemic in women, while increasing in men, becoming prominent in the second moment under study. Both genders had an increase in consumption behaviors and substance use, but women revealed a decrease in the consumption of wine during the pandemic, while men revealed more consumption behaviors in the variables under study. The use of media also changed, with men showing a higher level in TV hours per day, social networks and online games before the pandemic and in TV hours per day and games/online during the pandemic. Women stand out in the use of mobile phone per day during the pandemic. Daily physical activity decreased during the pandemic, as did sleep quality. Males revealed a higher practice of physical activity at both periods, as well as sleep quality. Based on the results presented, it is expected that considerations and actions in the scope of public health policies and health prevention and promotion, will be rethought and adapted to the specificities of each gender.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adult , Female , Health Risk Behaviors , Humans , Male , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Sex Factors
13.
J Appl Gerontol ; 40(9): 943-952, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1243769

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of antecedent variables on older adults' intention to get a CORONAVIRUS DISEASE-2019 vaccine. Older adults are at higher risk of severe illness from the disease and face an increasingly ageist general population who misrepresent the pandemic as an older adult problem. We use the Theory of Planned Behavior framework to examine vaccine behavior intention. METHOD: A convenience sample (n = 583) of adults aged 60 and older in the United States participated in an online survey using vignettes. Hierarchical regression and analysis of covariance were used to test our model. RESULTS: Results suggest that perceived risk of the pandemic, general vaccine beliefs, and political affiliation influence respondents' attitude toward the vaccine. Respondents' attitudes toward the vaccine and their physician's recommendation help shape vaccine intention. CONCLUSION: The results provide partial support to the proposed model in shaping vaccine intention among older adults.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/therapeutic use , COVID-19 , Health Behavior , Health Risk Behaviors , Vaccination Refusal/psychology , Vaccination , Aged , Attitude to Health , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/psychology , Culture , Female , Humans , Intention , Male , Politics , SARS-CoV-2 , Social Perception/psychology , United States/epidemiology , Vaccination/methods , Vaccination/psychology
14.
PLoS One ; 16(5): e0251694, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1225817

ABSTRACT

The main strategy for combatting SARS-CoV-2 infections in 2020 consisted of behavioural regulations including contact reduction, maintaining distance, hand hygiene, and mask wearing. COVID-19-related risk perception and knowledge may influence protective behaviour, and education could be an important determinant. The current study investigated differences by education level in risk perception, knowledge and protective behaviour regarding COVID-19 in Germany, exploring the development of the pandemic over time. The COVID-19 Snapshot Monitoring study is a repeated cross-sectional online survey conducted during the pandemic in Germany from 3 March 2020 (waves 1-28: 27,957 participants aged 18-74). Differences in risk perception, knowledge and protective behaviour according to education level (high versus low) were analysed using linear and logistic regression. Time trends were accounted for by interaction terms for education level and calendar week. Regarding protective behaviour, interaction terms were tested for all risk perception and knowledge variables with education level. The strongest associations with education level were evident for perceived and factual knowledge regarding COVID-19. Moreover, associations were found between low education level and higher perceived severity, and between low education level and lower perceived probability. Highly educated men were more worried about COVID-19 than those with low levels of education. No educational differences were observed for perceived susceptibility or fear. Higher compliance with hand washing was found in highly educated women, and higher compliance with maintaining distance was found in highly educated men. Regarding maintaining distance, the impact of perceived severity differed between education groups. In men, significant moderation effects of education level on the association between factual knowledge and all three protective behaviours were found. During the pandemic, risk perception and protective behaviour varied greatly over time. Overall, differences by education level were relatively small. For risk communication, reaching all population groups irrespective of education level is critical.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/psychology , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice/ethnology , Risk Reduction Behavior , Adult , Aged , Anxiety/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Educational Status , Fear/psychology , Female , Germany/epidemiology , Hand Disinfection/trends , Hand Hygiene/methods , Hand Hygiene/trends , Health Risk Behaviors , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics/prevention & control , Perception , Risk Assessment/methods , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Surveys and Questionnaires
15.
PLoS One ; 16(4): e0249847, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1206194

