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1.
Patient Educ Couns ; 105(7): 2436-2442, 2022 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2150396

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Healthy individuals from hereditary cancer families undergoing genetic testing for cancer susceptibility (GTC) report more distress when they perceive their social support as low and suppress their emotions. This study aimed to explore how suppressing emotions and perceiving others as unsupportive are related with cancer-risk distress. METHODS: We performed a regression-based mediation analysis to assess if expressive suppression mediates or is mediated by perceived social support in the relation with cancer-risk distress. Participants were 125 healthy adults aged over 18 (M = 36.07, SD = 12.86), mostly female (72,4%), who undergone GTC to assess the presence of hereditary breast and ovarian cancer or Lynch syndromes. RESULTS: Controlling for age and gender, we found a moderate size indirect effect of social support on cancer-risk distress through expressive suppression (ß = -0.095) and a direct effect of expressive suppression on cancer-risk distress. CONCLUSIONS: When healthy individuals from hereditary cancer families perceive their social network as less responsive, they tend to not express their emotions, which relates to increased distress facing GTC. PRACTICE IMPLICATIONS: Practitioners may assess cancer-risk related distress before the GTC and offer distressed individuals interventions focused on changing emotion regulation strategies in a safe group context.


Subject(s)
Genetic Predisposition to Disease , Neoplasms , Adult , Emotions/physiology , Female , Health Status , Humans , Male , Neoplasms/genetics , Social Support
3.
Front Cell Infect Microbiol ; 12: 1039811, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2141715

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has resulted in the widespread use of N95 respirators and surgical masks, with anecdotal reports among healthcare providers and the public of xerostomia, halitosis, and gingivitis, a consortium of symptoms colloquially termed "mask mouth". However, this has not been scientifically verified. The aim of this study was to assess changes in salivary flow rate, gingival health status and oral microbiome associated with prolonged mask use. A total of 25 dental students (mean age = 26.36 ± 1.58) were included in the study and evaluated at three time points: T1, at the end of at least 2 months of full-day mask wear (7.26 ± 1.56 hours/day); T2, at the end of a period of minimal mask use (1.13 ± 1.13 hours/day); and T3, at the end of 2-3 weeks of resuming full-day mask wear (6.93 ± 1.80 hours/day). Unstimulated whole saliva (UWS) flow rate, xerostomia (on a quantitative scale of 10), gingival index (GI) and plaque index (PI) were assessed at each time point. The salivary microbiome was characterized using 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Overall, UWS flow rates were normal (mean of 0.679 ml/min) and xerostomia, PI and GI scores were low (Mean of 3.11, 0.33 and 0.69, respectively) with no significant differences as a result of prolonged mask wearing. Similarly, there were no significant microbial changes at a false discovery rate (FDR) ≤ 0.05. However, some trends were identified using a nominal p-value cut-off of ≤ 0.01, namely Gemella sanguinis, Streptococcus sp. Oral taxon 066 and Oral taxon 058 were associated with prolonged mask wear. Trends were also seen by gender, race and age, for example an increase in P. gingivalis and P. intermedia with age. In conclusion, we found no evidence that prolonged mask wear adversely affects oral health. The findings support that the oral microbiome of healthy individuals is resilient.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Microbiota , Xerostomia , Humans , Young Adult , Adult , Pilot Projects , RNA, Ribosomal, 16S/genetics , Pandemics , Health Status
4.
BMC Geriatr ; 22(1): 887, 2022 Nov 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2139164

