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1.
PLoS One ; 18(5): e0285799, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20240608

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Concerns about disease and an increase in health anxiety levels are expected consequences of the COVID-19 pandemic. However, there have been few longitudinal studies of health anxiety in the general population during this time period. The aim of this study was to examine health anxiety levels before and during the COVID-19 pandemic in an adult, working population in Norway. MATERIAL AND METHODS: This study included 1012 participants aged 18-70 years with one or more measurements of health anxiety (1402 measurements total) from the pre-pandemic period (2015 to March 11, 2020) and/or during the COVID-19 pandemic (March 12, 2020 to March 31, 2022). Health anxiety was measured with the revised version of the Whiteley Index-6 scale (WI-6-R). We estimated the effect of the COVID-19 pandemic on health anxiety scores with a general estimation equation analysis, and age, gender, education, and friendship were included in subgroup analyses. RESULTS: We found no significant change in health anxiety scores during the COVID-19 pandemic compared to the pre-pandemic period in our adult, working population. A sensitivity analysis restricted to participants with two or more measurements showed similar results. Moreover, the effect of the COVID-19 pandemic on health anxiety scores was not significant in any subgroup analysis. CONCLUSION: Health anxiety remained stable, with no significant change observed between the pre-pandemic period and the first 2 years of the COVID-19 pandemic in an adult, working population in Norway.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Adult , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , Anxiety/epidemiology , Anxiety Disorders , Health Status
2.
Viruses ; 15(5)2023 05 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20238379

ABSTRACT

Multiple assays have been developed for the characterization of the functional activation of SARS-CoV-2 specific T-cells. This study was conducted to assess the post-vaccination and post-infection T cell response, as detected by the QuantiFERON-SARS-CoV-2 assay using the combination of three SARS-CoV-2 specific antigens (Ag1, Ag2 and Ag3). An amount of 75 participants with different infection and vaccination backgrounds were recruited for the evaluation of humoral and cellular immune responses. An elevated IFN-γ response in at least one Ag tube was observed in 69.2% of convalescent subjects and 63.9% of vaccinated ones. Interestingly, in a healthy unvaccinated case and three convalescents with negative IgG-RBD, we detected a positive QuantiFERON test after stimulation with Ag3. The majority of the T cell responders reacted simultaneously to the three SARS-CoV-2 specific antigens, and Ag3 demonstrated the highest rate of reactivity. At univariable analysis, the only factor that was associated with an absence of a cellular response was time from blood collection, being less than 30 days (OR:3.5, CI95% [1.15-10.50], p = 0.028). Overall, the inclusion of Ag3 improved the performance of the QuantiFERON-SARS-CoV-2 and showed a particular interest among subjects who fail to achieve a measurable antibody response after infection or vaccination.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , COVID-19/diagnosis , SARS-CoV-2 , Biological Assay , Health Status , Vaccination , Antibodies, Viral
3.
Nihon Ronen Igakkai Zasshi ; 60(2): 158-167, 2023.
Article in Japanese | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20236793

ABSTRACT

AIM: The purpose of this study was to categorize and clarify transitions in the health status of older adults living in the community during the coronavirus disease (coronavirus disease 2019: COVID-19) pandemic. METHODS: The participants were older adults (≥65 years of age) who lived in Takasaki City, Gunma Prefecture. The survey items included basic information and subjective health perception (questionnaire for medical checkup of old-old). Latent class analyses were conducted for the first (baseline) and second surveys (6 months). The scores for each item were compared to identify the characteristics of each class at baseline and at 6 months. In addition, transitions in class affiliation from baseline to 6 months were summarized. RESULTS: A total of 434 of 1,953 participants (mean age: 79.1 years, 98 males and 336 females) completed the survey (22.2%). In both time periods, the responses were categorized into four classes: 1) good, 2) poor physical, oral and cognitive function, 3) poor social status and lifestyle, and 4) poor in all except social status and lifestyle. During 6 months of follow-up, a transition from the generally good class to the poor physical, oral and cognitive functions class was observed in many cases. CONCLUSIONS: The health status of the older adults living in the community was classified into four classes, and changes in health status occurred even within a short period of time during the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Female , Male , Humans , Aged , Independent Living , COVID-19/epidemiology , Health Status , Cognition
4.
Bull World Health Organ ; 101(5): 326-330, 2023 May 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20233985

