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1.
Psychiatr Danub ; 32(2): 287-293, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2100760

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Since the declaration of the coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19) outbreak as pandemic, health workers have shown an incredible commitment to their patients, sometimes in apocalyptic conditions. We explored ways to deal with the coronavirus stressor and psychological outcomes among physicians and nurses. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: 124 healthcare workers in General Hospital Nasice (Croatia) were invited to participate in a study by performing within the period of March 26 to April 6 2020 questionnaire collected information on socio-demographic characteristics and living conditions that may be risk factors for covid-19 concern, Short form health survey-36, Depression Anxiety Stress Scales (DASS-21) and Ways of Coping Questionnaire (WOC; consisting of 8 subscales: Confrontive Coping, Distancing, Self-Controlling, Seeking Social Support, Accepting Responsibility, Escape-Avoidance, Planful Problem Solving, Positive Reappraisal). RESULTS: 11% healthworkers reports moderate to very-severe depression, 17% moderate to extremely-severe anxiety and 10% for moderate to extremely-severe stress. 67% of medical staff are worried. No statistically significant differences in the scales of depression, anxiety, and stress were found between nurses and physicians, but differences were found on Escape-Avoidance and Positive Reappraisal subscales. Nurses use significantly more avoiding coping style and positive reappraisal than doctors. Seeking social support is more pronounced in those over 40 years old, while those under 40 use more avoidable stress management techniques. CONCLUSIONS: Monitoring and ensuring the mental health of coronavirus care staff is crucial for global health. The education of medical staff in the field of stress management is a conditio sine qua non of the issue of an adequate relationship with the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
Adaptation, Psychological , Coronavirus Infections/psychology , Health Surveys , Mental Health/statistics & numerical data , Nurses/psychology , Physicians/psychology , Pneumonia, Viral/psychology , Stress, Psychological , Adult , COVID-19 , Child , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Croatia/epidemiology , Humans , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology
2.
Psychiatr Danub ; 32(2): 266-272, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2100757

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Occurrence of symptoms of fear and depression among general population during the outbreak of COVID-19 seems to present an emerging problem worldwide. The aim of this study was to examine levels of fear and depressive symptoms in association with COVID-19 outbreak and to assess other contributing factors in the population of Bosnia and Herzegovina. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Link to an anonymous questionnaire, mainly based on The Fear of COVID-19 Scale (Ahorsu et al. 2020) and two-item and nine-item Patient Health Questionnaires (PHQs) (Maurer et al. 2018) (background information, fear assessment and information regarding depression) was distributed online to general population of Bosnia and Herzegovina. RESULTS: Out of 1201 respondents, 217 (18.0%) reported experiencing fear and 341 (28.4%) reported having symptoms of depression during COVID-19 outbreak. The mean age of the subjects was 30.57±11.26. Being older (OR=1.044; 95% CI 1.031-1.057; p<0.001) and having moderate to severe depressive symptoms (OR=1.093; 95% CI 1.067-1.120; p<0.001) were independent significant predictors for developing fear; living in rural environment (OR=0.551; 95% Cl 0.325-0.935; p=0.0027) significantly decreased the risk of developing fear; being female (OR=1.750; 95% CI 1.242-2.466; p=0.001), unemployed (OR=1.557; 95% CI 1.040-2.330; p=0.032) or student (OR=1.943; 95% CI 1.450-2.604; p<0.001) were independent significant predictors for developing moderate to severe depressive symptoms in association with COVID-19. Mann Whitney U-test showed that being older was statistically associated with fear (p<0.001) and being younger was statistically associated with depressive symptoms (p<0.001). CONCLUSIONS: In conclusion, based on our findings, fear and depressive symptoms in general population of Bosnia and Herzegovina during the outbreak of COVID-19 were present in 18.06% (fear) and 28.39% (depression) of subjects and it was statistically associated with age, gender, occupation, living environment and may present a secondary uprising problem connected to outbreak of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Anxiety/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/psychology , Depression/epidemiology , Fear , Health Surveys , Internet , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/psychology , Bosnia and Herzegovina/epidemiology , COVID-19 , Humans , Pandemics
3.
BMC Public Health ; 22(1): 1969, 2022 10 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2089186