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Covid-19 is a serious public health concern. Previous studies have shown that although there are concerns about the subjective well-being (SWB) of older people in the Covid period, the link between SWB and the risk of Covid-19 is still unclear. This study aimed to investigate the predictive effect of SWB on the Covid-19 risk in the elderly as well as the determinants of SWB. METHODS: This case-control study was performed in the elderly over 60 years of age. The case group consisted of all hospitalized patients with COVID-19 and the control group from the same population with no history of COVID-19 matched by age, sex, and place of residence. Data collection tools included a demographic questionnaire and SWB scale of Keyes and Magyarmo to measure emotional, psychological and social well-being. All data were analyzed via SPSS and STATA software. Multiple binary logistic regression was run to predict the probability of Covid-19 risk on the values of total SWB and its three subscales and multiple linear regression to identify SWB determinants. RESULTS: The results showed that increasing one unit in total SWB reduces the risk of Covid-19 by 4% (OR = 0.969, CI = 0.947-0.991, p = 0.006). Emotional well-being with 0.823 had the highest odds ratio for predicting Covid-19 risk, followed by social well-being with an odds ratio of 0.981. Increasing age and education, better economic status, marriage against celibacy, lack of comorbidity, and a better understanding of own health were associated with greater SWB. DISCUSSION: This study provides evidence for the protective effect of SWB on Covid-19 risk. To promote SWB, we need to focus on the elderly with higher financial worries and comorbidities, as well as those with less education, health perception and SWB. Therefore, it will be important for the elderly to determine strategies to improve SWB during the epidemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Health Status , Humans , Aged , Middle Aged , Case-Control Studies , COVID-19/epidemiology , Socioeconomic Factors , Surveys and Questionnaires
5.
Soc Sci Med ; 306: 115117, 2022 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2132388

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Child allowance (CA) in South Korea was first introduced in September 2018. CA provides a monthly allowance to children from birth to age 5. To date, existing studies on the effects of CA in Korea have focused mainly on household economic outcomes. The current study is the first to examine the effect of CA on maternal physical and mental health, measured by self-reported health status, depression, and life satisfaction. METHODS: We use nationally representative data from the Korea Welfare Panel Study (KOWEPS) from 2017 to 2018. The analytic sample consists of 772 Korean mothers whose youngest child is between age 2 and age 7. Taking advantage of an exogenous policy change and the age eligibility of the policy, we employ a difference-in-regression-discontinuities (DRD) strategy to identify the effects of CA on self-reported health status, depression, and life satisfaction. RESULTS: Overall, we find suggestive evidence that the introduction of CA contributed to reducing depression while improving self-reported health and life satisfaction. In particular, the policy reform had a significant effect on life satisfaction, showing that CA improves life satisfaction by 0.497 points. CONCLUSIONS: Results suggest that CA can improve both physical and mental health for eligible mothers. Such findings are indicative of a causal link between income and health. There has been a recent political movement to raise the age threshold of CA to up to age 18 to cover older children and increase benefit levels. Our findings provide important policy implications for the political discussion on CA expansion.


Subject(s)
Health Status , Maternal Health , Adolescent , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Humans , Mental Health , Mothers , Republic of Korea
6.
JMIR Public Health Surveill ; 7(4): e24277, 2021 04 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2141290

