Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 270
Filter
Add filters

Document Type
Year range
1.
J Cyst Fibros ; 20 Suppl 3: 31-38, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1587346

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Depression and anxiety are two to four times more prevalent in people with CF (pwCF) than the general population. COVID-19 may exacerbate mental health challenges, increasing demand for psychological services, while decreasing their availability. We assessed the impact of the pandemic on depression and anxiety in pwCF, including how COVID-19 affected the frequency of mental health screening and the types of services provided. METHODS: A 38-item internet survey, completed in June 2020, assessed how COVID-19 affected: 1) the mental health clinician's role and screening processes; 2) barriers to screening and resource needs; 3) impact of COVID-19 on depression and anxiety, and 4) positive outcomes and confidence in sustaining mental health screening and treatment, including telehealth services, after the pandemic. RESULTS: Responses were obtained from 131 of the 289 US CF programs. Overall, 60% of programs (n=79) continued mental health screening and treatment, although less frequently; 50% provided individual tele-mental health interventions, and 9% provided telehealth group therapy. Clinically elevated depression symptoms (PHQ-9≥10; moderate to severe), were found in 12% of 785 pwCF, with 3.1% endorsing suicidal ideation. Similarly, elevated anxiety (moderate to severe; GAD-7≥10) was found in 13% of pwCF (n=779). CONCLUSIONS: The COVID-19 pandemic created an opportunity to implement innovative solutions to disruptions in mental health screening and treatment in CF programs. We found that pwCF had increased access to psychological interventions during the pandemic via telehealth, supporting the continued integration of tele-mental health screening and treatment into CF care.


Subject(s)
Anxiety , COVID-19 , Cystic Fibrosis , Depression , Mental Health , Psychosocial Intervention , Telemedicine , Anxiety/diagnosis , Anxiety/physiopathology , Anxiety/therapy , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/psychology , Cystic Fibrosis/epidemiology , Cystic Fibrosis/psychology , Cystic Fibrosis/therapy , Delivery of Health Care/methods , Delivery of Health Care/trends , Depression/diagnosis , Depression/physiopathology , Depression/therapy , Health Services Accessibility/standards , Health Services Accessibility/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Mass Screening/methods , Needs Assessment , Psychosocial Intervention/methods , Psychosocial Intervention/trends , Psychosocial Support Systems , SARS-CoV-2 , Surveys and Questionnaires , Telemedicine/methods , Telemedicine/organization & administration , United States/epidemiology
5.
J Gerontol B Psychol Sci Soc Sci ; 76(7): e268-e274, 2021 08 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1526159

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Mexico is among the countries in Latin America hit hardest by coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). A large proportion of older adults in Mexico have high prevalence of multimorbidity and live in poverty with limited access to health care services. These statistics are even higher among adults living in rural areas, which suggest that older adults in rural communities may be more susceptible to COVID-19. The objectives of the article were to compare clinical and demographic characteristics for people diagnosed with COVID-19 by age group, and to describe cases and mortality in rural and urban communities. METHOD: We linked publicly available data from the Mexican Ministry of Health and the Census. Municipalities were classified based on population as rural (<2,500), semirural (≥2,500 and <15,000), semiurban (≥15,000 and <100,000), and urban (≥100,000). Zero-inflated negative binomial models were performed to calculate the total number of COVID-19 cases, and deaths per 1,000,000 persons using the population of each municipality as a denominator. RESULTS: Older adults were more likely to be hospitalized and reported severe cases, with higher mortality rates. In addition, rural municipalities reported a higher number of COVID-19 cases and mortality related to COVID-19 per million than urban municipalities. The adjusted absolute difference in COVID-19 cases was 912.7 per million (95% confidence interval [CI]: 79.0-1746.4) and mortality related to COVID-19 was 390.6 per million (95% CI: 204.5-576.7). DISCUSSION: Urgent policy efforts are needed to mandate the use of face masks, encourage handwashing, and improve specialty care for Mexicans in rural areas.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Health Services Accessibility/statistics & numerical data , Health Status Disparities , Poverty/statistics & numerical data , Rural Population/statistics & numerical data , Urban Population/statistics & numerical data , Age Factors , Aged , COVID-19/therapy , Female , Humans , Male , Mexico/epidemiology , Rural Health Services/organization & administration , Urban Health Services/organization & administration
6.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 70(46): 1597-1602, 2021 Nov 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1524678