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Handwashing is fundamentally an inexpensive means of reducing the spread of communicable diseases. In developing countries, many people die due to infectious diseases that could be prevented by proper hand hygiene. The recent coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic is a threat to people who are living in resource-limited countries including sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). Effective hand hygiene requires sufficient water from reliable sources, preferably accessible on premises, and access to handwashing facility (water and or soap) that enable hygiene behaviors. Therefore, this study aims to determine the prevalence of limited handwashing facility and its associated factors in sub-Saharan Africa. METHODS: Data from the Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) were used, which have been conducted in 29 sub-Saharan African countries since January 1, 2010. A two-stage stratified random cluster sampling strategy was used to collect the data. This study comprised a total of 237,983 weighted samples. The mixed effect logistic regression model with a cluster-level random intercept was fitted. Meta-analysis and sub-group analysis were performed to establish the pooled prevalence. RESULTS: The pooled prevalence of limited handwashing facility was found to be 66.16% (95% CI; 59.67%-72.65%). Based on the final model, household head with age group between 35 and 60 [AOR = 0.89, 95% CI; 0.86-0.91], households with mobile type of hand washing facility [AOR = 1.73, 95% CI; 1.70-1.77], unimproved sanitation facility [AOR = 1.58, 95% CI; 1.55-1.62], water access more than 30 min round trip [AOR = 1.16, 95% CI; 1.13-1.19], urban residential area [AOR = 2.08, 95% CI; 2.04-2.13], low media exposure [AOR = 1.47, 95% CI; 1.31-1.66], low educational level [AOR = 1.30, 95% CI; 1.14-1.48], low income level [AOR = 2.41, 95% CI; 2.33-2.49] as well as lower middle-income level [AOR = 2.10, 95% CI; 2.14-2.17] and households who had more than three children [AOR = 1.25, 95% CI; 1.20-1.31] were associated with having limited handwashing facility. CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION: The pooled coverage of limited handwashing facility was high in sub-Saharan Africa. Raising awareness of the community and promoting access to handwashing materials particularly in poorer and rural areas will reduce its coverage.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hand Disinfection , Child , Humans , Multilevel Analysis , Prevalence , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Africa South of the Sahara/epidemiology , Health Surveys , Family Characteristics , Water
4.
Vaccine ; 40(44): 6337-6343, 2022 Oct 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2042192

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Annually, pediatric influenza vaccination coverage estimates are ascertained from health surveys, such as the National Immunization Survey (NIS-Flu). From 2010 to 2017, vaccination coverage among children ranged from 51 to 59 %. Recognizing the limitations of national health survey data, we sought to describe temporal trends in pediatric influenza vaccination coverage, and demographic differences among a commercially insured large national cohort from 07/01/2010 to 06/30/2017. METHODS: Influenza vaccination coverage was assessed among children (<18 years) with continuous enrollment in the de-identified Optum Clinformatics® Data Mart database, and from NIS-Flu. Time trends in vaccination coverage were assessed using Joinpoint regression, overall and stratified by age group, sex, and geographic region. RESULTS: The average annual pediatric influenza vaccination coverage was 33.4 % in our study population versus 56.5 % reported from NIS-Flu during the same period (p-value < 0.0001). Vaccination coverage was highest in children 6 months-4-years old at 52.6 % (versus 68.8 % NIS-Flu, p-value < 0.0001), and lowest in the 13-17-year-old age group at 20.1 % (versus 42.8 % NIS-Flu, p-value < 0.0001). Vaccination coverage over time remained stable in our study population (average annual percent change 1.8 %, 95 % confidence interval [CI] -2.3 % to 6.0 %) versus significantly increasing by 2.8 % in NIS-Flu (95 % CI 0.3 % to 5.3 %). CONCLUSIONS: Vaccination coverage in our commercially insured pediatric population was 51.4% lower than estimates from NIS-Flu during the same period, suggesting the need for more accurate vaccination coverage surveillance, which will also be critical in future COVID-19 vaccination efforts. Effective interventions are needed to increase pediatric influenza vaccination rates to the Healthy People 2020 target of 70%.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Influenza Vaccines , Influenza, Human , Child , United States , Humans , Adolescent , Influenza, Human/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , Vaccination , Health Surveys
5.
BMC Womens Health ; 22(1): 378, 2022 09 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2038723

