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1.
Am J Manag Care ; 27(4): e101-e104, 2021 04 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2291232

ABSTRACT

In public health insurance programs, federal and state regulators use network adequacy standards to ensure that health plans provide enrollees with adequate access to care. These standards are based on provider availability, anticipated enrollment, and patterns of care delivery. We anticipate that the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic will have 3 main effects on provider networks and their regulation: enrollment changes, changes to the provider landscape, and changes to care delivery. Regulators will need to ensure that plans adjust their network size should there be increased enrollment or increased utilization caused by forgone care. Regulators will also require updated monitoring data and plan network data that reflect postpandemic provider availability. Telehealth will have a larger role in care delivery than in the prepandemic period, and regulators will need to adapt network standards to accommodate in-person and virtual care delivery.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Health Planning , Health Services Accessibility/standards , Insurance Coverage/standards , Insurance, Health/standards , Public Sector , Health Insurance Exchanges , Humans , Insurance Coverage/legislation & jurisprudence , Insurance Coverage/organization & administration , Insurance, Health/legislation & jurisprudence , Insurance, Health/organization & administration , Medicaid/legislation & jurisprudence , Medicare/legislation & jurisprudence , United States
2.
J Med Internet Res ; 25: e42134, 2023 03 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2266078

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Hypertension and diabetes are becoming increasingly prevalent worldwide. Telemedicine is an accessible and cost-effective means of supporting hypertension and diabetes management, especially as the COVID-19 pandemic has accelerated the adoption of technological solutions for care. However, to date, no review has examined the contextual factors that influence the implementation of telemedicine interventions for hypertension or diabetes worldwide. OBJECTIVE: We adopted a comprehensive implementation research perspective to synthesize the barriers to and facilitators of implementing telemedicine interventions for the management of hypertension, diabetes, or both. METHODS: We performed a scoping review involving searches in Ovid MEDLINE, Embase, CINAHL, Cochrane Library, Web of Science, and Google Scholar to identify studies published in English from 2017 to 2022 describing barriers and facilitators related to the implementation of telemedicine interventions for hypertension and diabetes management. The coding and synthesis of barriers and facilitators were guided by the Consolidated Framework for Implementation Research. RESULTS: Of the 17,687 records identified, 35 (0.2%) studies were included in our scoping review. We found that facilitators of and barriers to implementation were dispersed across the constructs of the Consolidated Framework for Implementation Research. Barriers related to cost, patient needs and resources (eg, lack of consideration of language needs, culture, and rural residency), and personal attributes of patients (eg, demographics and priorities) were the most common. Facilitators related to the design and packaging of the intervention (eg, user-friendliness), patient needs and resources (eg, personalized information that leveraged existing strengths), implementation climate (eg, intervention embedded into existing infrastructure), knowledge of and beliefs about the intervention (eg, convenience of telemedicine), and other personal attributes (eg, technical literacy) were the most common. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that the successful implementation of telemedicine interventions for hypertension and diabetes requires comprehensive efforts at the planning, execution, engagement, and reflection and evaluation stages of intervention implementation to address challenges at the individual, interpersonal, organizational, and environmental levels.


Subject(s)
Diabetes Mellitus , Health Services Accessibility , Hypertension , Implementation Science , Telemedicine , Humans , Diabetes Mellitus/therapy , Hypertension/therapy , Telemedicine/methods , Telemedicine/standards , Health Services Accessibility/standards , Patient Care Management/methods , Patient Care Management/standards
4.
J Glob Health ; 13: 06006, 2023 Mar 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2250749

