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1.
BMC Pregnancy Childbirth ; 21(1): 768, 2021 Nov 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1528682

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Pregnant and postpartum women face unique challenges and concerns during the COVID-19 pandemic. Thus far, no studies have explored the factors associated with increased levels of worry in this population globally. The current study sought to assess the frequency and sources of worry during the COVID-19 pandemic in an international sample of pregnant and postpartum women. METHODS: We conducted an anonymous, online, cross-sectional survey in 64 countries between May and June 2020. The survey was available in 12 languages and hosted on the Pregistry platform for COVID-19 studies. Participants were sought mainly on social media platforms and online parenting forums. The survey included questions related to demographics, level of worry, support, stress, COVID-19 exposure, frequency of media usage, and mental health indicators. RESULTS: The study included 7561 participants. Eighty-three percent of all participants indicated that they were either 'somewhat' or 'very' worried. Women 13-28 weeks pregnant were significantly more likely to indicate that they were 'very worried' compared to those who were postpartum or at other stages of pregnancy. When compared with women living in Europe, those in Africa, Asia and Pacific, North America and South/Latin America were more likely to have increased levels of worry, as were those who more frequently interacted with social media. Different forms of support and stress also had an impact upon level of worry, while indicators of stress and anxiety were positively associated with worry level. CONCLUSION: Pregnant and postpartum women are vulnerable to the changes in societal norms brought about by the COVID-19 pandemic. Understanding the factors associated with levels of worry within this population will enable society to address potential unmet needs and improve the current and future mental health of parents and children.


Subject(s)
Anxiety/etiology , COVID-19/psychology , Pregnancy Complications/etiology , Adolescent , Adult , Anxiety/epidemiology , Anxiety/psychology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Global Health/statistics & numerical data , Health Surveys , Humans , Logistic Models , Odds Ratio , Postpartum Period/psychology , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications/epidemiology , Pregnancy Complications/psychology , Risk Factors , Stress, Psychological/epidemiology , Stress, Psychological/etiology , Stress, Psychological/psychology , Young Adult
2.
Turk J Ophthalmol ; 51(5): 269-281, 2021 10 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1497595

ABSTRACT

Objectives: To investigate the effect of the novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic on the clinical practice of ophthalmologists in our country. Materials and Methods: A questionnaire consisting of 22 questions was delivered to 250 ophthalmologists via e-mail and a smartphone messaging application. A total of 113 ophthalmologists completed the survey. The questions included the participants' demographic data (age, years in practice, institution, and city), changes in their working conditions and institutional preventive measures implemented during the pandemic, their personal COVID-19 experiences, the prevalence of telemedicine applications, and their attitudes toward these practices. Results: Nearly half (47.8%) of the 113 ophthalmologists were 36 to 45 years old. In terms of years in practice, the largest proportion of respondents (28.3%) had 6-10 years of experience. Most of the participants worked in private/foundation universities (37.2%), while 22.1% worked in education and research clinics. Participants working at public universities most often reported that they or a close contact had to work in COVID wards (89.5%). Triage was performed in 51.5% of ophthalmology outpatient clinics, with 88.0% of these participants reporting that patients with fever, cough, or dyspnea were directed to the pandemic clinic without ophthalmological examination. All participants working in public hospitals, education and research clinics, and public university hospitals had postponed elective surgeries, whereas 12.5% of those working in private practice and 20.5% of those working in private/foundation universities reported that they continued elective surgeries. While 80.8% of the participants did not conduct online interviews or examinations, 40.4% stated that they considered telemedicine applications beneficial. Seventy-seven percent of participants expressed concern about a decrease in their income during the pandemic, with this being especially common among participants working in private practice (87.5%) and private/foundation university hospitals (85.7%). Conclusion: Ophthalmologists across our country have been affected by this pandemic at a level that will change their clinical approach. We think that ophthalmologists impacted by the difficulty of providing personal protective equipment and economic concerns should be supported more during the pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Ophthalmologists/statistics & numerical data , Ophthalmology/trends , Practice Patterns, Physicians'/statistics & numerical data , SARS-CoV-2 , Adult , Aged , Delivery of Health Care , Elective Surgical Procedures/statistics & numerical data , Female , Health Surveys , Hospitals, Private , Hospitals, Public , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Ophthalmologists/psychology , Patient Care , Personal Protective Equipment/statistics & numerical data , Surveys and Questionnaires , Telemedicine , Turkey/epidemiology
4.
Biomedica ; 41(Sp. 2): 48-61, 2021 10 15.
Article in English, Spanish | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1478423