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Health insurance coverage is one of the several measures being implemented to reduce the inequity in access to quality health services among vulnerable groups. Although women's empowerment has been viewed as a cost-effective strategy for the reduction of maternal and child morbidity and mortality, as it enables women to tackle the barriers to accessing healthcare, its association with health insurance usage has been barely investigated. Our study aims at examining the prevalence of health insurance utilisation and its association with women empowerment as well as other socio-demographic factors among Rwandan women. METHODS: We used Rwanda Demographic and Health Survey (RDHS) 2020 data of 14,634 women aged 15-49 years, who were selected using multistage sampling. Health insurance utilisation, the outcome variable was a binary response (yes/no), while women empowerment was assessed by four composite indicators; exposure to mass media, decision making, economic and sexual empowerment. We conducted multivariable logistic regression to explore its association with socio-demographic factors, using SPSS (version 25). RESULTS: Out of the 14,634 women, 12,095 (82.6%) (95% CI 82.0-83.2) had health insurance, and the majority (77.2%) were covered by mutual/community organization insurance. Women empowerment indicators had a negative association with health insurance utilisation; low (AOR = 0.85, 95% CI 0.73-0.98) and high (AOR = 0.66, 95% CI 0.52-0.85) exposure to mass media, high decision making (AOR = 0.78, 95% CI 0.68-0.91) and high economic empowerment (AOR = 0.63, 95% CI 0.51-0.78). Other socio-demographic factors found significant include; educational level, wealth index, and household size which had a negative association, but residence and region with a positive association. CONCLUSIONS: A high proportion of Rwandan women had health insurance, but it was negatively associated with women's empowerment. Therefore, tailoring mass-media material considering the specific knowledge gaps to addressing misinformation, as well as addressing regional imbalance by improving women's access to health facilities/services are key in increasing coverage of health insurance among women in Rwanda.


Subject(s)
Empowerment , Insurance, Health , Child , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Health Surveys , Humans , Rwanda
7.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(15)2022 07 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1994057

ABSTRACT

(1) Background: Recently, the prevalence of generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) among adolescents has been higher than in adults. Early detection is important for treatment. Accordingly, although various factors affecting adolescents' GAD have been studied, the body of research is fragmented, and an integrated analysis of the influencing factors is needed. Therefore, in this study, we intended to analyze various factors affecting GAD. (2) Methods: Using data from the Korea Youth Health Behavior Survey (2021), sociodemographic factors, negative emotion, and physical activity factors were selected. Correlation analysis, t-test, ANOVA, and multiple regression analysis were performed using SPSS 26.0. (3) Results: Perceived stress was found to be the factor that had the greatest influence on GAD. (4) Conclusions: The risk of GAD in Korean adolescents was found to increase in female students who had higher levels of perceived stress, and participated in less high-intensity or muscle-strengthening exercise.


Subject(s)
Anxiety Disorders , Health Behavior , Adolescent , Adult , Anxiety Disorders/epidemiology , Female , Health Surveys , Humans , Republic of Korea/epidemiology , Surveys and Questionnaires
8.
West J Emerg Med ; 23(4): 570-578, 2022 Jul 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1975260