ABSTRACT

Research and development leading to new and improved health products is essential for achieving healthier lives for populations worldwide. However, new products in development do not always match the global need for products for neglected diseases and populations. To promote research, provide an incentive for investment and align products with the needs of end-users, research needs to be better coordinated and prioritized. The World Health Organization (WHO) has developed target product profiles that define the characteristics required in new health products to address the greatest public health needs. A WHO target product profile document presents a need and provides guidance on what to include to consider access and equity as part of the research and development plan from the outset. WHO has also set up the Target Product Profile Directory, a free-to-use online database of characteristics used to describe desired health products, including medicines, vaccines, diagnostic tools and medical equipment. Here we describe the process of developing a WHO target product profile, and the benefits of this type of guidance. We urge product developers to share product profiles addressing unmet needs in public health, to help in progress towards global targets for better health and well-being.


Promouvoir la santé des populations à travers le monde va de pair avec la recherche-développement responsable de la conception et de l'optimisation de produits sanitaires. Pourtant, les nouveaux produits à l'étude ne répondent pas toujours aux exigences mondiales des populations et maladies négligées. En vue de promouvoir la recherche, de favoriser les investissements et d'aligner les produits sur les besoins des utilisateurs finaux, les travaux doivent être mieux coordonnés et leurs priorités, mieux définies. L'Organisation mondiale de la Santé (OMS) a donc élaboré des profils de produits cibles qui déterminent les caractéristiques requises pour les nouveaux produits sanitaires, afin qu'ils correspondent davantage aux besoins les plus criants en matière de santé publique. Un profil de produit cible établi par l'OMS est un document qui met en évidence un besoin et fournit des indications sur les aspects à prendre en compte pour garantir l'accès et l'équité dès le départ dans le plan de recherche-développement. L'OMS a également publié un Répertoire des profils de produits cibles, une base de données en ligne consultable gratuitement qui reprend les caractéristiques employées pour décrire les produits sanitaires souhaités (médicaments, vaccins, outils diagnostiques et équipements médicaux). Dans le présent document, nous détaillons le processus de développement d'un profil de produit cible par l'OMS, mais aussi les avantages que comportent de telles indications. Nous encourageons vivement les laboratoires à partager les profils de produits qui répondent à des besoins non satisfaits en matière de santé publique, afin de contribuer à avancer vers les objectifs mondiaux de santé et de bien-être.


La investigación y el desarrollo de productos sanitarios nuevos y mejorados son esenciales para que las poblaciones de todo el mundo vivan más sanas. Sin embargo, los productos nuevos en desarrollo no siempre se ajustan a las necesidades mundiales de productos para enfermedades y poblaciones desatendidas. Para promover la investigación, incentivar la inversión y adaptar los productos a las necesidades de los usuarios finales, es necesario coordinar mejor la investigación y establecer prioridades. La Organización Mundial de la Salud (OMS) ha elaborado perfiles de productos específicos que definen las características que deben reunir los productos sanitarios nuevos para satisfacer las principales necesidades de salud pública. Un documento de perfil de producto específico de la OMS presenta una necesidad y ofrece orientación sobre lo que debe incluirse para tener en cuenta el acceso y la equidad como parte del plan de investigación y desarrollo desde el principio. La OMS también ha creado el Directorio de Perfiles de Productos Específicos, una base de datos en línea de uso gratuito con las características utilizadas para describir los productos sanitarios deseados, incluidos medicamentos, vacunas, herramientas de diagnóstico y equipos médicos. En el presente documento, describimos el proceso de elaboración de un perfil de producto específico de la OMS y las ventajas de este tipo de orientación. Instamos a los desarrolladores de productos a compartir perfiles de productos que aborden necesidades no cubiertas en salud pública para contribuir al avance hacia los objetivos mundiales de mejora de la salud y el bienestar.


