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1.
J Public Health Manag Pract ; 27(5): 492-500, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1501235

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To examine levels of expenditure and needed investment in public health at the local level in the state of Ohio pre-COVID-19. DESIGN: Using detailed financial reporting from fiscal year (FY) 2018 from Ohio's local health departments (LHDs), we characterize spending by Foundational Public Health Services (FPHS). We also constructed estimates of the gap in public health spending in the state using self-reported gaps in service provision and a microsimulation approach. Data were collected between January and June 2019 and analyzed between June and September 2019. PARTICIPANTS: Eighty-four of the 113 LHDs in the state of Ohio covering a population of almost 9 million Ohioans. RESULTS: In FY2018, Ohio LHDs spent an average of $37 per capita on protecting and promoting the public's health. Approximately one-third of this investment supported the Foundational Areas (communicable disease control; chronic disease and injury prevention; environmental public health; maternal, child, and family health; and access to and linkages with health care). Another third supported the Foundational Capabilities, that is, the crosscutting skills and capacities needed to support all LHD activities. The remaining third supported programs and activities that are responsive to local needs and vary from community to community. To fully meet identified LHD needs in the state pre-COVID-19, Ohio would require an additional annual investment of $20 per capita on top of the current $37 spent per capita, or approximately $240 million for the state. CONCLUSIONS: A better understanding of the cost and value of public health services can educate policy makers so that they can make informed trade-offs when balancing health care, public health, and social services investments. The current environment of COVID-19 may dramatically increase need, making understanding and growing public health investment critical.


Subject(s)
Health Care Costs/statistics & numerical data , Health Services Needs and Demand/economics , Public Health Practice/economics , Public Health/economics , COVID-19/economics , Financing, Government/economics , Humans , Local Government , Ohio
5.
J Am Coll Radiol ; 17(11): 1525-1531, 2020 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1065251

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic affected radiology practices in many ways. The aim of this survey was to estimate declines in imaging volumes and financial impact across different practice settings during April 2020. METHODS: The survey, comprising 48 questions, was conducted among members of the ACR and the Radiology Business Management Association during May 2020. Survey questions focused on practice demographics, volumes, financials, personnel and staff adjustments, and anticipation of recovery. RESULTS: During April 2020, nearly all radiology practices reported substantial (56.4%-63.7%) declines in imaging volumes, with outpatient imaging volumes most severely affected. Mean gross charges declined by 50.1% to 54.8% and collections declined by 46.4% to 53.9%. Percentage reductions did not correlate with practice size. The majority of respondents believed that volumes would recover but not entirely (62%-88%) and anticipated a short-term recovery, with a surge likely in the short term due to postponement of elective imaging (52%-64%). About 16% of respondents reported that radiologists in their practices tested positive for COVID-19. More than half (52.3%) reported that availability of personal protective equipment had become an issue or was inadequate. A majority (62.3%) reported that their practices had existing remote reading or teleradiology capabilities in place before the pandemic, and 22.3% developed such capabilities in response to the pandemic. CONCLUSIONS: Radiology practices across different settings experienced substantial declines in imaging volumes and collections during the initial wave of the COVID-19 pandemic in April 2020. Most are actively engaged in both short- and long-term operational adjustments.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Health Services Needs and Demand/economics , Pandemics/economics , Radiology/economics , Workload/economics , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Societies, Medical , Surveys and Questionnaires , United States/epidemiology
6.
Lancet Glob Health ; 8(11): e1372-e1379, 2020 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-752668

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Since WHO declared the COVID-19 pandemic a Public Health Emergency of International Concern, more than 20 million cases have been reported, as of Aug 24, 2020. This study aimed to identify what the additional health-care costs of a strategic preparedness and response plan (SPRP) would be if current transmission levels are maintained in a status quo scenario, or under scenarios where transmission is increased or decreased by 50%. METHODS: The number of COVID-19 cases was projected for 73 low-income and middle-income countries for each of the three scenarios for both 4-week and 12-week timeframes, starting from June 26, 2020. An input-based approach was used to estimate the additional health-care costs associated with human resources, commodities, and capital inputs that would be accrued in implementing the SPRP. FINDINGS: The total cost estimate for the COVID-19 response in the status quo scenario was US$52·45 billion over 4 weeks, at $8·60 per capita. For the decreased or increased transmission scenarios, the totals were $33·08 billion and $61·92 billion, respectively. Costs would triple under the status quo and increased transmission scenarios at 12 weeks. The costs of the decreased transmission scenario over 12 weeks was equivalent to the cost of the status quo scenario at 4 weeks. By percentage of the overall cost, case management (54%), maintaining essential services (21%), rapid response and case investigation (14%), and infection prevention and control (9%) were the main cost drivers. INTERPRETATION: The sizeable costs of a COVID-19 response in the health sector will escalate, particularly if transmission increases. Instituting early and comprehensive measures to limit the further spread of the virus will conserve resources and sustain the response. FUNDING: WHO, and UK Foreign Commonwealth and Development Office.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Developing Countries , Health Care Costs , Health Services Needs and Demand/economics , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/economics , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Forecasting , Humans , Models, Theoretical , Pandemics/economics , Pneumonia, Viral/economics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology
7.
Drug Discov Ther ; 14(4): 153-160, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-745655