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Unvaccinated emergency medical services (EMS) personnel are at increased risk of contracting coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and potentially transmitting the virus to their families, coworkers, and patients. Effective vaccines for the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 virus exist; however, vaccination rates among EMS professionals remain largely unknown. Consequently, we sought to document vaccination rates of EMS professionals and identify predictors of vaccination uptake. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional survey of North Carolina EMS professionals after the COVID-19 vaccines were widely available. The survey assessed vaccination status as well as beliefs regarding COVID-19 illness and vaccine effectiveness. Prediction of vaccine uptake was modeled using logistic regression. RESULTS: A total of 860 EMS professionals completed the survey, of whom 74.7% reported receiving the COVID-19 vaccination. Most respondents believed that COVID-19 is a serious threat to the population, that they are personally at higher risk of infection, that vaccine side effects are outweighed by illness prevention, and the vaccine is safe and effective. Despite this, only 18.7% supported mandatory vaccination for EMS professionals. Statistically significant differences were observed between the vaccinated and unvaccinated groups regarding vaccine safety and effectiveness, recall of employer vaccine recommendation, perceived risk of infection, degree of threat to the population, and trust in government to take actions to limit the spread of disease. Unvaccinated respondents cited reasons such as belief in personal health and natural immunity as protectors against infection, concerns about vaccine safety and effectiveness, inadequate vaccine knowledge, and lack of an employer mandate for declining the vaccine. Predictors of vaccination included belief in vaccine safety (odds ratio [OR] 5.5, P=<0.001) and effectiveness (OR 4.6, P=<0.001); importance of vaccination to protect patients (OR 15.5, P=<0.001); perceived personal risk of infection (OR 1.8, P=0.04); previous receipt of influenza vaccine (OR 2.5, P=0.003); and sufficient knowledge to make an informed decision about vaccination (OR 2.4, P=0.024). CONCLUSION: In this survey of EMS professionals, over a quarter remained unvaccinated for COVID-19. Given the identified predictors of vaccine acceptance, EMS systems should focus on countering misinformation through employee educational campaigns as well as on developing policies regarding workforce immunization requirements.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Emergency Medical Services , Health Personnel , Vaccination , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , COVID-19 Vaccines/supply & distribution , Cross-Sectional Studies , Decision Making , Health Personnel/psychology , Health Personnel/statistics & numerical data , Health Surveys , Humans , Influenza Vaccines/administration & dosage , North Carolina , Occupational Health , Patient Safety , Vaccination/legislation & jurisprudence , Vaccination/psychology , Vaccination/statistics & numerical data
9.
BMC Public Health ; 22(1): 1108, 2022 06 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1933130

ABSTRACT

AIM: To identify the impact of COVID-19 measures on sexual behaviors and sexual satisfaction in Luxembourg residents. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional online survey of adults (> 18 years of age) residing in Luxembourg, while COVID-19 restrictions were in place. The survey was available from January 15 to February 12, 2021 in four languages (French, German, English and Portuguese). Survey questions focused on masturbation, cuddling, condom use, sex frequency, sexting, cybersex, watching porn, and sexual satisfaction. RESULTS: 557 volunteers completed the survey (35.5% men, 64.3% women). Sexual satisfaction and sexual problems variables were assessed on 4-point Likert scales (0 = not at all/never to 3 = very/often). Sexual problems increased during the COVID-19 measures while sexual satisfaction decreased compared to before the introduction of COVID-19 restrictions (assessed retrospectively). Factors associated with increased odds of sexual satisfaction included having a steady relationship before COVID-19 restrictions, engaging in sexting, reporting good mental health and not altering alcohol intake. CONCLUSIONS: The context of the COVID-19 pandemic and the measures implemented in Luxembourg affected sexual behaviors and sexual satisfaction. Sexual and reproductive health care centers and health professionals in general should take these results into consideration when providing care. Recommendations on the importance of sexual health for general wellbeing and behaviors associated with sexual satisfaction should be offered and possibilities to experience sexuality while reducing contamination risks be discussed.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Sexual Health , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Health Surveys , Humans , Luxembourg/epidemiology , Male , Orgasm , Pandemics , Reproductive Health , Retrospective Studies , Sexual Behavior
10.
PLoS One ; 17(2): e0263011, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1910499