Subject(s)
Vaccines , Humans , World Health Organization , Research , Health Status
5.
BMJ Glob Health ; 8(5)2023 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20233471

ABSTRACT

Despite progress on the Millennium and Sustainable Development Goals, significant public health challenges remain to address communicable and non-communicable diseases and health inequities. The Healthier Societies for Healthy Populations initiative convened by WHO's Alliance for Health Policy and Systems Research; the Government of Sweden; and the Wellcome Trust aims to address these complex challenges. One starting point is to build understanding of the characteristics of successful government-led interventions to support healthier populations. To this end, this project explored five purposefully sampled, successful public health initiatives: front-of-package warnings on food labels containing high sugar, sodium or saturated fat (Chile); healthy food initiatives (trans fats, calorie labelling, cap on beverage size; New York); the alcohol sales and transport ban during COVID-19 (South Africa); the Vision Zero road safety initiative (Sweden) and establishment of the Thai Health Promotion Foundation. For each initiative a qualitative, semistructured one-on-one interview with a key leader was conducted, supplemented by a rapid literature scan with input from an information specialist. Thematic analysis of the five interviews and 169 relevant studies across the five examples identified facilitators of success including political leadership, public education, multifaceted approaches, stable funding and planning for opposition. Barriers included industry opposition, the complex nature of public health challenges and poor interagency and multisector co-ordination. Further examples building on this global portfolio will deepen understanding of success factors or failures over time in this critical area.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , Government , Health Status , Chile , Dietary Supplements
6.
Cien Saude Colet ; 28(6): 1743-1749, 2023 Jun.
Article in Portuguese, English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20243912

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 has had a powerful impact on society with high rates of morbidity and mortality. The use of an epidemiological indicator that estimates the burden of a disease by aggregating early mortality and non-fatal cases in a single measure has the potential to assist in the planning of more appropriate actions at different levels of health care. The scope of this article is to estimate the burden of disease due to COVID-19 in Florianópolis/SC from April 2020 through March 2021. An ecological study was carried out with data from notification and deaths by COVID-19 in the period of 12 months. The burden indicator called Disability-Adjusted Life Years (DALY) was used, obtained by adding the Years of Life Lost (YLL) to the Years of healthy life lost due to disability (YLD). A total of 78,907 confirmed COVID-19 cases were included. Of these, 763 died during the period under study. Overall, 4,496.9 DALYs were estimated, namely a rate of 883.8 DALYs per 100,000 inhabitants. In males, there were 2,693.1 DALYs, a rate of 1,098.0 DALYs per 100,000 males. In women, there were 1,803.8 DALYs, a rate of 684.4 DALYs per100,000 women. The age group most affected in both sexes was 60 to 69 years. The burden of COVID-19 was high in the city studied. The highest rates were in females and in the 60-69 age group.