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease 2019 is a serious respiratory virus pandemic. Patient characteristics, knowledge of the COVID-19 disease, risk behaviour and mental state will differ between individuals. The primary aim of this study was to investigate these variables in patients visiting an emergency department in the Netherlands during the COVID-19 pandemic and to compare the "COVID-19 suspected" (positive and negative tested group) with the "COVID-19 not suspected" (control group) and to compare in the "COVID-19 suspected" group, the positive and negative tested patients. METHODS: Consecutive adult patients, visiting the emergency room at the Franciscus Gasthuis & Vlietland, Rotterdam, the Netherlands, were asked to fill out questionnaires on the abovementioned items on an iPad. The patients were either "COVID-19 suspected" (positive and negative tested group) or "COVID-19 not suspected" (control group). RESULTS: This study included a total of 159 patients, 33 (21%) tested positive, 85 (53%) negative and 41 (26%) were COVID-19 not suspected (control group). All patients in this study were generally aware of transmission risks and virulence and adhered to the non-pharmaceutical interventions. Working as a health care professional was correlated to a higher risk of SARS-Cov-2 infection (p- value 0.04). COVID-19 suspected patients had a significantly higher level of anxiety compared to COVID-19 not suspected patients (p-value < 0.001). The higher the anxiety, the more seriously hygiene measures were followed. The anxiety scores of the patients with (pulmonary) comorbidities were significantly higher than without comorbidities. CONCLUSION: This is one of the first (large) study that investigates and compares patient characteristics, knowledge, behaviour, illness perception, and mental state with respect to COVID-19 of patients visiting the emergency room, subdivided as being suspected of having COVID-19 (positive or negative tested) and a control group not suspected of having COVID-19. All patients in this study were generally aware of transmission risks and virulence and adhered to the non-pharmaceutical interventions. COVID-19 suspected patients and patients with (pulmonary) comorbidities were significantly more anxious. However, there is no mass hysteria regarding COVID-19. The higher the degree of fear, the more carefully hygiene measures were observed. Knowledge about the coping of the population during the COVID-19 pandemic is very important, certainly also in the perspective of a possible second outbreak of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Emergency Medical Services/trends , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice/ethnology , Adult , Aged , Anxiety/epidemiology , Anxiety Disorders/epidemiology , Case-Control Studies , Depression/epidemiology , Disease Outbreaks , Emergency Service, Hospital/trends , Fear , Female , Health Personnel , Health Risk Behaviors/physiology , Humans , Male , Mental Health/trends , Middle Aged , Netherlands/epidemiology , Pandemics/prevention & control , Risk-Taking , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity
16.
Front Public Health ; 9: 638975, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1156166

ABSTRACT

Objective: Understanding gender differences in responses of health-care workers (HCWs) to COVID-19 outbreak is an effective way to promote customized supports. Methods: During February 2020, 103 HCWs infected with COVID-19 (64 females and 39 males) and 535 uninfected HCWs (383 females and 152 males) were recruited in a cross-sectional study. Level of attention, six emotional status, and self-evaluation of eight protective measures were recorded. Multivariable Firth's logistic regressions were applied to explored independent effect of gender. Results: During early outbreak, female HCWs were more likely to give greater attention, adjusted OR:1.92 (95%CI 1.14-3.23) in total HCWs. Higher proportion of anxiety was observed in female HCWs, adjusted OR:3.14 (95%CI 1.98-4.99) for total HCWs, 4.32(95%CI 1.32-14.15) for infected HCWs and 2.97 (1.78, 4.95) for uninfected HCWs. Proportion of pessimism, fear, full of fighting spirit, and optimism were low, and no gender differences were observed. During a later outbreak, a majority of HCWs reported being very familiar with eight protective measures. After training, a proportion of high self-evaluation in hand hygiene, wearing gloves, and surgical masks increased independently in female HCWs, and adjusted ORs were 3.07 (95% CI 1.57-5.99), 2.37 (95% CI 1.26-4.49), and 1.92 (95% CI 1.02-3.62), respectively. Infection status amplified gender difference in anxiety, hand hygiene, and glove wearing. Conclusion: Female HCWs perceived the outbreak seriously, effective emotional and psychological well-ness should be targeted at female HCWs preferentially, and male HCWs should be encouraged to express their feelings and be further trained.