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: With conflicting information about COVID-19, the general public may be uncertain about how to proceed in terms of precautionary behavior and decisions about whether to return to activity. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study is to determine the factors associated with COVID-19-related concerns, precautionary behaviors, and willingness to return to activity. METHODS: National survey data were obtained from the Democracy Fund + UCLA Nationscape Project, an ongoing cross-sectional weekly survey. The sample was provided by Lucid, a web-based market research platform. Three outcomes were evaluated: (1) COVID-19-related concerns, (2) precautionary behaviors, and (3) willingness to return to activity. Key independent variables included age, gender, race or ethnicity, education, household income, political party support, religion, news consumption, number of medication prescriptions, perceived COVID-19 status, and timing of peak COVID-19 infections by state. RESULTS: The data included 125,508 responses from web-based surveys conducted over 20 consecutive weeks during the COVID-19 pandemic (comprising approximately 6250 adults per week), between March 19 and August 5, 2020, approved by the University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA) Institutional Review Board for analysis. A substantial number of participants were not willing to return to activity even after the restrictions were lifted. Weighted multivariate logistic regressions indicated the following groups had different outcomes (all P<.001): individuals aged ≥65 years (COVID-19-related concerns: OR 2.05, 95% CI 1.93-2.18; precautionary behaviors: OR 2.38, 95% CI 2.02-2.80; return to activity: OR 0.41, 95% CI 0.37-0.46 vs 18-40 years); men (COVID-19-related concerns: OR 0.73, 95% CI 0.70-0.75; precautionary behaviors: OR 0.74, 95% CI 0.67-0.81; return to activity: OR 2.00, 95% CI 1.88-2.12 vs women); taking ≥4 medications (COVID-19-related concerns: OR 1.47, 95% CI 1.40-1.54; precautionary behaviors: OR 1.36, 95% CI 1.20-1.555; return to activity: OR 0.75, 95% CI 0.69-0.81 vs <3 medications); Republicans (COVID-19-related concerns: OR 0.40, 95% CI 0.38-0.42; precautionary behaviors: OR 0.45, 95% CI 0.40-0.50; return to activity: OR 2.22, 95% CI 2.09-2.36 vs Democrats); and adults who reported having COVID-19 (COVID-19-related concerns: OR 1.24, 95% CI 1.12-1.39; precautionary behaviors: OR 0.65, 95% CI 0.52-0.81; return to activity: OR 3.99, 95% CI 3.48-4.58 vs those who did not). CONCLUSIONS: Participants' age, party affiliation, and perceived COVID-19 status were strongly associated with their COVID-19-related concerns, precautionary behaviors, and willingness to return to activity. Future studies need to develop and test targeted messaging approaches and consider political partisanship to encourage preventative behaviors and willingness to return to activities.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/psychology , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Health Status , Politics , Adolescent , Adult , Age Factors , Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Longitudinal Studies , Male , Middle Aged , Sex Factors , Surveys and Questionnaires , United States/epidemiology , Young Adult
7.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(22)2022 Nov 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2116252

ABSTRACT

Healthy lifestyle is the major indicator of individual and public health especially in target populations (e.g., during emerging adulthood). Evidence indicates that unhealthy lifestyle behaviors are strongly associated with the increasing prevalence of chronic diseases. The dual approach of sustainable health (i.e., physical exercise tied to a healthy diet) is an effective lifestyle strategy to control and manage health-related disorders, including overweight/obesity. Based on the evidence on plant-based diets regarding health and considering the growing prevalence of vegans and vegetarians worldwide, limited data exist on the health-related behaviors of those who follow plant-based vs. mixed diets in young adulthood. This multidisciplinary study is the first to examine the association between diet type (mixed, vegetarian, and vegan diets) and various health-related behaviors (primarily physical activity, sport, & exercise) among college/university students and lecturers/academic staff in Austria nationwide. Following a cross-sectional study design and using online questionnaires, 4510 tertiary students and 1043 lecturers/academic staff provided data on sociodemographic characteristics, dietary patterns, physical exercise habits, and other lifestyle behaviors (sleep, alcohol intake, smoking, etc.) along with information on health status and quality of life. While the data will be analyzed based on differentiated sociodemographic and health-related categories, the influence of the COVID-19 pandemic on lifestyle behaviors will also be evaluated. As a study protocol, this article represents comprehensive details of the design, purposes, and associated analytical measures of the present study within the tertiary educational context.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diet, Vegan , Humans , Young Adult , Adult , Universities , Austria/epidemiology , Prevalence , Quality of Life , Cross-Sectional Studies , Pandemics , COVID-19/epidemiology , Students , Vegetarians , Exercise , Health Status
9.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(21)2022 Nov 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2099554