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Psychotic illness, although is rare, has been reported in the perinatal period. Individuals diagnosed with psychotic illness tend to first exhibit psychotic-like experiences (PLEs), defined as subclinical psychotic symptoms that occur outside the context of sleep or drug use. However, there is a paucity of empirical data on PLEs in pregnancy to advance scholarly discourse and support professional practice. The current study investigated the prevalence and correlates of PLEs among pregnant women in Ghana, a West African state. DESIGN: A cross-sectional survey design was used to collect data from 702 pregnant women who responded to measures of PLEs, COVID-19 concerns and behavioral maladies such as anxiety and depressive symptoms. Descriptive and inferential statistics, namely chi square, exploratory factor analysis, MANOVA and multinomial logistic regression were used to analyze the data. RESULTS: The results showed that 54.2%, 27.3% and 18.5% of participants were at no/low, moderate and high risk for psychosis, respectively. A total of 44.4% participants were not distressed by PLEs, whereas 32.2% and 23.4% were a bit/quite and very distressed, respectively. Psychosis risk was elevated among pregnant women who were more concerned about the COVID-19 effects, scored high in suicidal ideation, depressive symptoms and sleep difficulties. CONCLUSION: The study showed that psychosis risk is present in pregnancy. IMPLICATIONS: Screening for psychosis risk in pregnancy should be prioritized for pregnant women with behavioral maladies, including suicidal tendencies, depressive symptoms, sleep difficulties and heightened concerns about COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Anxiety Disorders/epidemiology , Anxiety/epidemiology , COVID-19/psychology , Depression/epidemiology , Psychotic Disorders/epidemiology , Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders/epidemiology , Suicidal Ideation , Adult , Comorbidity , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Ghana/epidemiology , Health Surveys , Humans , Pregnancy , Prevalence , Risk Factors , Self Report , Young Adult
11.
Arch Iran Med ; 25(4): 201-208, 2022 04 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1904197

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Mental disorders are the most common health problems that affect different population groups. According to the national survey in 2015 based on General Health Questionnaire-28 (GHQ-28), 23.44% of Iranians older than 15 years were suspected of having a mental disorder. The study aimed to determine the mental health status of the population over 15 years of age in the Islamic Republic of Iran, one year after the outbreak of COVID-19 in 2020. METHODS: The population-based study was performed on 24584 individuals over 15 years of age in Iran between December and February, 2020. The GHQ-28 was completed through telephone interviews. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, chi-square test, independent t-test, and multiple logistic regression at 95% confidence level. RESULTS: The results showed that the mean age of participants was 44.18±16.47 years. The prevalence of mental disorders was 29.7%. Mental disorder was associated with female gender (OR=1.195, 95% CI 1.10-1.29), 25-44 years (OR=1.206, 95% CI 1.06-1.36), urban life (OR=1.116, 95% CI 1.04-1.19), illiteracy (OR=1.286, 95% CI 1.11-1.48), being divorced (OR=1.924, 95% CI 1.50- 2.45), and unemployment (OR=1.657, 95% CI 1.40-1.94). Among the participants and their families, 14.7% and 32.3% were infected with the disease, respectively. The COVID-19 mortality rate in their families was 13.2%. The prevalence of mental disorders in infected people (40% vs. 27.3%) and bereaved families (39.6% vs. 35.3%) was more than the non-infected groups. CONCLUSION: Our results showed that in Iran, the mental health of the general population had a rising trend compared to 2015, especially in people infected with COVID-19 and bereaved families. The observed difference may be due to the prevalence of the COVID-19 epidemic and rapid demographic, social, and economic changes in Iran. Planning to improve mental health in the mentioned population should be considered for the post COVID-19 era.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Mental Disorders , Adolescent , Adult , Age Distribution , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Disease Outbreaks , Female , Forecasting , Health Status , Health Surveys , Humans , Iran/epidemiology , Mental Disorders/epidemiology , Middle Aged , Rural Population , Sampling Studies , Sex Distribution , Surveys and Questionnaires , Urban Population
12.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(11)2022 06 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1892875

ABSTRACT

The mental health (MH) of especially children and adolescents with low socioeconomic status (SES) benefits from access to greenspaces. This study aimed at investigating social inequalities in the association between several types of social infrastructure (SI) and MH in children and adolescents. The sample comprised 12,624 children and adolescents of the KiGGS Wave 2 study (2014-2017). KiGGS provided information on SI (access to playgrounds, sports fields, swimming pools, parks) for all children and the environmental module (GerES V) within KiGGS on the walking time to SI for a subsample. Social inequality was measured by parental SES and the German Index of Socioeconomic deprivation and MH by the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire. Ordinal logistic regression analyses showed that access to fewer SI places was associated with higher odds of MH problems. Children and adolescents experiencing high (but not medium or low) socioeconomic deprivation at the municipal level were more likely to have MH problems when having less access to SI places. At the individual level, MH problems in high- and low-SES, but not medium-SES children and adolescents were associated with no access to SI places. Children and adolescents from high socioeconomically deprived areas and with low and high SES might benefit from high-availability SI.