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The studies on knowledge, attitudes, and practices (KAP) regarding COVID-19 help to identify erroneous concepts and inadequate practices related to the disease. This baseline information is essential to design effective strategies and improve adherence to prevention measures. OBJECTIVE: To identify the COVID-19-related KAP in Venezuelan patients screened at the Hospital Universitario de Caracas triage tent. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional study among 215 patients between April 25th and May 25th, 2020, with in-person interviews using a KAP survey. RESULTS: Most surveyed patients (53.5%) were asymptomatic. Most of them, both from the symptomatic and the asymptomatic groups, had adequate knowledge about the symptoms and transmission of the disease and the majority said they were practicing quarantine, frequent handwashing, and the use of face masks in public areas. However, the daily replacement of cloth face masks was more frequent in the asymptomatic group whereas replacement every three days was more frequent in the symptomatic group. Finally, more than half of the participants admitted having been in crowded places, a common practice among the symptomatic compared to the asymptomatic patients. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first KAP study in Venezuela about COVID-19. Knowledge and practices among Venezuelans could be improved by strengthening education and training programs. This information from the early phase of the pandemic in Venezuela may contribute to the design of COVID-19 promotion and prevention strategies.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/transmission , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Adult , Asymptomatic Infections/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Crowding , Female , Hand Disinfection , Health Surveys/methods , Health Surveys/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Male , Masks/statistics & numerical data , Physical Distancing , Symptom Assessment , Triage , Venezuela/epidemiology
5.
Rev Colomb Psiquiatr (Engl Ed) ; 50(3): 189-198, 2021.
Article in English, Spanish | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1466864

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The aim of the study is to compare the emotional effects of COVID-19 among three different groups, namely: health personnel, medical students, and a sample of the general population. METHODS: 375 participants were recruited for this study, of which 125 were medical students (preclinical studies, 59; clinical studies, 66), 125 were health personnel (COVID-19 frontline personnel, 59; personnel not related with COVID-19, 66), and 125 belonged to the general population. The PHQ-9, GAD-7, and CPDI scales were used to assess the emotional impact. A multinomial logistic regression was performed to measure differences between groups, considering potential confounding factors. RESULTS: Regarding CPDI values, all other groups showed reduced values compared to COVID-19 frontline personnel. However, the general population, preclinical and clinical medical students showed increased PHQ-9 values compared to COVID-19 frontline personnel. Finally, confounding factors, gender and age correlated negatively with higher CPDI and PHQ-9 scores. CONCLUSIONS: Being frontline personnel is associated with increased COVID-19-related stress. Depression is associated, however, with other groups not directly involved with the treatment of COVID-19 patients. Female gender and younger age correlated with COVID-19-related depression and stress.


Subject(s)
Anxiety/etiology , COVID-19/psychology , Depression/etiology , Health Personnel/psychology , Stress, Psychological/etiology , Students, Medical/psychology , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Anxiety/diagnosis , Anxiety/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Depression/diagnosis , Depression/epidemiology , Female , Health Surveys , Humans , Logistic Models , Male , Middle Aged , Peru/epidemiology , Psychological Tests , Risk Factors , Stress, Psychological/diagnosis , Stress, Psychological/epidemiology , Young Adult
7.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 70(40): 1427-1432, 2021 Oct 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1456571