ABSTRACT

Diabetes affects approximately one in 10 persons in the United States† and is a risk factor for severe COVID-19 (1), especially when a patient's diabetes is not well managed (2). The extent to which the COVID-19 pandemic has affected diabetes care and management, and whether this varies across age groups, is currently unknown. To evaluate access to and use of health care, as well as experiences, attitudes, and behaviors about COVID-19 prevention and vaccination, a nonprobability, Internet-based survey was administered to 5,261 U.S. adults aged ≥18 years during February-March 2021. Among respondents, 760 (14%) adults who reported having diabetes currently managed with medication were included in the analysis. Younger adults (aged 18-29 years) with diabetes were more likely to report having missed medical care during the past 3 months (87%; 79) than were those aged 30-59 years (63%; 372) or ≥60 years (26%; 309) (p<0.001). Overall, 44% of younger adults reported difficulty accessing diabetes medications. Younger adults with diabetes also reported lower intention to receive COVID-19 vaccination (66%) compared with adults aged ≥60 years§ (85%; p = 0.001). During the COVID-19 pandemic, efforts to enhance access to diabetes care for adults with diabetes and deliver public health messages emphasizing the importance of diabetes management and COVID-19 prevention, including vaccination, are warranted, especially in younger adults.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Diabetes Mellitus/therapy , Health Services Accessibility/statistics & numerical data , Pandemics , Patient Acceptance of Health Care/statistics & numerical data , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , United States/epidemiology , Young Adult
7.
Med Care ; 60(1): 3-12, 2022 01 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1504829

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Equitable access to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) testing is important for reducing disparities. We sought to examine differences in the health care setting choice for SARS-CoV-2 testing by race/ethnicity and insurance. Options included traditional health care settings and mobile testing units (MTUs) targeting communities experiencing disproportionately high coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) rates. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective, observational study among patients in a large health system in the Southeastern US. Descriptive statistics and multinomial logistic regression analyses were employed to evaluate associations between patient characteristics and health care setting choice for SARS-CoV-2 testing, defined as: (1) outpatient (OP) care; (2) emergency department (ED); (3) urgent care (UC); and (4) MTUs. Patient characteristics included race/ethnicity, insurance, and the existence of an established relationship with the health care system. RESULTS: Our analytic sample included 105,386 adult patients tested for SARS-CoV-2. Overall, 55% of patients sought care at OP, 24% at ED, 12% at UC, and 9% at MTU. The sample was 58% White, 24% Black, 11% Hispanic, and 8% other race/ethnicity. Black patients had a higher likelihood of getting tested through the ED compared with White patients. Hispanic patients had the highest likelihood of testing at MTUs. Patients without a primary care provider had a higher relative risk of being tested through the ED and MTUs versus OP. CONCLUSIONS: Disparities by race/ethnicity were present in health care setting choice for SARS-CoV-2 testing. Health care systems may consider implementing mobile care delivery models to reach vulnerable populations. Our findings support the need for systemic change to increase primary care and health care access beyond short-term pandemic solutions.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Testing/methods , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/ethnology , Health Facilities/statistics & numerical data , Health Status Disparities , Adolescent , Adult , African Americans/statistics & numerical data , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Female , Health Services Accessibility/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Patient Acceptance of Health Care/ethnology , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Socioeconomic Factors , United States , Young Adult
8.
Int J Equity Health ; 20(1): 183, 2021 08 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1496177