Subject(s)
Mental Health , Social Capital , Adolescent , Child , Cross-Sectional Studies , Germany/epidemiology , Health Surveys , Humans , Social Class , Socioeconomic Factors
14.
J. bras. psiquiatr ; 71(1): 5-15, jan.-mar. 2022. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | WHO COVID, LILACS (Americas) | ID: covidwho-1799034

ABSTRACT

OBJETIVO: Avaliar o consumo de álcool entre os professores da rede pública estadual do ensino básico antes e durante a pandemia da COVID-19 e os fatores associados aos que aumentaram o consumo de bebidas alcoólicas durante a pandemia. MÉTODOS: Inquérito epidemiológico do tipo websurvey, realizado com professores da educação básica das escolas da rede pública estadual de Minas Gerais. A coleta ocorreu de agosto a setembro/2020 via formulário digital e contou com o apoio da Secretaria de Estado de Educação. A variável dependente adotada foi o aumento no consumo de bebidas alcoólicas pelos professores durante a pandemia. Foi utilizada a regressão de Poisson, adotando nível de significância de 5%. RESULTADOS: Participaram do estudo 15.641 professores de 795 municípios mineiros. Em relação ao consumo de bebidas alcoólicas, antes da pandemia, 46,9% dos professores consumiam pelo menos uma vez por semana e durante a pandemia 7,1% relataram que estavam bebendo mais do que costumavam. Observou-se maior consumo de bebida alcoólica durante a pandemia entre os homens, com menor faixa etária, com maior renda familiar, os que tiveram muita dificuldade em realizar as atividades escolares, os insatisfeitos com o trabalho, os que começaram a ter problemas de sono e naqueles com algum familiar/amigo que desenvolveu sintomas graves da COVID-19. CONCLUSÕES: Os resultados evidenciaram que a maioria dos participantes manteve o seu consumo ou o diminuiu durante a pandemia, com 7,1% aumentando o uso de álcool. Esse aumento foi associado a fatores sociodemográficos e econômicos, condições de trabalho durante a pandemia, comportamentos/hábitos de vida e condições de saúde.


OBJECTIVE: To evaluate alcohol consumption among state public elementary school teachers before and during the COVID-19 pandemic and the factors associated with who increased their alcohol consumption during the pandemic. METHODS: Websurvey-type epidemiological survey, carried out with primary education teachers from public schools in Minas Gerais. A probabilistic sample with proportionality for state teachers was estimated. The collection took place from August to September 2020 via digital form and had the support of the State Department of Education. The dependent variable adopted was the increase in the consumption of alcoholic beverages by teachers during the pandemic. Poisson Regression was used, adopting a significance level of 5%. RESULTS: 15,641 teachers from 795 Minas Gerais municipalities participated in the study. Regarding the consumption of alcoholic beverages, before the pandemic 46.9% of teachers consumed at least once a week and during the pandemic 7.1% reported that they were drinking more than they used to. Higher consumption of alcoholic beverages was observed during the pandemic among men, with a lower age group, higher family income, those who had great difficulty to carry out school activities, those dissatisfied with work, those who started having sleep problems and in those where a family member or friend developed symptoms serious problems of COVID-19. CONCLUSIONS: The results showed that most participants maintained their consumption or decreased it during the pandemic. This increase was associated with sociodemographic and economic factors, working conditions during the pandemic, behaviors/life habits and health conditions.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Alcohol Drinking/epidemiology , Pandemics , School Teachers/psychology , COVID-19 , Stress, Psychological , Working Conditions , Prevalence , Health Surveys , School Teachers/statistics & numerical data , Physical Distancing
15.
BMC Pregnancy Childbirth ; 21(1): 636, 2021 Sep 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1779616

