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1.
Am J Public Health ; 111(12): 2167-2175, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1760043

ABSTRACT

High-quality data are accurate, relevant, and timely. Large national health surveys have always balanced the implementation of these quality dimensions to meet the needs of diverse users. The COVID-19 pandemic shifted these balances, with both disrupted survey operations and a critical need for relevant and timely health data for decision-making. The National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) responded to these challenges with several operational changes to continue production in 2020. However, data files from the 2020 NHIS were not expected to be publicly available until fall 2021. To fill the gap, the National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS) turned to 2 online data collection platforms-the Census Bureau's Household Pulse Survey (HPS) and the NCHS Research and Development Survey (RANDS)-to collect COVID-19‒related data more quickly. This article describes the adaptations of NHIS and the use of HPS and RANDS during the pandemic in the context of the recently released Framework for Data Quality from the Federal Committee on Statistical Methodology. (Am J Public Health. 2021;111(12):2167-2175. https://doi.org/10.2105/AJPH.2021.306516).


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Health Surveys/methods , Internet , National Center for Health Statistics, U.S./organization & administration , Bias , Cross-Sectional Studies , Data Collection/methods , Data Collection/standards , Health Surveys/standards , Humans , Interviews as Topic , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Telephone , United States/epidemiology
2.
Nutrients ; 14(1)2021 Dec 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1580551

ABSTRACT

Prevailing prevention measures against morbidity, such as vaccination and safe hygiene practices, vary among local cultural contexts, and little is known about the extent to which these behaviors mitigate poor nutritional status in young children in Southeast Asia. We examined the associations between nutrition status with full immunization coverage, and water, sanitation and hygiene status among children aged 12-59 months in the 2015-2016 Thailand Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey (n = 9060). When adjusted for confounding factors, children with incomplete immunization status were more likely to be stunted (adjusted odds ratio (aOR) 1.47; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.24-1.75, p < 0.001), wasted (aOR 1.67, 95% CI: 1.31-2.12, p < 0.001), and overweight (aOR 1.24, 95% CI: 1.01-1.51, p < 0.05), whereas children who used unimproved water sources were more likely to be overweight (aOR 2.43, 95% CI: 1.27-4.64, p < 0.01). The further implementation of simple and cost-effective health promotion activities and practices at the household level may be important interventions for healthy child growth and development, particularly under restricted living conditions due to COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Health Surveys/methods , Health Surveys/statistics & numerical data , Hygiene , Nutritional Status , Vaccination Coverage/statistics & numerical data , Child, Preschool , Cluster Analysis , Female , Humans , Infant , Male , Socioeconomic Factors , Thailand
3.
Biomedica ; 41(Sp. 2): 48-61, 2021 10 15.
Article in English, Spanish | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1478423

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The studies on knowledge, attitudes, and practices (KAP) regarding COVID-19 help to identify erroneous concepts and inadequate practices related to the disease. This baseline information is essential to design effective strategies and improve adherence to prevention measures. OBJECTIVE: To identify the COVID-19-related KAP in Venezuelan patients screened at the Hospital Universitario de Caracas triage tent. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional study among 215 patients between April 25th and May 25th, 2020, with in-person interviews using a KAP survey. RESULTS: Most surveyed patients (53.5%) were asymptomatic. Most of them, both from the symptomatic and the asymptomatic groups, had adequate knowledge about the symptoms and transmission of the disease and the majority said they were practicing quarantine, frequent handwashing, and the use of face masks in public areas. However, the daily replacement of cloth face masks was more frequent in the asymptomatic group whereas replacement every three days was more frequent in the symptomatic group. Finally, more than half of the participants admitted having been in crowded places, a common practice among the symptomatic compared to the asymptomatic patients. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first KAP study in Venezuela about COVID-19. Knowledge and practices among Venezuelans could be improved by strengthening education and training programs. This information from the early phase of the pandemic in Venezuela may contribute to the design of COVID-19 promotion and prevention strategies.


Introducción: Los estudios sobre conocimientos, actitudes y prácticas (CAP) sobre COVID-19 ayudan a identificar conceptos erróneos y prácticas inadecuadas relacionadas con la enfermedad. Esta información de referencia es fundamental para diseñar estrategias efectivas y mejorar la adherencia a las medidas de prevención. Objetivo: Identificar la CAP relacionada con COVID-19 en pacientes venezolanos cribados en la carpa de triaje del Hospital Universitario de Caracas. Materiales y métodos: Realizamos un estudio transversal entre 215 pacientes entre el 25 de abril y el 25 de mayo de 2020, con entrevistas en persona utilizando una encuesta KAP. Resultados: La mayoría de los pacientes encuestados (53,5%) se encontraban asintomáticos. La mayoría de ellos, tanto del grupo sintomático como asintomático, tenían un conocimiento adecuado sobre los síntomas y la transmisión de la enfermedad y la mayoría dijo que practicaban la cuarentena, el lavado frecuente de manos y el uso de mascarillas en las áreas públicas. Sin embargo, el reemplazo diario de mascarillas de tela fue más frecuente en el grupo asintomático, mientras que el reemplazo cada tres días fue más frecuente en el grupo sintomático. Finalmente, más de la mitad de los participantes admitieron haber estado en lugares concurridos, una práctica común entre los sintomáticos en comparación con los asintomáticos. Conclusiones: Este es el primer estudio CAP en Venezuela sobre COVID-19. El conocimiento y las prácticas entre los venezolanos podrían mejorarse fortaleciendo los programas de educación y capacitación. Esta información de la fase inicial de la pandemia en Venezuela puede contribuir al diseño de estrategias de promoción y prevención del COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/transmission , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Adult , Asymptomatic Infections/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Crowding , Female , Hand Disinfection , Health Surveys/methods , Health Surveys/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Male , Masks/statistics & numerical data , Physical Distancing , Symptom Assessment , Triage , Venezuela/epidemiology
4.
Nutrients ; 13(10)2021 Sep 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1438682

