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3.
JAAPA ; 34(6): 1-4, 2021 Jun 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1684812

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT: Preliminary data suggest that opioid-related overdose deaths have increased subsequent to COVID-19. Despite national support for expanding the role of physician assistants (PAs) and NPs in serving patients with opioid use disorder, these clinicians are held to complex and stringent regulatory barriers. COVID-19 triggered significant changes from regulatory and federal agencies, yet disparate policies and regulations persist between physicians and PAs and NPs. The dual epidemics of COVID-19 and opioid use disorder highlight the inadequate infrastructure required to support patients, communities, and clinicians, and may serve as the catalyst for eliminating barriers to care.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Health Services Accessibility/legislation & jurisprudence , Opioid-Related Disorders/drug therapy , Opioid-Related Disorders/epidemiology , Buprenorphine/therapeutic use , COVID-19/prevention & control , Drug Prescriptions , Health Policy/legislation & jurisprudence , Humans , Legislation, Drug , Narcotic Antagonists/therapeutic use , Nurse Practitioners/legislation & jurisprudence , Opioid Epidemic , Physician Assistants/legislation & jurisprudence , Physicians/legislation & jurisprudence , SARS-CoV-2 , Telemedicine , United States/epidemiology
11.
Inquiry ; 58: 469580211022618, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1259084

ABSTRACT

The Affordable Care Act (ACA) Medicaid expansion created new financial opportunities for community health centers (CHCs) providing primary care in medically-underserved communities. However, beyond evidence of initial policy effects, little is understood in the scholarly literature about whether the ACA Medicaid expansion affected longer-lasting changes in CHC patient insurance mix. This study's objective was to examine whether the ACA Medicaid expansion was associated with lasting increases in the annual percentage of adult CHC patients covered by Medicaid and decreases in the annual percentage of uninsured adult CHC patients at expansion-state CHCs, compared to non-expansion-state CHCs. This observational study examined 5353 CHC-year observations from 2012 to 2018 using Uniform Data System data and other national data sources. Using a 2-way fixed-effects multivariable regression approach and marginal analysis, intermediate-term policy effects of the Medicaid expansion on annual CHC patient coverage outcomes were estimated. By 5-years post-expansion, the Medicaid expansion was associated with an overall average increase of 11.7 percentage points in the percentage of adult patients with Medicaid coverage at expansion-state CHCs, compared to non-expansion-state CHCs. Among expansion-state CHCs, 39.8% of adult patients were predicted to have Medicaid coverage 5-years post-expansion, compared to 19.0% of non-expansion-state adult CHC patients. A state's decision to expand Medicaid was similarly associated with decreases in the annual percentage of uninsured adult CHC patients. Primary care operations at CHCs critically depend on patient Medicaid revenue. These findings suggest the ACA Medicaid expansion may provide longer-term financial security for expansion-state CHCs, which maintain increases in Medicaid-covered adult patients even 5-years post-expansion. However, these financial securities may be jeopardized should the ACA be ruled unconstitutional in 2021, a year after CHCs experienced new uncertainties caused by COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Community Health Centers , Health Services Accessibility/legislation & jurisprudence , Medicaid , Adolescent , Adult , COVID-19 , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act , SARS-CoV-2 , United States , Young Adult
13.
Clin Obstet Gynecol ; 64(2): 392-397, 2021 06 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1203758

ABSTRACT

While telemedicine had been utilized in varying ways over the last several years, it has dramatically accelerated in the era of the COVID-19 pandemic. In this article we describe the privacy issues, in relation to the barriers to care for health care providers and barriers to the obstetric patient, licensing and payments for telehealth services, technological issues and language barriers. While there may be barriers to the use of telehealth services this type of care is feasible and the barriers are surmountable.