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Few reports have presented an overall view of pregnant women with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) across an entire country and throughout the entire gestation period. Furthermore, no such reports are available for Japan. We examined the clinical characteristics and outcomes of pregnant women with COVID­19 on a national scale in Japan. METHODS: A nationwide questionnaire-based survey for all 2,185 maternity services in Japan was conducted between July and August 2020. Information regarding maternal characteristics and epidemiological, clinical, treatment, and perinatal outcomes of pregnant women diagnosed with COVID-19 between 16 January and 30 June 2020 were collected. Main outcome measures were incidence of pregnant women with COVID-19 and infant infection, positive rate of the universal screening test for asymptomatic pregnant women, identification of infection route and rates of maternal death, and severe cases. RESULTS: Responses from 1,418 institutions were assessed (65% of all delivery institutions in Japan). Seventy-two pregnant women were reported to have been diagnosed with COVID-19. The positive rate of the universal screening test for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) among asymptomatic pregnant women was 0.03% (2/7428). The most common route of infection was familial (57%). Fifty-eight pregnant women with COVID-19 were symptomatic, of whom five (8.6%) had a severe infection and one died (a tourist). Severe respiratory symptoms, oxygen administration, and pneumonia were frequently reported in the third trimester and postpartum period compared with in early pregnancy (22.2% vs 2.5% [P = 0.03], 38.9% vs 7.5% [P = 0.01], and 50.0% vs 7.5% [P < 0.001], respectively). All pregnant women with COVID-19 underwent caesarean sections, regardless of symptoms. There were no SARS-CoV-2 transmissions to newborns. CONCLUSIONS: In Japan, the number of cases of COVID-19 infection in pregnant women is very low. Compared with early pregnancy, late pregnancy may be a risk factor for exacerbation of symptoms and familial transmission is the most common route of infection. The importance of infection prevention should be emphasised, especially in women in late pregnancy, their families, and any cohabitants.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/diagnosis , Adult , Asymptomatic Infections , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/therapy , COVID-19/transmission , COVID-19 Testing , Female , Health Surveys , Humans , Incidence , Infant, Newborn , Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical , Japan/epidemiology , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/epidemiology , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/therapy , Pregnancy Outcome , Severity of Illness Index , Treatment Outcome
16.
Front Public Health ; 10: 828318, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1776028

ABSTRACT

While many studies have explored the financial barriers to healthcare, there is little evidence regarding the non-financial barriers to healthcare. This study identified characteristics associated with financial and non-financial barriers to healthcare and quantified the effects of these characteristics in South Korea, using a nationally representative longitudinal survey dataset. Overall, 68,930 observations of 16,535 individuals aged 19 years and above were sampled from Korea Health Panel survey data (2014-2018). From self-reported information about respondents' experiences of unmet healthcare needs, a trichotomous dependent variable-no barrier, non-financial barrier, and financial barrier-was derived. Sociodemographics, physical and health conditions were included as explanatory variables. The average adjusted probability (AAP) of experiencing each barrier was predicted using multivariable and panel multinomial logistic regression analyses. According to the results, the percentage of people experiencing non-financial barriers was much higher than that of people experiencing financial barriers in 2018 (9.6 vs. 2.5%). Women showed higher AAPs of experiencing both non-financial (9.9 vs. 8.3%) and financial barriers (3.6 vs. 2.5%) than men. Men living in the Seoul metropolitan area showed higher AAPs of experiencing non-financial (8.7 vs. 8.0%) and financial barriers (3.4 vs. 2.1%) than those living outside it. Household income showed no significant associations in the AAP of experiencing a non-financial barrier. People with a functional limitation exhibited a higher AAP of experiencing a non-financial barrier, for both men (17.8 vs. 7.8%) and women (17.4 vs. 9.0%), than those without it. In conclusion, people in South Korea, like those in most European countries, fail to meet their healthcare needs more often due to non-financial barriers than financial barriers. In addition, the characteristics associated with non-financial barriers to healthcare differed from those associated with financial barriers. This finding suggests that although financial barriers may be minimised through various policies, a considerable degree of unmet healthcare needs and disparity among individuals is very likely to persist due to non-financial barriers. Therefore, current universal health insurance systems need targeted policy instruments to minimise non-financial barriers to healthcare to ensure effective universal health coverage.