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The determinants of access to immunizers are still poorly understood, leading to questions about which criteria were considered in this distribution. Given the above, the present study aimed to analyze the determinants of access to the SARS-CoV-2 vaccine by different countries. METHODS: The study covered 189 countries using data from different public databases, and collected until February 19, 2021. We used eight explanatory variables: gross domestic product (GDP), extreme poverty, human development index (HDI), life expectancy, median age, coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) cases, COVID-19 tests, and COVID-19 deaths. The endogenous variables were total vaccine doses, vaccine doses per thousand, and days of vaccination. The structural equation modeling (SEM) technique was applied to establish the causal relationship between the country's COVID-19 impact, socioeconomic variables, and vaccine access. To support SEM, we used confirmatory factor analysis, t-test, and Pearson's correlation. RESULTS: We collected the sample on February 19, and to date, 80 countries (42.1%) had already received a batch of immunizers against COVID-19. The countries with first access to the vaccine (e.g., number of days elapsed since they took the first dose) were the United Kingdom (68), China (68), Russia (66), and Israel (62). The countries receiving the highest doses were the United States, China, India, and Israel. The countries with extreme poverty had lower access to vaccines and the richer countries gained priority access. Countries most affected by COVID (deaths and cases) also received immunizers earlier and in greater volumes. Unfortunately, similar to other vaccines, indicators, such as income, poverty, and human development, influence vaccines' access. Thus affecting the population of vulnerable and less protected countries. Therefore, global initiatives for the equitable distribution of COVID need to be discussed and encouraged. CONCLUSIONS: Determinants of vaccine distribution consider the impact of the disease in the country and are also affected by favorable socioeconomic indicators. The COVID-19 vaccines need to be accessible to all affected countries, regardless of their social hands.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , Global Health , Health Care Rationing , Health Services Accessibility , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/supply & distribution , Health Care Rationing/methods , Health Services Accessibility/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Socioeconomic Factors
10.
Obstet Gynecol ; 138(4): 574-577, 2021 10 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1462516

ABSTRACT

Since the beginning of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, health care professionals have made swift accommodations to provide consistent and safe care, including emphasizing remote access to allow physical distancing. Depot medroxyprogesterone acetate intramuscular injection (DMPA-IM) prescription is typically administered by a health care professional, whereas DMPA-subcutaneous has the potential to be safely self-injected by patients, avoiding contact with a health care professional. However, DMPA-subcutaneous is rarely prescribed despite its U.S. Food and Drug Administration approval in 2004 and widespread coverage by both state Medicaid providers and many private insurers. Depot medroxyprogesterone acetate users are disproportionately non-White, and thus the restriction in DMPA-subcutaneous prescribing may both stem from and contribute to systemic racial health disparities. We review evidence on acceptability, safety, and continuation rates of DMPA-subcutaneous, consider sources of implicit bias that may impede prescription of this contraceptive method, and provide recommendations for implementing DMPA-subcutaneous prescribing.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Contraceptive Agents, Female/administration & dosage , Family Planning Services/statistics & numerical data , Medroxyprogesterone Acetate/administration & dosage , Patient Acceptance of Health Care/statistics & numerical data , Contraception/statistics & numerical data , Drug Prescriptions/statistics & numerical data , Family Planning Services/methods , Female , Health Services Accessibility/statistics & numerical data , Healthcare Disparities/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Injections, Subcutaneous , SARS-CoV-2 , Self Administration , United States
11.
JAMA Netw Open ; 4(9): e2127582, 2021 09 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1441918