A COVID-19 gerou impacto na sociedade com elevados índices de morbidade e mortalidade. A utilização de indicador epidemiológico que estime a carga de doença, agregando em uma medida a mortalidade precoce e os casos não fatais, tem potencial de auxiliar no planejamento de ações adequadas em diferentes níveis de atenção à saúde. O objetivo deste artigo é estimar a carga de doença por COVID-19 em Florianópolis/SC de abril de 2020 a março de 2021. Foi realizado um estudo ecológico com dados de notificação e óbitos por COVID-19 no período de 12 meses. Utilizou-se o indicador de carga denominado Anos de Vida Perdidos Ajustados por Incapacidade (DALY), obtido pela soma dos Anos de Vida Perdidos (YLL) com os Anos Vividos com Incapacidade (YLD). Foram incluídos 78.907 casos de COVID-19 confirmados. Desses, 763 evoluíram a óbito no período estudado. No total, foram estimados 4.496,6 DALYs, taxa de 883,8 DALYs/100.000 habitantes. No sexo masculino, foram 2.693,1 DALYs, taxa de 1.098,0 DALYs/100.000 homens. Em mulheres, foram 1.803,8 DALYs, taxa de 684,4 DALYs/100.000 mulheres. A faixa etária mais acometida em ambos os sexos foi de 60 a 69 anos. Foi alta a carga de COVID-19 na cidade estudada. As maiores taxas foram encontradas no sexo feminino e na faixa-etária de 60-69 anos.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Male , Humans , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , Brazil/epidemiology , Morbidity , Health Status , Cost of Illness , Quality-Adjusted Life Years
7.
Lancet Psychiatry ; 10(6): 371, 2023 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20243727
9.
BMC Psychiatry ; 23(1): 294, 2023 04 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2327422

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The objective of this study was to examine the relationship of mental health status between self-poisoning suicide patients and their family members, and it also sought to identify potential patient's risk and parental factors for the prediction of suicide attempt, anxiety, and depression. METHODS: In this study, 151 poisoned patients were prospectively included, and they were matched 1:1 with 151 family members. We gathered information on patient's and their matched family member's demographics, lifestyle choices, mental health status, level of intimacy, and history of psychiatry disease. The relationship of patient's and their family member's mental health state was investigated using a correlation matrix. Multivariable analyses (multiple logistic regression) were conducted among patients and their matched family members, to identify potential risk factors for self-poisoning suicide, anxiety, and depression. RESULTS: Of the total patients, 67.55% (102/151) attempted self-poisoning suicide. Poisoned patients had more severe anxiety and depression symptoms than their matched family members, and this difference was even more pronounced among patients with self-poisoning suicide. Generalized anxiety disorder-7 (GAD-7) score for family members was significantly and favorably correlated with patient's GAD-7 score after eliminating non-suicide patients and their matched family members. The patient health questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9) score showed a similar pattern, and the family member's PHQ-9 score was strongly and favorably associated with patient's PHQ-9 and Beck hopelessness scale-20 (BHS-20) score. Multivariable analysis showed that married marital status (P = 0.038), quitting smoking (P = 0.003), sedentary time of 1 to 6 h (P = 0.013), and participation in a sports more than five times per week (P = 0.046) were all significantly associated with a lower risk of suicide by self-poisoning, while a more serious anxiety state (P = 0.001) was significantly associated with a higher risk of self-poisoning suicide. Multivariable analysis demonstrated that, specifically among self-poisoning suicide patients, married marital status (P = 0.011) and no history of psychiatry disease (P < 0.001) were protective factors for anxiety, while divorced or widowed marital status (P = 0.004), a sedentary time of 1 to 3 h (P = 0.022), and a higher monthly income (P = 0.027) were significant contributors to anxiety. The propensity of additional family-matched characteristics to predict patient's suicidality, anxiety, and depression was also examined. CONCLUSIONS: Self-poisoning suicide patients have severe mental health issues. Patients who self-poison have a close connection to their family member's mental health, particularly their levels of anxiety and depression. According to the findings, being married and adopting healthy lifestyle habits, such as quitting smoking and drinking, increasing their physical activity levels, and managing their idle time, are able to help patients with mental health concerns and even suicidal thoughts.