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 infection has been a matter of urgency to tackle around the world today, there exist 200 countries around the world and 54 countries in Africa that the COVID-19 infection cases have been confirmed. This situation prompted us to look into the challenges African laboratories are facing in the diagnosis of novel COVID-19 infection. A limited supply of essential laboratory equipment and test kits are some of the challenges faced in combatting the novel virus in Africa. Also, there is inadequate skilled personnel, which might pose a significant danger in case there is a surge in COVID-19 infection cases. The choice of diagnostic method in Africa is limited as there are only two available diagnostic methods being used out of the six methods used globally, thereby reducing the opportunity of supplementary diagnosis, which will further lead to inappropriate diagnosis and affect the accuracy of diagnostic reports. Furthermore, challenges like inadequate power supply, the method used in sample collection, storage and transportation of specimens are also significant as they also pose their respective implication. From the observations, there is an urgent need for more investment into the laboratories for proper, timely, and accurate diagnosis of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , Clinical Laboratory Techniques , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Health Services Accessibility/organization & administration , Health Services Needs and Demand/organization & administration , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Virology/organization & administration , Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , Budgets , COVID-19 , COVID-19 Testing , Clinical Laboratory Techniques/economics , Coronavirus Infections/economics , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Health Care Costs , Health Services Accessibility/economics , Health Services Needs and Demand/economics , Humans , Nigeria/epidemiology , Pandemics/economics , Pneumonia, Viral/economics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Predictive Value of Tests , Reproducibility of Results , SARS-CoV-2 , Viral Load , Virology/economics , Workflow
8.
Nat Med ; 26(7): 1005-1008, 2020 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-595980
9.
J Rehabil Med ; 52(6): jrm00073, 2020 Jun 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-591533

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The COVID-19 pandemic has caused significant motor, cognitive, psychological, neurological and cardiological disabilities in many infected patients. Functional rehabilitation of infectious COVID-19 patients has been implemented in the acute care wards and in appropriate, ad hoc, multidisciplinary COVID-19 rehabilitation units. However, because COVID-19 rehabilitation units are a clinical novelty, clinical and organizational benchmarks are not yet available. The aim of this study is to describe the organizational needs and operational costs of such a unit, by comparing its activity, organization, and costs with 2 other functional rehabilitation units, in San Raffaele Hospital, Milan, Italy. METHODS: The 2-month activity of the COVID-19 Rehabilitation Unit at San Raffaele Hospital, Milan, Italy, which was created in response to the emergency need for rehabilitation of COVID-19 patients, was compared with the previous year's activity of the Cardiac Rehabilitation and Motor Rehabilitation Units of the same institute. RESULTS: The COVID-19 Rehabilitation Unit had the same number of care beds as the other units, but required twice the amount of staff and instrumental equipment, leading to a deficit in costs. DISCUSSION: The COVID-19 Rehabilitation Unit was twice as expensive as the 2 other units studied. World health systems are organizing to respond to the pandemic by expanding capacity in acute intensive care and sub-intensive care units. This study shows that COVID-19 rehabilitation units must be organized and equiped according to the clinical and rehabilitative needs of patients, following specific measures to prevent the spread of infection amongs patients and workers.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/economics , Coronavirus Infections/rehabilitation , Health Services Needs and Demand/economics , Hospital Units/economics , Pandemics/economics , Pneumonia, Viral/economics , Pneumonia, Viral/rehabilitation , Rehabilitation/economics , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Health Services Needs and Demand/organization & administration , Hospital Units/organization & administration , Humans , Italy , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Rehabilitation/organization & administration , SARS-CoV-2
10.
AAPS PharmSciTech ; 21(5): 153, 2020 May 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-343702