ABSTRACT

Recent studies indicate an increase in the percentage of adults who reported clinically relevant symptoms of anxiety and depression during the COVID-19 pandemic (1-3). For example, based on U.S. Census Bureau Household Pulse Survey (HPS) data, CDC reported significant increases in symptoms of anxiety and depressive disorders among adults aged ≥18 years during August 19, 2020-February 1, 2021, with the largest increases among adults aged 18-29 years and among those with less than a high school education (1). To assess more recent national trends, as well as state-specific trends, CDC used HPS data (4) to assess trends in reported anxiety and depression among U.S. adults in all 50 states and the District of Columbia (DC) during August 19, 2020-June 7, 2021 (1). Nationally, the average anxiety severity score increased 13% from August 19-31, 2020, to December 9-21, 2020 (average percent change [APC] per survey wave = 1.5%) and then decreased 26.8% from December 9-21, 2020, to May 26-June 7, 2021 (APC = -3.1%). The average depression severity score increased 14.8% from August 19-31, 2020, to December 9-21, 2020 (APC = 1.7%) and then decreased 24.8% from December 9-21, 2020, to May 26-June 7, 2021 (APC = -2.8%). State-specific trends were generally similar to national trends, with both anxiety and depression scores for most states peaking during the December 9-21, 2020, or January 6-18, 2021, survey waves. Across the entire study period, the frequency of anxiety and depression symptoms was positively correlated with the average number of daily COVID-19 cases. Mental health services and resources, including telehealth behavioral services, are critical during the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
Anxiety/epidemiology , COVID-19/psychology , Depression/epidemiology , Pandemics , Severity of Illness Index , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , Female , Health Surveys , Humans , Male , United States/epidemiology
8.
JMIR Public Health Surveill ; 7(9): e29990, 2021 09 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1443977

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic has required clinicians to pivot to offering services via telehealth; however, it is unclear which patients (users of care) are equipped to use digital health. This is especially pertinent for adults managing chronic diseases, such as obesity, hypertension, and diabetes, which require regular follow-up, medication management, and self-monitoring. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study is to measure the trends and assess factors affecting health information technology (HIT) use among members of the US population with and without cardiovascular risk factors. METHODS: We used serial cross-sectional data from the National Health Interview Survey for the years 2012-2018 to assess trends in HIT use among adults, stratified by age and cardiovascular risk factor status. We developed multivariate logistic regression models adjusted for age, sex, race, insurance status, marital status, geographic region, and perceived health status to assess the likelihood of HIT use among patients with and without cardiovascular disease risk factors. RESULTS: A total of 14,304 (44.6%) and 14,644 (58.7%) participants reported using HIT in 2012 and 2018, respectively. When comparing the rates of HIT use for the years 2012 and 2018, among participants without cardiovascular risk factors, the HIT use proportion increased from 51.1% to 65.8%; among those with one risk factor, it increased from 43.9% to 59%; and among those with more than one risk factor, it increased from 41.3% to 54.7%. Increasing trends in HIT use were highest among adults aged >65 years (annual percentage change [APC] 8.3%), who had more than one cardiovascular risk factor (APC 5%) and among those who did not graduate from high school (APC 8.8%). Likelihood of HIT use was significantly higher in individuals who were younger, female, and non-Hispanic White; had higher education and income; were married; and reported very good or excellent health status. In 2018, college graduates were 7.18 (95% CI 5.86-8.79), 6.25 (95% CI 5.02-7.78), or 7.80 (95% CI 5.87-10.36) times more likely to use HIT compared to adults without high school education among people with multiple cardiovascular risk factors, one cardiovascular risk factor, or no cardiovascular risk factors, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Over 2012-2018, HIT use increased nationally, with greater use noted among younger and higher educated US adults. Targeted strategies are needed to engage wider age, racial, education, and socioeconomic groups by lowering barriers to HIT access and use.


Subject(s)
Heart Disease Risk Factors , Medical Informatics/statistics & numerical data , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Cardiovascular Diseases/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Health Surveys , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , United States/epidemiology , Young Adult
9.
Obesity (Silver Spring) ; 29(11): 1907-1915, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1439707

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The Chinese government decisively imposed nationwide confinement in response to the COVID-19 outbreak. This study aimed to evaluate the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on the progression of obesity in children and adolescents in Changshu, China. METHODS: Based on the Health Promotion Program for Children and Adolescents (HPPCA), which is a prospective cross-sectional and school-based study, BMI assessed in seven consecutive years (2014 to 2020) among children and adolescents aged 6 to 17 years in Changshu city was extracted. The standardized BMI z scores (zBMI) and prevalence of obesity between 2020 (after COVID-19 home confinement) and the previous 6 years were compared among age-specific subgroups and between sexes. RESULTS: The mean number of participants per year was 29,648. The overall mean zBMI drastically increased from 0.29 in 2019 to 0.45 in 2020, resulting in a rise of 0.16 (95% CI: 0.14-0.18); the prevalence of obesity substantially elevated to 12.77% in 2020 (versus 10.38% in 2017), with an acceleration of 2.39% (95% CI: 1.88%-2.90%). Of note, these increases were more likely to be observed in boys and those 6 to 11 years old. CONCLUSIONS: The COVID-19 pandemic seemed to exacerbate the obesity epidemic among pediatric populations in Changshu, China.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Pediatric Obesity , Adolescent , COVID-19/epidemiology , Child , China/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Health Surveys , Humans , Male , Pediatric Obesity/epidemiology , Prevalence , Prospective Studies , Schools
10.
JAMA Netw Open ; 4(9): e2125187, 2021 09 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1439653