ABSTRACT

To explore the relationship between community support in tourist destinations and residents' psychological well-being in the post-COVID-19 pandemic period, this study adopts the questionnaire survey method and draws the following conclusions by constructing a structural equation model: (1) perceived community support is very helpful for the psychological well-being of residents, (2) psychological resilience significantly mediates the relationship between perceived community support and residents' psychological well-being, (3) the resident-tourist interaction mediates the relationship between perceived community support and residents' psychological well-being, and (4) the resident-tourist interaction and psychological resilience play an ordered chain-mediating role between perceived community support and residents' psychological well-being. These findings not only fill the gap in tourism research regarding destination-based community support studies but also provide a theoretical basis for maintaining residents' psychological well-being in a given destination in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic. To a certain extent, improving residents' well-being is helpful for promoting the healthy and sustainable development of tourism activities and realizing a "win-win" situation in which tourist destinations develop economically while promoting their residents' living standards.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Community Support , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , Pandemics , Surveys and Questionnaires , Health Status
10.
Environ Health Prev Med ; 27: 41, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2089300

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 pandemic is tremendously impacted by socioeconomic and health determinants worldwide. This study aimed to determine factors associated with COVID-19 fatality among member states and partner countries of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). METHODS: An ecological study was conducted using COVID-19 data of 48 countries for the period between 31 December 2019-31 December 2021. The outcome variables were COVID-19 case fatality rate (CFR) and years of life lost to COVID-19 (YLLs). Countries' sociodemographics and COVID-19-related data were extracted from OECD website, Our World in Data, John Hopkins Coronavirus Resource Center, Economist Intelligence Unit (EIU) and WHO. RESULTS: In the first year of the pandemic (December 2019-January 2021), highest CFR was observed in Mexico, 8.51%, followed by China, 5.17% and Bulgaria, 4.12%), and highest YLLs was observed in Mexico, 2,055 per 100,000. At regional level, highest CFR was observed in North & central America, 4.25 (3.71) %, followed by South America (2.5 (0.1) %); whereas highest YLLs was observed in South America region 1457.5 (274.8) per 100,000, followed by North & central America, 1207.3 (908.1) per 100,000. As of 31 December 2021, Mexico (7.52%) and Bulgaria (4.78%) had highest CFR; on the other hand, highest YLLs was observed in England, 26.5 per 1,000, followed by the United States, 25.9 per 1,000. At regional level, highest CFR (3.37(3.19) %) and YLLs (16.7 (13) per 1,000) were both observed in North & central America. Globally, the analysis of the 2-year cumulative data showed inverse correlation between CFR and nurse per 10,000 (R = -0.48; p < 0.05) and GDP per capita (R = -0.54; p < 0.001), whereas positive correlation was observed between YLLs and elderly population rate (R = 0.66; p < 0.05) and overweight/obese population rates (R = 0.55; p < 0.05). CONCLUSION: This study provides insights on COVID-19 burden among OECD states and partner countries. GDP per capita, overweight/obesity and the rate of elderly population emerged as major social and health determinants of COVID-19 related burden and fatality. Findings suggest that a robust economy and interventions designed to promote healthy longevity and prevent weight gain in at-risk individuals might reduce COVID-19 burden and fatality among OECD states and partner countries.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Aged , Humans , United States , COVID-19/epidemiology , Pandemics , Organisation for Economic Co-Operation and Development , Overweight , Health Status
11.
Health Qual Life Outcomes ; 20(1): 144, 2022 Oct 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2079430