Subject(s)
Family , Suicide, Attempted , Humans , Matched-Pair Analysis , Family/psychology , Suicide, Attempted/psychology , Anxiety Disorders/psychology , Health Status
11.
Vopr Kurortol Fizioter Lech Fiz Kult ; 100(2): 39-44, 2023.
Article in Russian | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2325005

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To determine the characteristics of sanatorium-resort therapy impact on children with post-COVID-19 syndrome of various severity, as well as to reveal association of its severity with family history data and genetic polymorphisms of alpha-1-antitrypsin-serpin-1 complex. MATERIAL AND METHODS: This 2-week retrospective cohort study involved 42 adolescents after new coronavirus infection (COVID-19). The first group included 28 (67%) patients (mean age 13.1±0.8 years) after mild COVID-19 (without confirmed coronavirus pneumonia), the second group - 14 (33%) patients (mean age 14.5±0.1.2 years) after moderate or severe disease (with confirmed coronavirus pneumonia). A complex of procedures, according to the approved standard, was prescribed for all patients admitted after outpatient and hospital treatment to the pulmonology department of the state children's sanatorium in order to aftercare. The certain follow-up parameters were evaluated: symptoms severity, life quality, respiratory function and respiratory gases, as well as family medical history and alpha-1-antitrypsin-serpin-1 complex. RESULTS: Patients after moderate and severe COVID-19 had initially lower and less dynamic growth of integral life quality index, more torpid follow-up rates of spirometry, pulse oximetry and exhaled gases. Additionally, the higher incidence degree of adverse family medical history associated with respiratory illnesses was established in the group after new coronavirus infection. Moreover, relatively more deficient alpha-1-antitrypsin and more frequent heterozygous polymorphism type of serpin-1 were found in the group after severe new coronavirus infection. CONCLUSION: The revealed complex of epigenetic and genetic factors may indicate various risk and development phenotypes of both acute and chronic respiratory diseases.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Serpins , Humans , Post-Acute COVID-19 Syndrome , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Aftercare , Retrospective Studies , Hospitals , Health Status
12.
Sci Rep ; 13(1): 8116, 2023 05 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2325002

ABSTRACT

Despite advances in clinical research, the long-term effects of COVID-19 on patients are not clear. Many studies revealed persistent long-term signs and symptoms. In a survey study, 259 hospitalized confirmed COVID-19 patients between 18 and 59 years were interviewed. Demographic characteristics and complaints were studied through telephone interviews. Any patient-reported symptoms that continued or developed from 4 weeks up to 12 weeks after the onset of the disease were recorded only if they did not exist prior to infection. The 12-Item General Health Questionnaire was used for screening and assessing mental symptoms and psychosocial well-being. The mean age of participants was 43.8 ± 9.9 years. About 37% had at least one underlying disease. 92.5% showed ongoing symptoms that the most prevalent complications were hair loss (61.4%), fatigue (54.1%), shortness of breath (40.2%), altered smell (34.4%), and aggression (34.4%), respectively. In terms of factors affecting patients' complaints, there were significant differences between age, sex, and underlying disease with long-remaining complications. This study shows a high rate of long COVID-19 conditions that should be considered by physicians, policymakers, and managers.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Post-Acute COVID-19 Syndrome , Humans , Adult , Middle Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , Aggression , Survivors , Health Status
13.
Work ; 75(1): 135-143, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2324560

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Cleaning is considered a female-dominant occupation. Women cleaning workers present a high risk of suffering impaired health probably as a result of performing low-skilled tasks. However, to date, no studies have been found that examine the health status of female cleaning workers in Spain. OBJECTIVES: The objectives were to 1) determine the level of perceived health in a sample of female cleaning workers, 2) evaluate the main psychosocial risks they face, 3) explore the relationship between perceived health and psychosocial risk factors, and 4) compare the perceived health of those women who present some psychosocial risk factor and those who do not. METHODS: This is a multi-centered cross-sectional study carried out in the service sector of a Spanish company. The final sample was composed of 455 female cleaning workers. Sociodemographic variables, perceived health status and psychosocial risk factors were assessed. RESULTS: Women presented a high perception of health status. The main psychosocial risk was lack of acknowledgement by their superiors, which affected 25.2% (n = 111) of the sample. Moderate negative correlations (r=-.222 to -.442; p < .01) were identified between perceived health and evident psychosocial risks. Those women who presented some psychosocial risk (n = 174; 38.3%) had a worse state of perceived health in all variables studied. CONCLUSION: Presence of psychosocial risk had a relationship with a worse health perception. This article highlights the need to orient preventive actions in the psychosocial field. The COVID-19 pandemic represents a new situation to renew the health promotion between cleaning workers.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , Female , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Pandemics , Occupations , Health Status
14.
Eur Child Adolesc Psychiatry ; 32(6): 937-949, 2023 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2323113