ABSTRACT

Importance: COVID-19, caused by SARS-CoV-2 virus, has disproportionately affected Black and Hispanic communities in the US, which can be attributed to social factors including inconsistent public health messaging and suboptimal adoption of prevention efforts. Objectives: To identify behaviors and evaluate trends in COVID-19-mitigating practices in a predominantly Black and Hispanic population, to identify differences in practices by self-reported ethnicity, and to evaluate whether federal emergency financial assistance was associated with SARS-CoV-2 acquisition. Design, Setting, and Participants: This survey study was conducted by telephone from July 1 through August 30, 2020, on a random sample of adults who underwent SARS-CoV-2 testing at a safety-net health care system in Chicago during the surge in COVID-19 cases in the spring of 2020. Behaviors and receipt of a stimulus check were compared between participants testing positive and negative for SARS-CoV-2. Differences in behaviors and temporal trends were assessed by race and ethnicity. Main Outcomes and Measures: SARS-CoV-2 infection was assessed using nasopharyngeal quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction testing. Mitigating behaviors and federal emergency financial assistance were assessed by survey. Race and ethnicity data were collected from electronic health records. Results: Of 750 randomly sampled individuals, 314 (41.9%) consented to participate (169 [53.8%] women). Of those, 159 (51%) self-reported as Hispanic and 155 (49%) as non-Hispanic (120 [38.2%] Black), of whom 133 (84%) and 76 (49%) tested positive for SARS-CoV-2, respectively. For all participants, consistent mask use (public transport: adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 0.00; 95% CI, 0.00-0.34; social gatherings: aOR, 0.10; 95% CI, 0.00-0.50; running errands: aOR, 0.18; 95% CI, 0.07-0.42; at work: aOR, 0.23; 95% CI, 0.07-0.79) and hand sanitizer use (aOR, 0.26; 95% CI, 0.13-0.52) were associated with lower odds of infection. During 3 sampled weeks, mitigation practices were less frequent among Hispanic compared with non-Hispanic participants (eg, mask use while running errands: aOR, 0.26; 95% CI, 0.15-0.46). Hispanic participants were at high risk of infection (aOR, 5.52; 95% CI, 4.30-7.08) and more likely to work outside the home (aOR, 2.05; 95% CI, 1.27-3.30) compared with non-Hispanic participants, possibly because of limited receipt of stimulus checks (aOR, 0.03; 95% CI, 0.02-0.07) or unemployment benefits (aOR, 0.36; 95% CI, 0.16-0.74). Conclusions and Relevance: In this survey study of adults in a large US city, public health messaging improved preventive behaviors over time but lagged among Hispanic participants; messaging tailored to Hispanic communities, especially for mask use, should be prioritized. Hispanic individuals were at higher risk for infection, more often worked outside the home, and were less likely to have received a stimulus check; this suggests larger studies are needed to evaluate the provision of economic support on SARS-CoV-2 transmission dynamics in low-income populations.


Subject(s)
African Americans , COVID-19/prevention & control , Ethnic Groups , Health Behavior/ethnology , Hispanic Americans , Pandemics , Urban Population , Adult , COVID-19/economics , COVID-19/ethnology , Chicago/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Employment , Female , Gift Giving , Hand Sanitizers , Health Surveys , Humans , Male , Masks , Middle Aged , Odds Ratio , Physical Distancing , Prevalence , SARS-CoV-2
11.
Nutrients ; 13(10)2021 Sep 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1438682