Subject(s)
Adaptation, Psychological , COVID-19/psychology , Disease Outbreaks/statistics & numerical data , Health Personnel/psychology , Health Risk Behaviors , Infections/psychology , Stress, Psychological , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , China/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Health Personnel/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2 , Sex Factors , Surveys and Questionnaires
17.
Hong Kong Med J ; 27(2): 106-112, 2021 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1151000

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Community face mask use during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has considerably differed worldwide. Generally, Asians are more inclined to wear face masks during disease outbreaks. Hong Kong has emerged relatively unscathed during the initial outbreak of COVID-19, despite its dense population. Previous infectious disease outbreaks influenced the local masking behaviour and response to public health measures. Thus, local behavioural insights are important for the successful implementation of infection control measures. This study explored the behaviour and attitudes of wearing face masks in the community during the initial spread of COVID-19 in Hong Kong. METHODS: We observed the masking behaviour of 10 211 pedestrians in several regions across Hong Kong from 1 to 29 February 2020. We supplemented the data with an online survey of 3199 respondents' views on face mask use. RESULTS: Among pedestrians, the masking rate was 94.8%; 83.7% wore disposable surgical masks. However, 13.0% wore surgical masks incorrectly with 42.5% worn too low, exposing the nostrils or mouth; 35.5% worn 'inside-out' or 'upside-down'. Most online respondents believed in the efficacy of wearing face mask for protection (94.6%) and prevention of community spread (96.6%). Surprisingly, 78.9% reused their mask; more respondents obtained information from social media (65.9%) than from government websites (23.2%). CONCLUSIONS: In Hong Kong, members of the population are motivated to wear masks and believe in the effectiveness of face masks against disease spread. However, a high mask reuse rate and errors in masking techniques were observed. Information on government websites should be enhanced and their accessibility should be improved.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Communicable Disease Control , Disease Transmission, Infectious/prevention & control , Health Behavior , Masks , Public Health/methods , Adult , Attitude to Health , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/psychology , COVID-19/transmission , Communicable Disease Control/instrumentation , Communicable Disease Control/methods , Female , Health Risk Behaviors , Hong Kong/epidemiology , Humans , Male , Masks/standards , Masks/statistics & numerical data , SARS-CoV-2
18.
Ann Fam Med ; 19(2): 141-147, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1123689

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Asymptomatic youth in the United States acting as "silent spreaders" during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic are an ongoing public health concern, particularly given their depiction as unengaged with recommendations. Our goal was to understand the knowledge, beliefs, and experiences of US youth at the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: We posed 2 open-ended surveys to the national MyVoice text message cohort of youth, aged 14-24 years. On March 6, 2020, 4 questions were asked regarding knowledge and experiences during the COVID-19 pandemic with 3 questions repeated on March 20, 2020. Qualitative responses were coded using thematic analysis and summarized with descriptive statistics. RESULTS: Of 1,174 youth, 1,087 responded to at least 1 question (response rate of 88%). The average age of respondents was 19 (SD 2.8) years with 52% female and 56% non-Hispanic White respondents. On March 6, 2020, most (70%) respondents reported knowing about COVID-19 and primarily cited the news (46%) as their source of information. Nearly all (95%) respondents reported impact by March 20, 2020, and respondents expressing worry increased from 25% to 51%. In both surveys, worried youth primarily cited concern for others (26% and 34%). Regarding preparation, respondents primarily reported doing nothing (36%) on March 6, 2020, and practicing social distancing (50%) on March 20, 2020. CONCLUSIONS: Many youths in our sample are engaged with the COVID-19 pandemic and most are feeling knowledgeable, are concerned about its impacts on others, and are practicing social distancing. Sustained public health efforts should focus on maintaining youth engagement with accurate public information and youth-centered messaging promoting prevention measures to protect the health and well-being of youth and their friends and family.