ABSTRACT

This longitudinal, prospective study investigated associations between perceived COVID-19-related stress, coping strategies, and mental health status among adolescents during the first lockdown of the COVID-19 pandemic and one year after the lockdown in Switzerland within a large, national sample. A self-report on-line survey was completed by 553 adolescents (age-range 12-18 years in 2021) in the summers of 2020 and 2021, assessing symptoms of various mental health problems, perceived COVID-19-related stressors, and coping strategies. Overall, participants reported less COVID-19 related stress one year after the lockdown, though mental health status remained stable. 'Challenges at home or with others' were significantly associated with mental health problems in both genders, whereas 'trouble getting medical care or mental health services 'was associated with mental health problems in girls. Perceived stress and pre-existing psychiatric problem were significantly linked to all mental health outcomes at both time points. Parents' poor relationships with partners during the lockdown was associated with increased anxiety symptoms in their children. Using cognitive restructuring to cope with stress was associated with less, while negative coping was associated with more anxiety, depression, and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms one year post lockdown. Girls appear to have been more affected by the pandemic than boys, with youths with pre-existing psychiatric problems especially vulnerable to its detrimental effects. Healthcare and school professionals should support to identify high-risk adolescents with negative and avoidant coping strategies and train youths to use positive coping strategies.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Child , Humans , Adolescent , Female , Male , COVID-19/psychology , Pandemics , Switzerland/epidemiology , Prospective Studies , Longitudinal Studies , Communicable Disease Control , Adaptation, Psychological , Stress, Psychological/epidemiology , Stress, Psychological/psychology , Health Status
15.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 20(9)2023 05 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2318859

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 lockdowns greatly affected the mental health of populations and collectives. This study compares the mental health and self-perceived health in five countries of Latin America and Spain, during the first wave of COVID 19 lockdown, according to social axes of inequality. This was a cross-sectional study using an online, self-managed survey in Brazil, Chile, Ecuador, Mexico, Peru, and Spain. Self-perceived health (SPH), anxiety (measured through GAD-7) and depression (measured through PHQ-9) were measured along with lockdown, COVID-19, and social variables. The prevalence of poor SPH, anxiety, and depression was calculated. The analyses were stratified by gender (men = M; women = W) and country. The data from 39,006 people were analyzed (W = 71.9%). There was a higher prevalence of poor SPH and bad mental health in women in all countries studied. Peru had the worst SPH results, while Chile and Ecuador had the worst mental health indicators. Spain had the lowest prevalence of poor SPH and mental health. The prevalence of anxiety and depression decreased as age increased. Unemployment, poor working conditions, inadequate housing, and the highest unpaid workload were associated with worse mental health and poor SPH, especially in women. In future policies, worldwide public measures should consider the great social inequalities in health present between and within countries in order to tackle health emergencies while reducing the health breach between populations.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Male , Humans , Female , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/psychology , Mental Health , Latin America/epidemiology , Spain/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Communicable Disease Control , Socioeconomic Factors , Anxiety/epidemiology , Health Status , Depression/epidemiology
16.
Front Public Health ; 11: 1115415, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2317222