ABSTRACT

This study aimed to investigate changes in the exercise pattern and dietary habits in adolescents during the COVID-19 pandemic. The 12-18-year-old population in the Korea Youth Risk Behavior Web-Based Survey data of 2019 and 2020 was enrolled. The exercise pattern and dietary habits of 105,600 participants (53,461 in the 2019 group and 52,139 in the 2020 group) were compared. The odds ratios (ORs) for the dietary habits and exercise pattern of the 2020 group compared to the 2019 group were analyzed using multiple logistic regression analysis with complex sampling. The odds of eating fruit, drinking soda, drinking sweet drinks, and consuming fast food were lower in the 2020 group than in the 2019 group (all p < 0.001). The odds of eating breakfast were higher in the 2020 group than in the 2019 group (all p < 0.001). The 2020 group showed lower odds of frequent vigorous and moderate aerobic exercise and higher odds of frequent anaerobic exercise than the 2019 group (all p < 0.001). During the COVID-19 pandemic, adolescents consumed less fruit, soda, and sweet drinks, while they had more breakfast. The frequency of aerobic exercise was lower, while the frequency of anaerobic exercise were higher during the COVID-19 pandemic period.


Subject(s)
Adolescent Behavior/psychology , COVID-19/psychology , Diet/methods , Exercise/psychology , Feeding Behavior/psychology , Health Surveys/methods , Adolescent , Child , Cohort Studies , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Male , Pandemics , Republic of Korea , SARS-CoV-2
12.
Rev Colomb Psiquiatr (Engl Ed) ; 50(3): 214-224, 2021.
Article in English, Spanish | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1433767

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The current SARS-CoV-2 pandemic has caused feelings of anxiety, confusion, and panic among the world population. Due to these psychological changes resulting from the stress produced by the disease, we sought to investigate the psychological impact of the pandemic on the university student community. MATERIAL AND METHODS: 1,283 students were surveyed, of which 1,149 students were selected. The majority of the subjects were female, and the overall average age was of 20 years. They were provided with an 82-question online questionnaire divided into four sections; looking for the prevalence of significant symptomatology of major depression and generalised anxiety using the PHQ-9 and GAD-7 scales; and factors that potentially affect the mental health of our university population. RESULTS: We found a high prevalence of significant depression (47.08%) and anxiety (27.06%) symptomatology, considering a score of 10 or more as cut-off point. There was no significant difference in depression and anxiety symptomatology between the health-care students and non-health-care students. CONCLUSIONS: Our results, together with what is observed in the literature, allow us to conclude that the college student population has a high risk of mental illness, and these should be taken into consideration for the search of effective strategies for detection and control of mental health illnesses. Undoubtedly, the COVID-19 pandemic is a red flag that shows the need to upgrade mental health programmes in universities and to validate virtual instruments.


Subject(s)
Anxiety/etiology , COVID-19/psychology , Depression/etiology , Students/psychology , Anxiety/diagnosis , Anxiety/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depression/diagnosis , Depression/epidemiology , Female , Health Occupations/education , Health Surveys , Humans , Logistic Models , Male , Mexico/epidemiology , Prevalence , Psychological Tests , Social Determinants of Health , Universities , Young Adult
13.
Ann Intern Med ; 174(9): 1252-1260, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1431108

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: With millions of SARS-CoV-2 infections worldwide, increasing numbers of patients are coming forward with long-term clinical effects of the disease lasting several weeks to months. OBJECTIVE: To characterize symptoms 7 to 9 months after diagnosis of COVID-19. DESIGN: Self-reported surveys and semistructured telephone interviews at enrollment and 30 to 45 days and 7 to 9 months from diagnosis. SETTING: From 18 March to 15 May 2020, symptomatic persons who tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 at the Geneva University Hospitals were followed by CoviCare, a virtual, clinical, outpatient follow-up program. Persons were contacted again at 30 to 45 days and 7 to 9 months from diagnosis. PARTICIPANTS: Persons who were a part of the CoviCare program from 18 March to 15 May 2020. MEASUREMENTS: A standardized interview of symptoms consistent with COVID-19, with grading of intensity. RESULTS: Of the 629 participants in the study who completed the baseline interviews, 410 completed follow-up at 7 to 9 months after COVID-19 diagnosis; 39.0% reported residual symptoms. Fatigue (20.7%) was the most common symptom reported, followed by loss of taste or smell (16.8%), dyspnea (11.7%), and headache (10.0%). LIMITATION: Limitations include generalizability and missing data for 34.8% of participants. CONCLUSION: Residual symptoms after SARS-CoV-2 infection are common among otherwise young and healthy persons followed in an outpatient setting. These findings contribute to the recognition of long-term effects in a disease mostly counted by its death toll to date by promoting communication on postacute sequelae of SARS-CoV-2 and encouraging physicians to continue long-term monitoring of their patients. PRIMARY FUNDING SOURCE: None.