ABSTRACT

Importance: The COVID-19 pandemic has had disproportionate effects on racial and ethnic minority communities, where preexisting clinical and social conditions amplify health and social disparities. Many of these communities report lower vaccine confidence and lower receipt of the COVID-19 vaccine. Understanding factors that influence the multifaceted decision-making process for vaccine uptake is critical for narrowing COVID-19-related disparities. Objective: To examine factors that members of multiethnic communities at high risk for COVID-19 infection and morbidity report as contributing to vaccine decision-making. Design, Setting, and Participants: This qualitative study used community-engaged methods to conduct virtual focus groups from November 16, 2020, to January 28, 2021, with Los Angeles County residents. Potential participants were recruited through email, video, and telephone outreach to community partner networks. Focus groups were stratified by self-identified race and ethnicity as well as age. Transcripts were analyzed using reflexive thematic analysis. Main Outcomes and Measures: Themes were categorized by contextual, individual, and vaccine-specific influences using the World Health Organization's Vaccine Hesitancy Matrix categories. Results: A total of 13 focus groups were conducted with 70 participants (50 [71.4%] female) who self-identified as American Indian (n = 17 [24.3%]), Black/African American (n = 17 [24.3%]), Filipino/Filipina (n = 11 [15.7%]), Latino/Latina (n = 15 [21.4%]), or Pacific Islander (n = 10 [14.3%]). A total of 39 participants (55.7%) were residents from high-poverty zip codes, and 34 (48.6%) were essential workers. The resulting themes included policy implications for equitable vaccine distribution: contextual influences (unclear and unreliable information, concern for inequitable access or differential treatment, references to mistrust from unethical research studies, accessibility and accommodation barriers, eligibility uncertainty, and fears of politicization or pharmaceutical industry influence); social and group influences (inadequate exposure to trusted messengers or information, altruistic motivations, medical mistrust, and desire for autonomy); and vaccination-specific influences (need for vaccine evidence by subpopulation, misconceptions on vaccine development, allocation ambiguity, vaccination safety preferences, the importance of perceiving vaccine equity, burden of vaccine scheduling, cost uncertainty, and desire for practitioner recommendation). Conclusions and Relevance: In this qualitative study, participants reported a number of factors that affected their vaccine decision-making, including concern for inequitable vaccine access. Participants endorsed policy recommendations and strategies to promote vaccine confidence. These results suggest that support of informed deliberation and attainment of vaccine equity will require multifaceted, multilevel policy approaches that improve COVID-19 vaccine knowledge, enhance trust, and address the complex interplay of sociocultural and structural barriers to vaccination.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/therapeutic use , COVID-19/prevention & control , Minority Groups/statistics & numerical data , Patient Participation/statistics & numerical data , Trust/psychology , COVID-19/psychology , Female , Health Services Accessibility/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Los Angeles , Male , Minority Groups/psychology , Motivation , Patient Participation/psychology
15.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 70(38): 1322-1325, 2021 Sep 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1436413

ABSTRACT

During 2019, approximately 34,800 new HIV infections occurred in the United States (1), and it is estimated that approximately 80% of HIV transmission occurs from persons who either do not know they have HIV infection or are not receiving regular care (2). Since 2006, CDC has recommended that persons who are disproportionately affected by HIV (including men who have sex with men [MSM]) should test for HIV at least annually (3,4). However, data from multiple sources indicate that these recommendations are not being fully implemented (5,6). TakeMeHome, a novel public-private partnership to deliver HIV self-testing kits to persons seeking HIV testing in the United States, was launched during March 2020 as home care options for testing became increasingly important during the COVID-19 pandemic. The initiation of the program coincided with the national COVID-19 Public Health Emergency declaration, issuance of stay-at-home orders, and other restrictions that led to disruption of traditional HIV testing services. During March 31, 2020-March 30, 2021, 17 state and local health departments participating in the program allowed residents of their jurisdictions to order test kits. Marketing for TakeMeHome focused on reaching gay, bisexual, and MSM through messages and embedded links in gay dating applications. Most participants in the program reported that they had either never tested for HIV (36%) or that they had last tested >1 year before receiving their self-test kit (56%). After receiving the self-test kit, >10% of respondents reported accessing additional prevention services. Health departments can increase options for HIV testing by distributing publicly funded self-test kits to persons without proximate access to clinic-based testing or who prefer to test at home. Increased and regular HIV testing among MSM will help meet annual testing goals.