ABSTRACT

Background: During the COVID-19 pandemic, access to health care for people living with non-communicable diseases (NCDs) has been significantly disrupted. Calls have been made to adapt health systems and innovate service delivery models to improve access to care. We identified and summarized the health systems adaptions and interventions implemented to improve NCD care and their potential impact on low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). Methods: We comprehensively searched Medline/PubMed, Embase, CINAHL, Global Health, PsycINFO, Global Literature on coronavirus disease, and Web of Science for relevant literature published between January 2020 and December 2021. While we targeted articles written in English, we also included papers published in French with abstracts written in English. Results: After screening 1313 records, we included 14 papers from six countries. We identified four unique health systems adaptations/interventions for restoring, maintaining, and ensuring continuity of care for people living with NCDs: telemedicine or teleconsultation strategies, NCD medicine drop-off points, decentralization of hypertension follow-up services and provision of free medication to peripheral health centers, and diabetic retinopathy screening with a handheld smartphone-based retinal camera. We found that the adaptations/interventions enhanced continuity of NCD care during the pandemic and helped bring health care closer to patients using technology and easing access to medicines and routine visits. Telephonic aftercare services appear to have saved a significant amount of patients' time and funds. Hypertensive patients recorded better blood pressure controls over the follow-up period. Conclusions: Although the identified measures and interventions for adapting health systems resulted in potential improvements in access to NCD care and better clinical outcomes, further exploration is needed to establish the feasibility of these adaptations/interventions in different settings given the importance of context in their successful implementation. Insights from such implementation studies are critical for ongoing health systems strengthening efforts to mitigate the impact of COVID-19 and future global health security threats for people living with NCDs.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Delivery of Health Care , Developing Countries , Noncommunicable Diseases , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , Government Programs/organization & administration , Government Programs/standards , Hypertension/epidemiology , Hypertension/therapy , Noncommunicable Diseases/epidemiology , Noncommunicable Diseases/therapy , Pandemics , Delivery of Health Care/organization & administration , Delivery of Health Care/standards , Health Services Accessibility/organization & administration , Health Services Accessibility/standards , Internationality
7.
CMAJ ; 192(37): E1079-E1080, 2020 Sep 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1383773
9.
Antimicrob Resist Infect Control ; 11(1): 34, 2022 02 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1679967

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The current Coronavirus disease pandemic reveals political and structural inequities of the world's poorest people who have little or no access to health care and yet the largest burdens of poor health. This is in parallel to a more persistent but silent global health crisis, antimicrobial resistance (AMR). We explore the fundamental challenges of health care in humans and animals in relation to AMR in Tanzania. METHODS: We conducted 57 individual interviews and focus groups with providers and patients in high, middle and lower tier health care facilities and communities across three regions of Tanzania between April 2019 and February 2020. We covered topics from health infrastructure and prescribing practices to health communication and patient experiences. RESULTS: Three interconnected themes emerged about systemic issues impacting health. First, there are challenges around infrastructure and availability of vital resources such as healthcare staff and supplies. Second, health outcomes are predicated on patient and provider access to services as well as social determinants of health. Third, health communication is critical in defining trusted sources of information, and narratives of blame emerge around health outcomes with the onus of responsibility for action falling on individuals. CONCLUSION: Entanglements between infrastructure, access and communication exist while constraints in the health system lead to poor health outcomes even in 'normal' circumstances. These are likely to be relevant across the globe and highly topical for addressing pressing global health challenges. Redressing structural health inequities can better equip countries and their citizens to not only face pandemics but also day-to-day health challenges.


Subject(s)
Health Inequities , Health Services Accessibility/standards , Poverty/statistics & numerical data , Public Health/standards , Social Determinants of Health/standards , Animals , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Global Health/standards , Global Health/statistics & numerical data , Health Services Accessibility/economics , Health Services Accessibility/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Public Health/statistics & numerical data , Social Determinants of Health/economics , Social Determinants of Health/statistics & numerical data , Tanzania/epidemiology
11.
BMC Pregnancy Childbirth ; 21(1): 840, 2021 Dec 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1637767

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic poses an unprecedented risk to the global population. Maternity care in the UK was subject to many iterations of guidance on how best to reconfigure services to keep women, their families and babies, and healthcare professionals safe. Parents who experience a pregnancy loss or perinatal death require particular care and support. PUDDLES is an international collaboration investigating the experiences of recently bereaved parents who suffered a late miscarriage, stillbirth, or neonatal death during the global COVID-19 pandemic, in seven countries. In this study, we aim to present early findings from qualitative work undertaken with recently bereaved parents in the United Kingdom about how access to healthcare and support services was negotiated during the pandemic. METHODS: In-depth semi-structured interviews were undertaken with parents (N = 24) who had suffered a late miscarriage (n = 5; all mothers), stillbirth (n = 16; 13 mothers, 1 father, 1 joint interview involving both parents), or neonatal death (n = 3; all mothers). Data were analysed using a template analysis with the aim of investigating bereaved parents' access to services, care, and networks of support, during the pandemic after their bereavement. RESULTS: All parents had experience of utilising reconfigured maternity and/or neonatal, and bereavement care services during the pandemic. The themes utilised in the template analysis were: 1) The Shock & Confusion Associated with Necessary Restrictions to Daily Life; 2) Fragmented Care and Far Away Families; 3) Keeping Safe by Staying Away; and 4) Impersonal Care and Support Through a Screen. Results suggest access to maternity, neonatal, and bereavement care services were all significantly reduced, and parents' experiences were notably affected by service reconfigurations. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings, whilst preliminary, are important to document now, to help inform care and service provision as the pandemic continues and to provide learning for ongoing and future health system shocks. We draw conclusions on how to enable development of safe and appropriate services during this pandemic and any future health crises, to best support parents who experience a pregnancy loss or whose babies die.