ABSTRACT

This article is part of the Research Topic 'Health Systems Recovery in the Context of COVID-19 and Protracted Conflict'. The COVID-19 pandemic has exposed the vulnerabilities and limitations of many health systems and underscored the need for strengthening health system resilience to make and sustain progress toward Universal Health Coverage (UHC), global health security and healthier populations in tandem. In response to the COVID-19 pandemic, Commonwealth countries have been practicing a combination of innovative integrated approaches and actions to build health systems resilience. This includes utilizing digital tools, improvements in all-hazard emergency risk management, developing multisectoral partnerships, strengthening surveillance and community engagement. These interventions have been instrumental in strengthening national COVID-19 responses and can contribute to the evidence-base for increasing country investment into health systems resilience, particularly as we look toward COVID-19 recovery. This paper gives perspectives of five Commonwealth countries and their overall responses to the pandemic, highlighting practical firsthand experiences in the field. The countries included in this paper are Guyana, Malawi, Rwanda, Sri Lanka, and Tanzania. Given the diversity within the Commonwealth both in terms of geographical location and state of development, this publication can serve as a useful reference for countries as they prepare their health systems to better absorb the shocks that may emerge in future emergencies.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Pandemics/prevention & control , Health Status , Investments , Malawi
17.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 20(9)2023 04 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2316689

ABSTRACT

Marketing unhealthy products by multinational corporations has caused considerable harm to individual health, collective wellbeing, and environmental sustainability. This is a growing threat to all societies and a significant contributor to the rising global burden of non-communicable diseases and early mortality. While there is growing consideration of the commercial determinants of health, this is largely focused on the methods by which unhealthy products are marketed and disseminated, including efforts to manipulate policy. Little attention has been paid to the underlying psychological traits and worldviews that are driving corporate greed. Here, we consider the role of "dispositional greed" in the commercial determinants of health with a focus on the historical attitudes and culture in the ultra-processed food industry-exemplified by "The Founder" of the McDonald's franchise. We argue that greed and associated psychological constructs, such as social dominance orientation and collective narcissism, permeate the commercial determinants of health at a collective level. This includes how a culture of greed within organizations, and individual dispositional greed, can magnify and cluster at scale, perpetuated by social dominance orientation. We also consider the ways in which "showbiz" marketing specifically targets marginalized populations and vulnerable groups, including children-in ways that are justified, or even celebrated despite clear links to non-communicable diseases and increased mortality. Finally, we consider how greed and exploitative mindsets mirror cultural values and priorities, with trends for increasing collective narcissism at scale, recognizing that many of these attitudes are cultivated in early life. A healthier future will depend on navigating a path that balances material prosperity with physical and spiritual wellbeing. This will require cultural change that places higher value on kindness, reciprocity, and mutualistic values especially in early life, for more equitable flourishing.


Subject(s)
Noncommunicable Diseases , Child , Humans , Personality , Social Dominance , Policy , Health Status
18.
J Int Bioethique Ethique Sci ; 34(1): 31-42, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2313112

ABSTRACT

High mortality rates in the Russian Federation in all age cohorts, which are exacerbated nowadays due to the risk of contracting a new coronavirus infection, indicate the lack of programs to promote a healthy lifestyle in society, as well as the preservation of negative attitudes of society associated with any aspects of taking care of one’s health.Switching the public’s attention to self-preservation practices is not viable without considering the socio-economic and psychological conjuncture. Maintaining health requires both time and money, so for many people it remains a secondary task for many years, if the disease does not make itself felt.By appealing to the individual’s choice of a voluntary strategy of the preservation of their health, the state should make sure that they are ready to show a high level of self-awareness and culture. However, there is a stable tradition of risky behaviors in Russian society, in which ignoring the first signs of the disease, the transition of the disease to severe forms, and indifferenceе to the outcome of treatment became a social norm. In this vein, individuals show a disregard for new approaches and often aggravate their problem by resorting to alcohol and drugs, which leads to serious health related consequences.The study of aspects of an individual’s choice of risky life strategies showed the interdependence of the level of health preservation on the material and psychological well-being of a social group (i.e., family). The lower the satisfaction of an individual’s needs in society, the higher the apathy and tendency to addiction, which is often followed by crimes against the life and health of others or a tendency to suicide.