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Quarantine is the first response to the COVID-19 pandemic. Restricting daily life can cause several problems. This study aimed to measure the impact of the COVID-19 quarantine on health-related quality of life (HRQoL) by comparing to the pre-pandemic. METHODS: HRQoL during COVID-19 quarantine was surveyed online using EQ-5D index and matched to that of the pre-pandemic-extracted from nationwide representative data of the Korea Community Health Survey- with propensity scores. A beta regression for the EQ-5D scores and a logistic analysis for individual dimensions of the EQ-5D index were performed to measure the impact of the COVID-19 quarantine on health utility. RESULTS: The overall scores of the EQ-5D index were significantly higher in the group under quarantine during the COVID-19 pandemic (0.971 SD 0.064) than those before the pandemic (0.964 SD 0.079, Diff. 0.007 SD 0.101, p = 0.043). The beta regression for the overall scores of EQ-5D revealed that quarantining during the COVID-19 pandemic increased by 52.7% compared to normal life before the outbreak(p = 0.045). Specifically, "Depression/Anxiety" deteriorated significantly during quarantining (OR = 0.62, 95% CI:0.48-0.80). However, "Pain/Discomfort" and "Mobility" significantly improved (OR = 5.37, 95% CI:3.71-7.78 and OR = 2.05, 95% CI:1.11-3.80, respectively). CONCLUSION: Although the world is facing a challenging moment that it has never been through before, mandatory quarantine has served as an experience that provided mental distress but physical comfort in the Korean context.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Quality of Life , COVID-19/epidemiology , Health Status , Humans , Pandemics , Quarantine , Republic of Korea/epidemiology , Surveys and Questionnaires
12.
Sensors (Basel) ; 22(20)2022 Oct 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2071710

ABSTRACT

The reduction in face-to-face contact and the increase in time spent at home during the ongoing coronavirus disease pandemic have resulted in increasing interest and demand for smart homes. Further, the rapid increase in the number of one-person and two-person households in Korea recently has led to these becoming representative household types. This study identifies the wellness characteristics of such households and proposes a direction for smart home development to help them lead healthy, happy lives. It focuses on mapping residents' perceptions and experiences to scenarios and on identifying the functions required in smart homes and the technologies needed to provide these functions. It uses data from a survey to investigate and analyze the wellness characteristics of one- and two-person households in five dimensions and develops five scenarios of representative household types. By analyzing the developed scenarios, this study proposes smart homes that support the wellness of such households in six categories: exercise/sports, hobby/entertainment, social communications, occupation/work, self-development/education, and energy conservation. These households are exposed to digital environments from an early age and are familiar with the internet and technologies. Therefore, they are likely to adopt innovative technologies in housing. Thus, the smart home development proposed in this study is a promising strategic approach to housing planning.


Subject(s)
Health Status , Housing , Humans , Technology , Longitudinal Studies , Republic of Korea
13.
Front Public Health ; 10: 879183, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2071137

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has exposed the deep links and fragility of economic, health and social systems. Discussions of reconstruction include renewed interest in moving beyond GDP and recognizing "human capital", "brain capital", "mental capital", and "wellbeing" as assets fundamental to economic reimagining, productivity, and prosperity. This paper describes how the conceptualization of Mental Wealth provides an important framing for measuring and shaping social and economic renewal to underpin healthy, productive, resilient, and thriving communities. We propose a transdisciplinary application of systems modeling to forecast a nation's Mental Wealth and understand the extent to which policy-mediated changes in economic, social, and health sectors could enhance collective mental health and wellbeing, social cohesion, and national prosperity. Specifically, simulation will allow comparison of the projected impacts of a range of cross-sector strategies (education sector, mental health system, labor market, and macroeconomic reforms) on GDP and national Mental Wealth, and provide decision support capability for future investments and actions to foster Mental Wealth. Finally, this paper introduces the Mental Wealth Initiative that is harnessing complex systems science to examine the interrelationships between social, commercial, and structural determinants of mental health and wellbeing, and working to empirically challenge the notion that fostering universal social prosperity is at odds with economic and commercial interests.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , COVID-19/epidemiology , Forecasting , Health Status , Humans , Mental Health
14.
Prev Med ; 164: 107308, 2022 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2069806