Subject(s)
Adolescent Behavior/psychology , Attitude to Health , COVID-19/psychology , Social Isolation/psychology , Adaptation, Psychological , Adolescent , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , Female , Health Risk Behaviors , Humans , Male , Quarantine/psychology , Social Media/statistics & numerical data , United States/epidemiology , Young Adult
19.
J Addict Nurs ; 32(1): 59-64, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1109356

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT: Adolescence is a time known for risky behaviors and often the initiation of alcohol use. Readily available, alcohol is often one of the drugs of choice for adolescents. Whereas in the past 30 years, the overall consumption of alcohol is down, the data in the past 10 years have shown more girls are binge drinking and meeting criteria for alcohol use disorder (AUD). The alarm of early alcohol use is the association with problems with the substances later in life. Historically, men and male adolescents consumed more alcohol than females. Recent studies indicate girls' alcohol use surpasses boys, whereas women now are developing AUD at the same rate as men. The consequences of early use can result in women's increased risk for multiple cancers, having a more severe form of AUD with less alcohol consumption as well as premature death. To further exacerbate this growing concern, the novel coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic has created a perfect storm for increased use of alcohol to cope with the stress of living in an uncertain world. Normal daily activities have been halted with the uncertainty of school closures, zoom classroom sessions, and living in mandated social isolation. All nurses need to be screening for how families under their care have been managing stress. The time is opportune to educate and support parents in engaging their children in conversations around substance use. Parents can be supported to increase awareness of their own coping mechanisms and strengthen positive coping. Adolescents need support to strengthen interpersonal skills as well as make informed decisions concerning when and how they engage in alcohol consumption. This article will illuminate the growing need for all healthcare providers to assess and guide adolescents' coping skills during COVID with a focus on mental health, high-risk behavior, and alcohol use.


Subject(s)
Adaptation, Psychological , COVID-19/psychology , Stress, Psychological/psychology , Underage Drinking/statistics & numerical data , Adolescent , Female , Health Risk Behaviors , Humans
20.
Encephale ; 46(3S): S107-S113, 2020 Jun.
Article in French | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1065060

ABSTRACT

Emerging infectious diseases like Covid-19 cause a major threat to global health. When confronted with new pathogens, individuals generate several beliefs about the epidemic phenomenon. Many studies have shown that individual protective behaviors largely depend on these beliefs. Due to the absence of treatment and vaccine against these emerging pathogens, the relation between these beliefs and these behaviors represents a crucial issue for public health policies. In the premises of the Covid-19 pandemic, several preliminary studies have highlighted a delay in the perception of risk by individuals, which potentially holds back the implementing of the necessary precautionary measures: people underestimated the risks associated with the virus, and therefore also the importance of complying with sanitary guidelines. During the peak of the pandemic, the salience of the threat and of the risk of mortality could then have transformed the way people generate their beliefs. This potentially leads to upheavals in the way they understand the world. Here, we propose to explore the evolution of beliefs and behaviors during the Covid-19 crisis, using the theory of predictive coding and the theory of terror management, two influential frameworks in cognitive science and in social psychology.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Brain/physiology , Coronavirus Infections/psychology , Culture , Fear/psychology , Health Behavior , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/psychology , Adaptation, Psychological , Attitude to Health , COVID-19 , Communicable Disease Control , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Denial, Psychological , Guideline Adherence , Guidelines as Topic , Health Risk Behaviors , Humans , Hygiene , Models, Psychological , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Protective Devices , Risk Management , Risk Reduction Behavior , SARS-CoV-2 , Universal Precautions
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