Subject(s)
Abortion, Spontaneous/psychology , Bereavement , COVID-19/psychology , Grief , Parents/psychology , Perinatal Death , Stillbirth/psychology , Continuity of Patient Care/standards , Female , Health Services Accessibility/standards , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Male , Pregnancy , Preliminary Data , Psychosocial Support Systems , Qualitative Research , Quarantine/psychology , SARS-CoV-2 , United Kingdom/epidemiology
15.
J Cyst Fibros ; 20 Suppl 3: 31-38, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1587346

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Depression and anxiety are two to four times more prevalent in people with CF (pwCF) than the general population. COVID-19 may exacerbate mental health challenges, increasing demand for psychological services, while decreasing their availability. We assessed the impact of the pandemic on depression and anxiety in pwCF, including how COVID-19 affected the frequency of mental health screening and the types of services provided. METHODS: A 38-item internet survey, completed in June 2020, assessed how COVID-19 affected: 1) the mental health clinician's role and screening processes; 2) barriers to screening and resource needs; 3) impact of COVID-19 on depression and anxiety, and 4) positive outcomes and confidence in sustaining mental health screening and treatment, including telehealth services, after the pandemic. RESULTS: Responses were obtained from 131 of the 289 US CF programs. Overall, 60% of programs (n=79) continued mental health screening and treatment, although less frequently; 50% provided individual tele-mental health interventions, and 9% provided telehealth group therapy. Clinically elevated depression symptoms (PHQ-9≥10; moderate to severe), were found in 12% of 785 pwCF, with 3.1% endorsing suicidal ideation. Similarly, elevated anxiety (moderate to severe; GAD-7≥10) was found in 13% of pwCF (n=779). CONCLUSIONS: The COVID-19 pandemic created an opportunity to implement innovative solutions to disruptions in mental health screening and treatment in CF programs. We found that pwCF had increased access to psychological interventions during the pandemic via telehealth, supporting the continued integration of tele-mental health screening and treatment into CF care.


Subject(s)
Anxiety , COVID-19 , Cystic Fibrosis , Depression , Mental Health , Psychosocial Intervention , Telemedicine , Anxiety/diagnosis , Anxiety/physiopathology , Anxiety/therapy , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/psychology , Cystic Fibrosis/epidemiology , Cystic Fibrosis/psychology , Cystic Fibrosis/therapy , Delivery of Health Care/methods , Delivery of Health Care/trends , Depression/diagnosis , Depression/physiopathology , Depression/therapy , Health Services Accessibility/standards , Health Services Accessibility/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Mass Screening/methods , Needs Assessment , Psychosocial Intervention/methods , Psychosocial Intervention/trends , Psychosocial Support Systems , SARS-CoV-2 , Surveys and Questionnaires , Telemedicine/methods , Telemedicine/organization & administration , United States/epidemiology
16.
J Cyst Fibros ; 20 Suppl 3: 57-63, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1587342