Subject(s)
Ambulatory Care , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/diagnosis , Adolescent , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , Dyspnea/virology , Fatigue/virology , Female , Headache/virology , Health Surveys/methods , Humans , Interviews as Topic , Male , Middle Aged , Olfaction Disorders/virology , Prevalence , SARS-CoV-2 , Self Report , Telephone , Time Factors , Young Adult
14.
Nutrients ; 13(9)2021 Sep 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1430931

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Healthy eating and physical activity are effective non-pharmacological approaches to boost immune function and contain the pandemic. We aimed to explore the associations and interactions between physical activity and healthy eating behavior with COVID-19-like symptoms (Slike-CV19S). METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted on 3947 outpatients, from 14 February to 2 March 2020, at nine health facilities in Vietnam. Data collection included sociodemographic characteristics, healthy eating behavior (using the healthy eating score (HES) questionnaire), physical activity (using the short form international physical activity questionnaire), and Slike-CV19S. The associations and interactions were tested using logistic regression models. RESULTS: Frequent intake of fruits (OR = 0.84; p = 0.016), vegetables (OR = 0.72; p = 0.036), and fish (OR = 0.43; p < 0.001) were associated with a lower Slike-CV19S likelihood, as compared with infrequent intake. Patients with higher HES levels (OR = 0.84; p = 0.033 for medium HES; OR = 0.77; p = 0.006 for high HES) or being physically active (OR = 0.69; p < 0.001) had a lower Slike-CV19S likelihood, as compared to those with low HES or physical inactivity, respectively. Patients with medium HES who were physically active (OR = 0.69; p = 0.005), or with high HES and physically active (OR = 0.58; p < 0.001), had a lower Slike-CV19S likelihood, as compared to those with low HES and physical inactivity. CONCLUSIONS: Healthy eating behavior and physical activity showed single and combinative impacts on protecting people from Slike-CV19S. Strategic approaches are encouraged to improve healthy behaviors, which may further contribute to containing the pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/psychology , Diet, Healthy/statistics & numerical data , Exercise/psychology , Feeding Behavior/psychology , Health Behavior , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/therapy , Cross-Sectional Studies , Diet, Healthy/psychology , Female , Health Surveys , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Outpatients/psychology , Outpatients/statistics & numerical data , SARS-CoV-2 , Vietnam , Young Adult
15.
BMC Pregnancy Childbirth ; 21(1): 636, 2021 Sep 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1411707

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Few reports have presented an overall view of pregnant women with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) across an entire country and throughout the entire gestation period. Furthermore, no such reports are available for Japan. We examined the clinical characteristics and outcomes of pregnant women with COVID­19 on a national scale in Japan. METHODS: A nationwide questionnaire-based survey for all 2,185 maternity services in Japan was conducted between July and August 2020. Information regarding maternal characteristics and epidemiological, clinical, treatment, and perinatal outcomes of pregnant women diagnosed with COVID-19 between 16 January and 30 June 2020 were collected. Main outcome measures were incidence of pregnant women with COVID-19 and infant infection, positive rate of the universal screening test for asymptomatic pregnant women, identification of infection route and rates of maternal death, and severe cases. RESULTS: Responses from 1,418 institutions were assessed (65% of all delivery institutions in Japan). Seventy-two pregnant women were reported to have been diagnosed with COVID-19. The positive rate of the universal screening test for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) among asymptomatic pregnant women was 0.03% (2/7428). The most common route of infection was familial (57%). Fifty-eight pregnant women with COVID-19 were symptomatic, of whom five (8.6%) had a severe infection and one died (a tourist). Severe respiratory symptoms, oxygen administration, and pneumonia were frequently reported in the third trimester and postpartum period compared with in early pregnancy (22.2% vs 2.5% [P = 0.03], 38.9% vs 7.5% [P = 0.01], and 50.0% vs 7.5% [P < 0.001], respectively). All pregnant women with COVID-19 underwent caesarean sections, regardless of symptoms. There were no SARS-CoV-2 transmissions to newborns. CONCLUSIONS: In Japan, the number of cases of COVID-19 infection in pregnant women is very low. Compared with early pregnancy, late pregnancy may be a risk factor for exacerbation of symptoms and familial transmission is the most common route of infection. The importance of infection prevention should be emphasised, especially in women in late pregnancy, their families, and any cohabitants.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/diagnosis , Adult , Asymptomatic Infections , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/therapy , COVID-19/transmission , COVID-19 Testing , Female , Health Surveys , Humans , Incidence , Infant, Newborn , Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical , Japan/epidemiology , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/epidemiology , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/therapy , Pregnancy Outcome , Severity of Illness Index , Treatment Outcome
17.
PLoS One ; 16(8): e0256481, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1378136