ABSTRACT

The supply of affordable, high-quality pharmaceuticals to US patients has been on a critical path for decades. In and beyond the COVID-19 pandemic, this critical path has become tortuous. To regain reliability, reshoring of the pharmaceutical supply chain to the USA is now a vital national security need. Reshoring the pharmaceutical supply with old know-how and outdated technologies that cause inherent unpredictability and adverse environmental impact will neither provide the security we seek nor will it be competitive and affordable. The challenge at hand is complex akin to redesigning systems, including corporate and public research and development, manufacturing, regulatory, and education ones. The US academic community must be engaged in progressing solutions needed to counter emergencies in the COVID-19 pandemic and in building new methods to reshore the pharmaceutical supply chain beyond the pandemic.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/supply & distribution , Betacoronavirus/drug effects , Civil Defense/organization & administration , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Health Services Needs and Demand/organization & administration , Needs Assessment/organization & administration , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Viral Vaccines/supply & distribution , Antiviral Agents/economics , Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , COVID-19 , COVID-19 Vaccines , Civil Defense/economics , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Coronavirus Infections/economics , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Drug Costs , Health Services Needs and Demand/economics , Humans , Needs Assessment/economics , Pandemics/economics , Pneumonia, Viral/economics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , SARS-CoV-2 , United States , Viral Vaccines/economics
11.
J Vasc Surg ; 72(4): 1161-1165, 2020 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-133517

ABSTRACT

The appropriate focus in managing the COVID-19 pandemic in the United States has been addressing access and delivery of care to the population affected by the outbreak. All sectors of the U.S. economy have been significantly affected, including physicians. Physician groups of all specialties and sizes have experienced the financial effects of the pandemic. Hospitals have received billions of dollars to support and enable them to manage emergencies and cover the costs of the disruption. However, many vascular surgeons are under great financial pressure because of the postponement of all nonemergency procedures. The federal government has announced a myriad of programs in the form of grants and loans to reimburse physicians for some of their expenses and loss of revenue. It is more than likely that unless the public health emergency subsides significantly, many practices will experience dire consequences without additional financial assistance. We have attempted to provide a concise listing of such programs and resources available to assist vascular surgeons who are small businesses in accessing these opportunities.


Subject(s)
Appointments and Schedules , Compensation and Redress , Coronavirus Infections/economics , Elective Surgical Procedures/economics , Income , Insurance, Health, Reimbursement/economics , Pandemics/economics , Pneumonia, Viral/economics , Surgeons/economics , Vascular Surgical Procedures/economics , COVID-19 , Compensation and Redress/legislation & jurisprudence , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Elective Surgical Procedures/legislation & jurisprudence , Financing, Government/economics , Financing, Government/legislation & jurisprudence , Health Services Needs and Demand/economics , Health Services Needs and Demand/legislation & jurisprudence , Humans , Insurance, Health, Reimbursement/legislation & jurisprudence , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Policy Making , Surgeons/legislation & jurisprudence , United States/epidemiology , Vascular Surgical Procedures/legislation & jurisprudence
12.
Radiology ; 296(3): E141-E144, 2020 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-60500

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic will have a profound impact on radiology practices across the country. Policy measures adopted to slow the transmission of disease are decreasing the demand for imaging independent of COVID-19. Hospital preparations to expand crisis capacity are further diminishing the amount of appropriate medical imaging that can be safely performed. Although economic recessions generally tend to result in decreased health care expenditures, radiology groups have never experienced an economic shock that is simultaneously exacerbated by the need to restrict the availability of imaging. Outpatient-heavy practices will feel the biggest impact of these changes, but all imaging volumes will decrease. Anecdotal experience suggests that radiology practices should anticipate 50%-70% decreases in imaging volume that will last a minimum of 3-4 months, depending on the location of practice and the severity of the COVID-19 pandemic in each region. The Coronavirus Aid, Relief, and Economic Security, or CARES, Act provides multiple means of direct and indirect aid to health care providers and small businesses. The final allocation of this funding is not yet clear, and it is likely that additional congressional action will be necessary to stabilize health care markets. Administrators and practice leaders must be proactive with practice modifications and financial maneuvers that can position them to emerge from this pandemic in the most viable economic position. It is possible that this crisis will have lasting effects on the structure of the radiology field.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections , Health Services Needs and Demand , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , Radiography , Radiology , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/diagnostic imaging , Coronavirus Infections/economics , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Health Services Needs and Demand/economics , Health Services Needs and Demand/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Pandemics/economics , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnostic imaging , Pneumonia, Viral/economics , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Radiography/economics , Radiography/statistics & numerical data , Radiology/economics , Radiology/organization & administration , SARS-CoV-2
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