Subject(s)
Communication Barriers , Health Services Accessibility , Obstetrics , Privacy , Telemedicine , Female , Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act , Health Services Accessibility/ethics , Health Services Accessibility/legislation & jurisprudence , Health Services Accessibility/organization & administration , Humans , Internet , Licensure , Obstetrics/ethics , Obstetrics/legislation & jurisprudence , Obstetrics/methods , Obstetrics/organization & administration , Pregnancy , Privacy/legislation & jurisprudence , Technology , Telemedicine/ethics , Telemedicine/legislation & jurisprudence , Telemedicine/methods , Telemedicine/organization & administration , United States
15.
Am J Public Health ; 111(8): 1497-1503, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1186643

ABSTRACT

Under international law, the United States is obligated to uphold noncitizens' fundamental rights, including their rights to health. However, current US immigration laws-and their enforcement-not only fail to fulfill migrants' health rights but actively undermine their realization and worsen the pandemic's spread. Specifically, the US immigration system's reliance on detention, which precludes effective social distancing, increases risks of exposure and infection for detainees, staff, and their broader communities. International agreements clearly state that the prolonged, mandatory, or automatic detention of people solely because of their migration status is a human rights violation on its own. But in the context of COVID-19, the consequences for migrants' right to health are particularly acute. Effective alternatives exist: other countries demonstrate the feasibility of adopting and implementing immigration laws that establish far less restrictive, social services-based approaches to enforcement that respect human rights. To protect public health and realize its global commitments, the United States must shift away from detaining migrants as standard practice and adopt effective, humane alternatives-both amid COVID-19 and permanently.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Emigration and Immigration/statistics & numerical data , Health Services Accessibility/statistics & numerical data , Social Determinants of Health/statistics & numerical data , Transients and Migrants/statistics & numerical data , Undocumented Immigrants/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19/epidemiology , Emigration and Immigration/legislation & jurisprudence , Health Services Accessibility/legislation & jurisprudence , Human Rights/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Right to Health/statistics & numerical data , Social Determinants of Health/legislation & jurisprudence , Social Justice , Transients and Migrants/legislation & jurisprudence , Undocumented Immigrants/legislation & jurisprudence , United States
17.
BMC Public Health ; 21(1): 490, 2021 03 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1133587

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: It is now 25 years since the adoption of the Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS) and the same concerns raised during its negotiations such as high prices of medicines, market exclusivity and delayed market entry for generics remain relevant as highlighted recently by the Ebola and COVID-19 pandemics. The World Health Organization's (WHO) mandate to work on the interface between intellectual property, innovation and access to medicine has been continually reinforced and extended to include providing support to countries on the implementation of TRIPS flexibilities in collaboration with stakeholders. This study analyses the role of intellectual property on access to medicines in the African Region. METHODS: We analyze patent data from the African Regional Intellectual Property Organization (ARIPO) and Organisation Africaine de la Propriété Intellectuelle (OAPI) to provide a situational analysis of patenting activity and trends. We also review legislation to assess how TRIPS flexibilities are implemented in countries. RESULTS: Patenting was low for African countries. Only South Africa and Cameroon appeared in the list of top ten originator countries for ARIPO and OAPI respectively. Main diseases covered by African patents were HIV/AIDS, cardiovascular diseases, cancers and tumors. Majority countries have legislation allowing for compulsory licensing and parallel importation of medicines, while the least legislated flexibilities were explicit exemption of pharmaceutical products from patentable subject matter, new or second use of patented pharmaceutical products, imposition of limits to patent term extension and test data protection. Thirty-nine countries have applied TRIPS flexibilities, with the most common being compulsory licensing and least developed country transition provisions. CONCLUSIONS: Opportunities exist for WHO to work with ARIPO and OAPI to support countries in reviewing their legislation to be more responsive to public health needs.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Commerce/legislation & jurisprudence , Health Services Accessibility/economics , Health Services Accessibility/legislation & jurisprudence , Intellectual Property , Patents as Topic , Africa , Commerce/history , Developing Countries , History, 20th Century , Humans , International Law , Public Health/legislation & jurisprudence , World Health Organization
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