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic might affect many aspects of the community and a range of psychiatric risk factors due to life changes, including people's behaviors and perceptions. In this study, we aim to identify specific life changes that correlate with psychological distress within the social context of the COVID-19 pandemic in Japan. In July 2020, workers (company employees and civil servants) in Japan were recruited from local institutions that had not had any confirmed COVID-19 cases as well as neighborhoods that had only a few cases. Participants completed a COVID-19 mental health survey (N = 609; 66.9% male). Psychological distress was identified based on Kessler-6 scores (≥13). Life changes were assessed by an open-ended question about life changes in participants and their family, workplace, and community due to the COVID-19 pandemic. A convergent mixed-method approach was used to compare the context of perceived life changes in participants with psychological distress and those without. As a result, 8.9% of participants had psychological distress, and sex and age categories were different between those with psychological distress and those without. Among the participants who responded to the open-ended question, the biggest life change was "staying at home," and the next biggest life changes were "event cancellations" and "increased workload" in participants with psychological distress, and "no changes" and "mask-wearing" in those without psychological distress, respectively. Regarding emotional/perceptual changes, "stress," "fear," and "anger" were more frequently reported by participants with psychological distress than those without (P <0.001). By integrating these findings, we identified themes focusing on vulnerable characteristics related to psychological distress. This study may provide a source in society for mediating psychological distress during a pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Psychological Distress , Adult , Aged , Anger , COVID-19/virology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Fear , Female , Health Surveys , Humans , Japan/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Stress, Psychological , Workplace
18.
Epidemiol Psychiatr Sci ; 30: e45, 2021 May 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1373336

ABSTRACT

AIMS: Markedly elevated adverse mental health symptoms were widely observed early in the coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. Unlike the U.S., where cross-sectional data indicate anxiety and depression symptoms have remained elevated, such symptoms reportedly declined in the U.K., according to analysis of repeated measures from a large-scale longitudinal study. However, nearly 40% of U.K. respondents (those who did not complete multiple follow-up surveys) were excluded from analysis, suggesting that survivorship bias might partially explain this discrepancy. We therefore sought to assess survivorship bias among participants in our longitudinal survey study as part of The COVID-19 Outbreak Public Evaluation (COPE) Initiative. METHODS: Survivorship bias was assessed in 4039 U.S. respondents who completed surveys including the assessment of mental health as part of The COPE Initiative in April 2020 and were invited to complete follow-up surveys. Participants completed validated screening instruments for symptoms of anxiety, depression and insomnia. Survivorship bias was assessed for (1) demographic differences in follow-up survey participation, (2) differences in initial adverse mental health symptom prevalence adjusted for demographic factors and (3) differences in follow-up survey participation based on mental health experiences adjusted for demographic factors. RESULTS: Adjusting for demographics, individuals who completed only one or two out of four surveys had significantly higher prevalence of anxiety and depression symptoms in April 2020 (e.g. one-survey v. four-survey, anxiety symptoms, adjusted prevalence ratio [aPR]: 1.30, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.08-1.55, p = 0.0045; depression symptoms, aPR: 1.43, 95% CI: 1.17-1.75, p = 0.00052). Moreover, individuals who experienced incident anxiety or depression symptoms had significantly higher adjusted odds of not completing follow-up surveys (adjusted odds ratio [aOR]: 1.68, 95% CI: 1.22-2.31, p = 0.0015, aOR: 1.56, 95% CI: 1.15-2.12, p = 0.0046, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: Our findings reveal significant survivorship bias among longitudinal survey respondents, indicating that restricting analytic samples to only respondents who provide repeated assessments in longitudinal survey studies could lead to overly optimistic interpretations of mental health trends over time. Cross-sectional or planned missing data designs may provide more accurate estimates of population-level adverse mental health symptom prevalence than longitudinal surveys.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depression/epidemiology , Health Surveys , Humans , Longitudinal Studies , Mental Health , SARS-CoV-2 , Surveys and Questionnaires , Survivorship
19.
PLoS One ; 16(8): e0254364, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1367702