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Cystic fibrosis (CF) programs and people with CF (PwCF) employed various monitoring methods for virtual care during the COVID-19 pandemic. This paper characterizes experiences with remote monitoring across the U.S. CF community. METHODS: The CF Foundation (CFF) sponsored distribution of home spirometers (April 2020 to May 2021), surveys to PwCF and CF programs (July to September 2020), and a second program survey (April to May 2021). We used mixed methods to explore access, use, and perspectives regarding the use of remote monitoring in future care. RESULTS: By October 2020, 13,345 spirometers had been distributed, and 19,271 spirometers by May 2021. Programs (n=286) estimated proportions of PwCF with home devices increased over seven months: spirometers (30% to 70%), scales (50% to 70%), oximeters (5% to 10%) with higher estimates in adult programs for spirometers and oximeters. PwCF (n=378) had access to scales (89%), followed by oximeters (48%) and spirometers (47%), often using scales and oximeters weekly, and spirometers monthly. Over both surveys, some programs had no method to collect respiratory specimens for cultures associated with telehealth visits (47%, n=132; 41%, n=118). Most programs (81%) had a process for phlebotomy associated with a telehealth visit, primarily through off-site labs. Both PwCF and programs felt future care should advance remote monitoring and recommended improvements for access, training, and data collection systems. CONCLUSIONS: PwCF and programs experienced unprecedented access to remote monitoring and raised its importance for future care. Improvements to current systems may leverage these shared experiences to augment future care models.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cystic Fibrosis , Equipment and Supplies/supply & distribution , Home Care Services , Monitoring, Physiologic/methods , Spirometry , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Child , Cystic Fibrosis/diagnosis , Cystic Fibrosis/epidemiology , Cystic Fibrosis/therapy , Delivery of Health Care/organization & administration , Delivery of Health Care/trends , Health Services Accessibility/organization & administration , Health Services Accessibility/standards , Home Care Services/organization & administration , Home Care Services/standards , Humans , Models, Organizational , Needs Assessment , Oximetry/instrumentation , Oximetry/methods , Quality Improvement , SARS-CoV-2 , Spirometry/instrumentation , Spirometry/methods , Telemedicine/methods , Telemedicine/standards , United States/epidemiology
18.
Ann Med ; 53(1): 1924-1934, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1493393

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The SARS-CoV-2 pandemic has forced healthcare providers to reorganize their activities to protect the population from infection, postponing or suspending many medical procedures. Patients affected by chronic conditions were among the most affected. In the case of catastrophes, women have a higher lifetime prevalence of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and those with endometriosis have higher anxiety levels, making them fragile in such circumstances. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, conducted in May 2020, we considered all women aged ≥18 years, followed up at our referral centre for endometriosis. Patients were sent an anonymous 6-section questionnaire via email, containing different validated tools for the evaluation of anxiety levels and the risk of PTSD. A multivariable linear regression was performed to assess the impact of patients' characteristics on the distress caused by the SARS-COV-2 pandemic. RESULTS: Among the 468 women recruited, 68.8% were quite-to-extremely worried about not being able to access gynaecologic care, with almost one-third of them scoring ≥33 on the IES-R. Older age and increased levels of anxiety were associated with higher risks of PTSD (age: b = 0.28, 95% CI = 0.12 - 0.44; GAD-7: b = 1.71, 95% CI = 1.38 - 2.05), with up to 71.8% of patients with severe anxiety (GAD-7 > 15) having an IES-R score ≥33 suggestive for PTSD. Women who could leave home to work showed lower levels of PTSD (b = -4.79, 95% CI = -8.44 to - 1.15, ref. unemployed women). The implementation of telemedicine in routine clinical practice was favourably viewed by 75.6% of women. DISCUSSION: Women with endometriosis are particularly exposed to the risk of PTSD during the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic, especially if they are older or have higher levels of anxiety. Gynaecologists should resort to additional strategies, and telemedicine could represent a feasible tool to help patients cope with this situation.KEY MESSAGESThe COVID-19 pandemic significantly impacted the lives of women with endometriosis, who appeared to have a considerable risk of PTSD.Older age, higher anxiety levels and unemployment were independently associated with the risk of developing PTSD.Clinicians should develop successful alternative strategies to help patients cope with this situation, and telemedicine might represent an applicable and acceptable solution.


Subject(s)
Anxiety/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Endometriosis/therapy , Health Services Accessibility/standards , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/epidemiology , Adult , Age Factors , Anxiety/diagnosis , Anxiety/etiology , Anxiety/psychology , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/transmission , Communicable Disease Control/standards , Cross-Sectional Studies , Endometriosis/psychology , Female , Health Services Accessibility/organization & administration , Humans , Internet/statistics & numerical data , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics/prevention & control , Prevalence , Risk Management , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/diagnosis , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/etiology , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/psychology , Surveys and Questionnaires/statistics & numerical data , Telemedicine/organization & administration , Telemedicine/standards , Young Adult
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