Subject(s)
Direct-To-Consumer Screening and Testing , HIV Testing/statistics & numerical data , Health Services Accessibility/statistics & numerical data , Self-Testing , Adolescent , Adult , Female , HIV Infections/diagnosis , HIV Infections/epidemiology , HIV Testing/methods , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , United States/epidemiology , Young Adult
16.
CA Cancer J Clin ; 71(6): 466-487, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1430676

ABSTRACT

The Hispanic/Latino population is the second largest racial/ethnic group in the continental United States and Hawaii, accounting for 18% (60.6 million) of the total population. An additional 3 million Hispanic Americans live in Puerto Rico. Every 3 years, the American Cancer Society reports on cancer occurrence, risk factors, and screening for Hispanic individuals in the United States using the most recent population-based data. An estimated 176,600 new cancer cases and 46,500 cancer deaths will occur among Hispanic individuals in the continental United States and Hawaii in 2021. Compared to non-Hispanic Whites (NHWs), Hispanic men and women had 25%-30% lower incidence (2014-2018) and mortality (2015-2019) rates for all cancers combined and lower rates for the most common cancers, although this gap is diminishing. For example, the colorectal cancer (CRC) incidence rate ratio for Hispanic compared with NHW individuals narrowed from 0.75 (95% CI, 0.73-0.78) in 1995 to 0.91 (95% CI, 0.89-0.93) in 2018, reflecting delayed declines in CRC rates among Hispanic individuals in part because of slower uptake of screening. In contrast, Hispanic individuals have higher rates of infection-related cancers, including approximately two-fold higher incidence of liver and stomach cancer. Cervical cancer incidence is 32% higher among Hispanic women in the continental US and Hawaii and 78% higher among women in Puerto Rico compared to NHW women, yet is largely preventable through screening. Less access to care may be similarly reflected in the low prevalence of localized-stage breast cancer among Hispanic women, 59% versus 67% among NHW women. Evidence-based strategies for decreasing the cancer burden among the Hispanic population include the use of culturally appropriate lay health advisors and patient navigators and targeted, community-based intervention programs to facilitate access to screening and promote healthy behaviors. In addition, the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on cancer trends and disparities in the Hispanic population should be closely monitored.


Subject(s)
Early Detection of Cancer/statistics & numerical data , Health Services Accessibility/statistics & numerical data , Neoplasms/ethnology , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Female , Humans , Incidence , Male , Middle Aged , Neoplasms/mortality , Neoplasms/prevention & control , Puerto Rico/epidemiology , Risk Factors , Survival Rate , United States/epidemiology , Young Adult
20.
Rheumatol Int ; 41(10): 1755-1761, 2021 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1384393

ABSTRACT

The SARS-CoV-2 global pandemic resulted in major disruptions to medical care. We aimed to understand changes in outpatient care delivery and use of telemedicine in U.S. rheumatology practices during this period. Rheumatology Informatics System Effectiveness (RISE) is a national, EHR-enabled registry that passively collects data on all patients seen by participating practices. Included practices were required to have been participating in RISE from January 2019 through August 2020 (N = 213). We compared total visit counts and telemedicine visits during March-August 2020 to March-August 2019 and stratified by locations in states with shelter-in-place (SIP) orders. We assessed characteristics of patients within each practice, including primary rheumatic diagnosis and disease activity scores, where available. We included 213 practices with 945,160 patients. Overall, we found visit counts decreased by 10.9% (from 1,302,455 to 1,161,051) between March and August 2020 compared to 2019; this drop was most dramatic during the month of April (- 22.3%). Telemedicine visits increased from 0% to a mean of 12.1%. Practices in SIP states had more dramatic decreases in visits, (11.5% vs. 5.3%). We found no major differences in primary diagnoses or disease activity across the two periods. We detected a meaningful decrease in rheumatology visits in March-August 2020 during the SARS-CoV-2 global pandemic compared to the year prior with a concomitant increase in the use of telemedicine. Future work should address possible adverse consequences to patient outcomes due to decreased contact with clinicians.


Subject(s)
Health Services Accessibility/statistics & numerical data , Office Visits/statistics & numerical data , Rheumatology/organization & administration , Telemedicine/statistics & numerical data , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Registries , Rheumatology/statistics & numerical data , SARS-CoV-2 , United States/epidemiology
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL
...