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to understand how physical activity and sedentary behaviour levels of pregnant women with gestational diabetes in the UK have been affected by COVID-19. METHODS: An online survey exploring physical activity and sedentary behaviour levels of pregnant women with gestational diabetes during COVID-19 was distributed through social media platforms. Women who had been pregnant during the COVID-19 outbreak and had gestational diabetes, were resident in the UK, were 18 years old or over and could understand written English were invited to take part. RESULTS: A total of 724 women accessed the survey, 553 of these met the eligibility criteria and took part in the survey. Sedentary time increased for 79% of the women during the pandemic. Almost half of the women (47%) were meeting the physical activity guidelines pre COVID-19 during their pregnancy, this dropped to 23% during the COVID-19 pandemic. Fear of leaving the house due to COVID-19 was the most commonly reported reason for the decline. Significant associations were found between meeting the physical activity guidelines during COVID-19 and educational attainment, fitness equipment ownership and knowledge of how to exercise safely in pregnancy. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS: These results show the impact of COVID-19 on physical activity and sedentary behaviour levels and highlight the need for targeted public health initiatives as the pandemic continues and for future lockdowns. Women with gestational diabetes need to know how it is safe and beneficial to them to engage in physical activity and ways to do this from their homes if fear of leaving the house due to COVID-19 is a barrier for them. Online physical activity classes provided by certified trainers in physical activity for pregnant women may help them remain active when face-to-face appointments are reduced and limited additional resources are available.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diabetes, Gestational , Sedentary Behavior , Adult , COVID-19/psychology , Diabetes, Gestational/psychology , Exercise , Female , Health Surveys , Humans , Pregnancy , Pregnant Women/psychology , United Kingdom
20.
Microbiol Spectr ; 9(1): e0032721, 2021 09 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1361971

ABSTRACT

In the absence of genome sequencing, two positive molecular tests for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) separated by negative tests, prolonged time, and symptom resolution remain the best surrogate measure of possible reinfection. Using a large electronic health record database, we characterized clinical and testing data for 23 patients with repeatedly positive SARS-CoV-2 PCR test results ≥60 days apart, separated by ≥2 consecutive negative test results. The prevalence of chronic medical conditions, symptoms, and severe outcomes related to coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19) illness were ascertained. The median age of patients was 64.5 years, 40% were Black, and 39% were female. A total of 83% smoked within the prior year, 61% were overweight/obese, 83% had immunocompromising conditions, and 96% had ≥2 comorbidities. The median interval between the two positive tests was 77 days. Among the 19 patients with 60 to 89 days between positive tests, 17 (89%) exhibited symptoms or clinical manifestations consistent with COVID-19 at the time of the second positive test and 14 (74%) were hospitalized at the second positive test. Of the four patients with ≥90 days between two positive tests (patient 2 [PT2], PT8, PT14, and PT19), two had mild or no symptoms at the second positive test and one, an immunocompromised patient, had a brief hospitalization at the first diagnosis, followed by intensive care unit (ICU) admission at the second diagnosis 3 months later. Our study demonstrated a high prevalence of compromised immune systems, comorbidities, obesity, and smoking among patients with repeatedly positive SARS-CoV-2 tests. Despite limitations, including a lack of semiquantitative estimates of viral load, these data may help prioritize suspected cases of reinfection for investigation and continued surveillance. IMPORTANCE The comprehensive characterization of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) testing and clinical data for patients with repeatedly positive SARS-CoV-2 tests can help prioritize suspected cases of reinfection for investigation in the absence of genome sequencing data and for continued surveillance of the potential long-term health consequences of SARS-CoV-2 infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Testing , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , Electronic Health Records , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Adult , Aged , Comorbidity , Databases, Factual , Female , Health Surveys , Humans , Immune System , Male , Middle Aged , Obesity , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Risk Factors , Smoking , Viral Load
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