Subject(s)
Health Services Accessibility , Universal Health Insurance , Adult , Female , Health Surveys , Humans , Male , Republic of Korea , Universal Health Insurance/economics , Young Adult
17.
Am J Public Health ; 112(3): 509-517, 2022 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1770832

ABSTRACT

Objectives. To describe national- and county-level trends and variation in a novel measure of hope. Methods. Using data from the Gallup National Health and Well-Being Index (n = 2 766 728), we summarized the difference between anticipated life satisfaction (ALS) and current life satisfaction (CLS), measured by the Cantril Self-Anchoring Scale, for each year from 2008 to 2020 and by county over two 5-year periods in the United States. Results. Across all years, there was a significant positive trend in the difference between ALS and CLS for the nation (P = .024), which remained positive but not significant when we excluded 2020. Maintenance of ALS with a decrease in CLS drove the 2020 increase. From 2008-2012 to 2013-2017, 14.5% of counties with 300 or more responses (n = 599) experienced an increase in the difference of more than 1 SD, whereas 13.9% experienced a more than 1 SD decrease. Fifty-two counties experienced decreases in ALS and CLS. Conclusions. Responding to trends in the gap between ALS and CLS at national and local levels is essential for the collective well-being of our nation, especially as we navigate and emerge from crisis.


Subject(s)
Personal Satisfaction , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Female , Health Surveys/statistics & numerical data , Hope , Humans , Male , Mental Health/statistics & numerical data , Middle Aged , Risk Factors , United States , Young Adult
18.
PLoS One ; 17(3): e0266016, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1765539

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 related lockdown made it much more difficult for people to control their eating behaviours and body weight with the methods and means they had used before. This is reflected in reports that show that eating behaviours deteriorated significantly during the COVID-19 pandemic (including in Poland). Therefore, it is important to determine what factors may be conducive to healthy eating behaviours among people with different BMI. As previous studies show, the use of healthy eating related-apps and training programs may be a protective factor against the development of unhealthy eating behaviours. Therefore, it is worth checking whether their action will be a protective factor during COVID-19. The aim of this cross sectional study was to analyse whether the current use of healthy eating-related apps and previous participation in training in this field (educational activities) as well as body mass index may play a role in eating motives and behaviours among women during COVID-19. Our final sample included 1,447 women (age: M = 31.34 ± 11.05). Participants completed: the Eating Motivation Survey, the Emotional Overeating Questionnaire, the Mindful Eating Questionnaire, socio-demographic survey and questions about healthy eating-related apps and training (educational activities). Referring to the selected significant results, our study shows that during COVID-19, the use of healthy eating-related apps alone, as well as the use of apps and prior training participation promote healthy eating motives and behaviours. It suggests that promoting the use of healthy eating applications and the acquisition of knowledge and skills in this field could be one way of shaping resources that can be effectively used to deal with crisis situations.


Subject(s)
Body Mass Index , COVID-19/psychology , Diet, Healthy , Feeding Behavior/psychology , Mobile Applications , Motivation , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Diet, Healthy/psychology , Diet, Healthy/statistics & numerical data , Female , Health Education , Health Surveys , Humans , Middle Aged , Poland/epidemiology , Surveys and Questionnaires , Young Adult
19.
Lancet Oncol ; 23(4): 456, 2022 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1764044
20.
Am J Public Health ; 111(12): 2167-2175, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1760043

ABSTRACT

High-quality data are accurate, relevant, and timely. Large national health surveys have always balanced the implementation of these quality dimensions to meet the needs of diverse users. The COVID-19 pandemic shifted these balances, with both disrupted survey operations and a critical need for relevant and timely health data for decision-making. The National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) responded to these challenges with several operational changes to continue production in 2020. However, data files from the 2020 NHIS were not expected to be publicly available until fall 2021. To fill the gap, the National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS) turned to 2 online data collection platforms-the Census Bureau's Household Pulse Survey (HPS) and the NCHS Research and Development Survey (RANDS)-to collect COVID-19‒related data more quickly. This article describes the adaptations of NHIS and the use of HPS and RANDS during the pandemic in the context of the recently released Framework for Data Quality from the Federal Committee on Statistical Methodology. (Am J Public Health. 2021;111(12):2167-2175. https://doi.org/10.2105/AJPH.2021.306516).


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Health Surveys/methods , Internet , National Center for Health Statistics, U.S./organization & administration , Bias , Cross-Sectional Studies , Data Collection/methods , Data Collection/standards , Health Surveys/standards , Humans , Interviews as Topic , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Telephone , United States/epidemiology
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