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Previous studies showed that older adults with fair or poor self-rated health (SRH) were more likely to experience delayed care during the COVID-19 pandemic. We aim to understand delayed care patterns by SRH during the COVID-19 pandemic among US older adults. METHODS: Using a nationally representative sample of older adults (≥ 70 years old) from the National Health and Aging Trends Study (NHATS), we assessed the patterns of delayed care by good, fair, or poor SRH. RESULTS: Nearly one in five of the survey-weighted population of 9,465,117 older adults who experienced delayed care during the pandemic reported fair or poor SRH. The overall distributions of the numbers of types of delayed care (p = 0.16) and the numbers of reasons for delayed care (p = 0.12) did not differ significantly by SRH status. Older adults with good, fair, or poor SRH shared the four most common types of delayed care and three most common reasons for delayed care but differed in ranking. Older adults with poor SRH mostly delayed seeing a specialist (good vs. fair vs. poor SRH: 40.1%, 46.7%, 73%, p = 0.01). CONCLUSIONS: The results suggest that utilizing SRH as a simple indicator may help researchers and clinicians understand similarities and differences in care needs for older adults during the pandemic. Targeted interventions that address differences in healthcare needs among older adults by SRH during the evolving pandemic may mitigate the negative impacts of delayed care.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Humans , Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , Health Status , Health Status Indicators , Aging
15.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(19)2022 Oct 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2066055

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: When the global COVID-19 epidemic continues to spread, residents pay more attention to their health. This paper studies the relationship between the equity of government health expenditure and the health level of residents. METHODS: The Theil index and a principal component analysis were used to measure the equity of government health expenditure and the health level of residents in the Chengdu-Chongqing economic circle. Then, an empirical study on the relationship between the equity of government health expenditure and the health level of residents in this region was conducted with the System GMM model. RESULTS: 1. The Theil index rose from 0.0115 in 2015 to 0.0231 in 2017 and gradually decreased to 0.0106 in 2020. 2. The overall health level of residents showed an upward trend, rising from 1.95 in 2015 to 2.33 in 2017, then remained high and fluctuated slightly. 3. There was a positive correlation between the Theil index and the health level of residents at a significance level of 1% (ß = 0.903, p < 0.01). CONCLUSIONS: 1. The Theil index was close to 0, indicating that the equity of government health expenditure in the Chengdu-Chongqing economic circle was generally good. 2. The health level of residents in the Chengdu-Chongqing economic circle had improved compared to before. 3. The fairer the government's health expenditure, the higher the residents' health level.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Health Equity , COVID-19/epidemiology , China/epidemiology , Government , Health Expenditures , Health Status , Humans
16.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(19)2022 Sep 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2065991

ABSTRACT

This cross-sectional study examined the relationships of financial literacy (FL) and financial behaviour (FB) with health-related quality of life (HRQOL) during the COVID-19 pandemic among low-income working population (20-60 years old) in Malaysia. A self-administered questionnaire survey was used with HRQOL data were gathered using the EuroQol 5-Dimension 5-Level (EQ-5D-5L) tool. A generalised linear model was employed to examine the hypothesised relationships between the constructs. From 1186 respondents, the majority were employed (73.9%), had a monthly household income of less than RM 2500 (74.5%), and did not have any chronic medical conditions (74.5%). The mean (SD) values of FL, FB, and EQ-5D-5L were 5.95 (1.48), 22.08 (4.79), and 0.96 (0.10), respectively. The results of the adjusted model revealed lower age group, Malay ethnicity, Indian ethnicity, and increased FB score as significant determinants of higher EQ-5D-5L scores. With the addition of the chronic medical condition factor into the saturated model, the lower age group, ethnicity, and no chronic medical condition were significant determinants of higher HRQOL. The effects of FB on QOL were confounded by chronic diseases, implying that interventions that focus on improving FB for those with chronic medical condition may help to improve the QOL among the low-income working population.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Quality of Life , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , Chronic Disease , Cross-Sectional Studies , Health Status , Humans , Literacy , Malaysia/epidemiology , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Surveys and Questionnaires , Young Adult
17.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(19)2022 Sep 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2065912