Subject(s)
Population Health , Risk-Taking , Humans , Russia , Health Status
19.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 20(4)2023 Feb 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2312615

ABSTRACT

Optimal health from a Native Hawaiian worldview is achieved by being pono (righteous) and maintaining lokahi (balance) with all our relations, including our relationships as Kanaka (humankind) with 'Aina (land, nature, environment, that which feeds) and Akua (spiritual realm). The purpose of this study is to explore the role of 'Aina connectedness in Native Hawaiian health and resilience to inform the development of the 'Aina Connectedness Scale. Qualitative methods were conducted with 40 Native Hawaiian adults throughout Hawai'i. Three themes emerged: (1) 'Aina is everything; (2) Connection to 'Aina is imperative to health; and (3) Intergenerational health, healing, and resilience are reflected through intergenerational connectedness with 'Aina. Qualitative findings, supplemented with a scoping review of land, nature, and cultural connectedness scales, led to the development of the 'Aina Connectedness Scale, which examined the degree to which people feel connected to 'Aina, with implications for future research. 'Aina connectedness may address concerns related to health disparities that stem from colonization, historical trauma, and environmental changes and better our understanding of Native Hawaiian health by fostering stronger ties to land. Resilience- and 'Aina-based approaches are critically important to health equity and interventions that aim to improve Native Hawaiian health.


Subject(s)
Health Status , Adult , Humans , Hawaii , Environment , Resilience, Psychological , Health Equity , Nature
20.
JMIR Public Health Surveill ; 8(12): e41606, 2022 12 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2311654

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Previous studies have reported a potential negative correlation between physical activity (PA) and mobile phone addiction (MPA) among adolescents and young adults. To date, the strength of this correlation has not been well characterized. OBJECTIVE: This review and meta-analysis aimed to synthesize available empirical studies to examine the correlations between PA and MPA among adolescents and young adults. We also explored several potential moderators, including time of data collection, country or region, and type of population, associated with the relationship between PA and MPA. METHODS: Four electronic databases (PubMed, Scopus, PsycINFO, and Web of Science) were searched from database inception to March 2022 to identify relevant studies. The pooled Pearson correlation coefficients and their corresponding 95% CIs for the relationship between PA and MPA were calculated using the inverse variance method. The methodological quality of the included cross-sectional studies was determined based on the Joanna Briggs Institute appraisal checklist. The study conformed to the PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Review and Meta-analyses) guidelines. RESULTS: In total, 892 relevant articles were identified, of which 22 were selected based on the inclusion and exclusion criteria. The final meta-analysis included 17 of the 22 studies. Results of random effects modeling revealed a moderate correlation between PA and MPA among adolescents and young adults (summary r=-0.243, P<.001). Sensitivity and publication bias analyses further demonstrated the robustness of our results. All the included studies were scored as high quality with a low risk of bias. Subgroup analysis further indicated that none of the hypothesized moderators (time of data collection, country or region, and type of population) significantly affected the relationship between PA and MPA, as confirmed by the mixed effects analysis. In addition, in the data collection subgroups, medium effect sizes were obtained for data collected before COVID-19 (r=-0.333, P<.001) and data collected during COVID-19 (r=-0.207, P<.001). In subgroup analyses for country or region, the correlation coefficient for China and other developing regions showed a similarly moderate effect size (r=-0.201, P<.001 and r= -0.217, P<.001, respectively). However, the effect sizes for developed regions were not significant (r=-0.446, P=.39). In a subgroup analysis based on the type of population, we found that the effect size for young adults was moderate (r=-0.250, P<.001). However, that of adolescents was not significant (r=-0.129, P=.24). CONCLUSIONS: Our results demonstrate a moderately negative relationship between PA and MPA among young adults. The strength of this relationship was not influenced by the time of data collection, country or region, or type of population.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adolescent , Humans , Young Adult , Cross-Sectional Studies , Exercise , Health Status , Technology Addiction , Observational Studies as Topic
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