ABSTRACT

Mental health literacy (MHL) interventions in secondary schools may help to improve competencies that adolescents require to stay mentally healthy and seek help if mental health problems arise. These MHL interventions should be tailored to the needs of adolescents and educational professionals (EPs) to reach sustainable implementation and long-term effectiveness. However, evidence is lacking on these needs. Thus, our aim was to explore their experiences with, and perspectives on, mental health help seeking and needs regarding MHL interventions. We performed online focus group discussions and interviews with adolescents (n = 21; 13-19 years) and EPs (n = 12) and analyzed the data using directed content analysis. We identified three themes related to mental health help seeking: (1) Limited MHL competencies of adolescents, (2) Limited competencies of EP to provide mental health support, and (3) Limited mental health promotion in the school environment. We further identified three themes regarding MHL interventions: (1) Addressing basic mental health knowledge and skills, (2) Interactive and easily accessible, and (3) Sustainable implementation. Improving the MHL competencies of adolescents and EPs, and creating a mental health-literate school environment can promote adolescents' mental health help seeking. Our findings highlight the importance of developing MHL interventions that are tailored to both adolescents' and EPs needs.


Subject(s)
Health Literacy , Help-Seeking Behavior , Adolescent , Health Promotion , Health Status , Humans , Mental Health
18.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(18)2022 Sep 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2055237

ABSTRACT

Teachers' health is a key factor of any successful education system, but available data are conflicting. To evaluate to what extent teachers' health could be at risk, we used pre-pandemic data from the CONSTANCES population-based French cohort (inclusion phase: 2012-2019) and compared teachers (n = 12,839) included in the cohort with a random subsample selected among all other employees (n = 32,837) on four self-reported health indicators: perceived general health, depressive symptoms (CES-D scale), functional limitations in the last six months, and persistent neck/back troubles (Nordic questionnaire). We further restricted our comparison group to the State employees (n = 3583), who share more occupational similarities with teachers. Lastly, we focused on teachers and evaluated how their health status might differ across teaching levels (primary, secondary, and higher education). As compared to non-teacher employees, and even after adjusting for important demographic, socioeconomic, lifestyle, and occupational confounders, teachers were less likely to report bad perceived health and depressive symptoms but were more likely to present functional limitations. Trends were similar in the analyses restricted to State employees. Within the teaching population, secondary school teachers were more likely to report depressive symptoms but less frequently declared persistent neck/back troubles than primary school teachers. Our descriptive cross-sectional study based on a probability sampling procedure (secondary use of CONSTANCES inclusion data) did not support the idea that teachers' health in France was particularly at risk in the pre-pandemic period. Both cross-cultural and longitudinal studies are needed to further gain information on the topic of teachers' health around the world and to monitor its evolution over time, particularly during crises impacting the education system such as the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Cross-Sectional Studies , Health Status , Humans , School Teachers
19.
JAMA ; 328(10): 941-950, 2022 09 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2047346

ABSTRACT

Importance: During the COVID-19 pandemic, the US federal government required that skilled nursing facilities (SNFs) close to visitors and eliminate communal activities. Although these policies were intended to protect residents, they may have had unintended negative effects. Objective: To assess health outcomes among SNFs with and without known COVID-19 cases. Design, Setting, and Participants: This retrospective observational study used US Medicare claims and Minimum Data Set 3.0 for January through November in each year beginning in 2018 and ending in 2020 including 15 477 US SNFs with 2 985 864 resident-years. Exposures: January through November of calendar years 2018, 2019, and 2020. COVID-19 diagnoses were used to assign SNFs into 2 mutually exclusive groups with varying membership by month in 2020: active COVID-19 (≥1 COVID-19 diagnosis in the current or past month) or no-known COVID-19 (no observed diagnosis by that month). Main Outcomes and Measures: Monthly rates of mortality, hospitalization, emergency department (ED) visits, and monthly changes in activities of daily living (ADLs), body weight, and depressive symptoms. Each SNF in 2018 and 2019 served as its own control for 2020. Results: In 2018-2019, mean monthly mortality was 2.2%, hospitalization 3.0%, and ED visit rate 2.9% overall. In 2020, among active COVID-19 SNFs compared with their own 2018-2019 baseline, mortality increased by 1.60% (95% CI, 1.58% to 1.62%), hospitalizations decreased by 0.10% (95% CI, -0.12% to -0.09%), and ED visit rates decreased by 0.57% (95% CI, -0.59% to -0.55%). Among no-known COVID-19 SNFs, mortality decreased by 0.15% (95% CI, -0.16% to -0.13%), hospitalizations by 0.83% (95% CI, -0.85% to -0.81%), and ED visits by 0.79% (95% CI, -0.81% to -0.77%). All changes were statistically significant. In 2018-2019, across all SNFs, residents required assistance with an additional 0.89 ADLs between January and November, and lost 1.9 lb; 27.1% had worsened depressive symptoms. In 2020, residents in active COVID-19 SNFs required assistance with an additional 0.36 ADLs (95% CI, 0.34 to 0.38), lost 3.1 lb (95% CI, -3.2 to -3.0 lb) more weight, and were 4.4% (95% CI, 4.1% to 4.7%) more likely to have worsened depressive symptoms, all statistically significant changes. In 2020, residents in no-known COVID-19 SNFs had no significant change in ADLs (-0.06 [95% CI, -0.12 to 0.01]), but lost 1.8 lb (95% CI, -2.1 to -1.5 lb) more weight and were 3.2% more likely (95% CI, 2.3% to 4.1%) to have worsened depressive symptoms, both statistically significant changes. Conclusions and Relevance: Among skilled nursing facilities in the US during the first year of the COVID-19 pandemic and prior to the availability of COVID-19 vaccination, mortality and functional decline significantly increased at facilities with active COVID-19 cases compared with the prepandemic period, while a modest statistically significant decrease in mortality was observed at facilities that had never had a known COVID-19 case. Weight loss and depressive symptoms significantly increased in skilled nursing facilities in the first year of the pandemic, regardless of COVID-19 status.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Health Status , Skilled Nursing Facilities , Activities of Daily Living , Aged , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Testing , COVID-19 Vaccines , Environmental Exposure/statistics & numerical data , Health Policy , Humans , Medicare/statistics & numerical data , Pandemics/statistics & numerical data , Quality of Life , Retrospective Studies , Skilled Nursing Facilities/statistics & numerical data , United States/epidemiology
20.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 15945, 2022 09 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2042333

ABSTRACT

The Canadian Perspectives on Environmental Noise Survey (CPENS), conducted between April 12th, 2021 and May 25th, 2021 coincided with the third wave of the COVID-19 pandemic. Canadians 18 years of age and older (n = 6647) reported the degree to which the pandemic affected their physical health, mental health, stress, annoyance toward environmental and indoor noise, and overall well-being. Depending on the outcome evaluated, between 18 and 67% of respondents reported the measure as "somewhat" or "much worse" due to the pandemic. Stress was most affected, followed by mental health, overall well-being, physical health, annoyance toward environmental noise and annoyance toward indoor noise. Logistic regression models indicated that province, geographic region (rural/remote, suburban, urban), age, gender, poor physical/mental health, heart disease, a history of high sleep disturbance (in general) or diagnosed sleep disorders, anxiety/depression, working/schooling from home, and being retired significantly impacted the odds of reporting a worsening by the pandemic to varying degrees and directions, depending on the outcome. Indigenous status was unrelated to any of the modelled outcomes. Future research could address some of the noted study limitations and provide the data to determine if the observations on the reported measures of health are temporary, or long-lasting.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Sleep Wake Disorders , Adolescent , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , Canada/epidemiology , Health Status , Humans , Pandemics , Self Report , Sleep Wake Disorders/psychology
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