ABSTRACT

This study aimed to investigate changes in the exercise pattern and dietary habits in adolescents during the COVID-19 pandemic. The 12-18-year-old population in the Korea Youth Risk Behavior Web-Based Survey data of 2019 and 2020 was enrolled. The exercise pattern and dietary habits of 105,600 participants (53,461 in the 2019 group and 52,139 in the 2020 group) were compared. The odds ratios (ORs) for the dietary habits and exercise pattern of the 2020 group compared to the 2019 group were analyzed using multiple logistic regression analysis with complex sampling. The odds of eating fruit, drinking soda, drinking sweet drinks, and consuming fast food were lower in the 2020 group than in the 2019 group (all p < 0.001). The odds of eating breakfast were higher in the 2020 group than in the 2019 group (all p < 0.001). The 2020 group showed lower odds of frequent vigorous and moderate aerobic exercise and higher odds of frequent anaerobic exercise than the 2019 group (all p < 0.001). During the COVID-19 pandemic, adolescents consumed less fruit, soda, and sweet drinks, while they had more breakfast. The frequency of aerobic exercise was lower, while the frequency of anaerobic exercise were higher during the COVID-19 pandemic period.


Subject(s)
Adolescent Behavior/psychology , COVID-19/psychology , Diet/methods , Exercise/psychology , Feeding Behavior/psychology , Health Surveys/methods , Adolescent , Child , Cohort Studies , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Male , Pandemics , Republic of Korea , SARS-CoV-2
5.
Ann Intern Med ; 174(9): 1252-1260, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1431108

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: With millions of SARS-CoV-2 infections worldwide, increasing numbers of patients are coming forward with long-term clinical effects of the disease lasting several weeks to months. OBJECTIVE: To characterize symptoms 7 to 9 months after diagnosis of COVID-19. DESIGN: Self-reported surveys and semistructured telephone interviews at enrollment and 30 to 45 days and 7 to 9 months from diagnosis. SETTING: From 18 March to 15 May 2020, symptomatic persons who tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 at the Geneva University Hospitals were followed by CoviCare, a virtual, clinical, outpatient follow-up program. Persons were contacted again at 30 to 45 days and 7 to 9 months from diagnosis. PARTICIPANTS: Persons who were a part of the CoviCare program from 18 March to 15 May 2020. MEASUREMENTS: A standardized interview of symptoms consistent with COVID-19, with grading of intensity. RESULTS: Of the 629 participants in the study who completed the baseline interviews, 410 completed follow-up at 7 to 9 months after COVID-19 diagnosis; 39.0% reported residual symptoms. Fatigue (20.7%) was the most common symptom reported, followed by loss of taste or smell (16.8%), dyspnea (11.7%), and headache (10.0%). LIMITATION: Limitations include generalizability and missing data for 34.8% of participants. CONCLUSION: Residual symptoms after SARS-CoV-2 infection are common among otherwise young and healthy persons followed in an outpatient setting. These findings contribute to the recognition of long-term effects in a disease mostly counted by its death toll to date by promoting communication on postacute sequelae of SARS-CoV-2 and encouraging physicians to continue long-term monitoring of their patients. PRIMARY FUNDING SOURCE: None.


Subject(s)
Ambulatory Care , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/diagnosis , Adolescent , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , Dyspnea/virology , Fatigue/virology , Female , Headache/virology , Health Surveys/methods , Humans , Interviews as Topic , Male , Middle Aged , Olfaction Disorders/virology , Prevalence , SARS-CoV-2 , Self Report , Telephone , Time Factors , Young Adult
6.
Biomedica ; 41(Sp. 2): 48-61, 2021 10 15.
Article in English, Spanish | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1337812

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The studies on knowledge, attitudes, and practices (KAP) regarding COVID-19 help to identify erroneous concepts and inadequate practices related to the disease. This baseline information is essential to design effective strategies and improve adherence to prevention measures. OBJECTIVE: To identify the COVID-19-related KAP in Venezuelan patients screened at the Hospital Universitario de Caracas triage tent. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional study among 215 patients between April 25th and May 25th, 2020, with in-person interviews using a KAP survey. RESULTS: Most surveyed patients (53.5%) were asymptomatic. Most of them, both from the symptomatic and the asymptomatic groups, had adequate knowledge about the symptoms and transmission of the disease and the majority said they were practicing quarantine, frequent handwashing, and the use of face masks in public areas. However, the daily replacement of cloth face masks was more frequent in the asymptomatic group whereas replacement every three days was more frequent in the symptomatic group. Finally, more than half of the participants admitted having been in crowded places, a common practice among the symptomatic compared to the asymptomatic patients. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first KAP study in Venezuela about COVID-19. Knowledge and practices among Venezuelans could be improved by strengthening education and training programs. This information from the early phase of the pandemic in Venezuela may contribute to the design of COVID-19 promotion and prevention strategies.


Introducción: Los estudios sobre conocimientos, actitudes y prácticas (CAP) sobre COVID-19 ayudan a identificar conceptos erróneos y prácticas inadecuadas relacionadas con la enfermedad. Esta información de referencia es fundamental para diseñar estrategias efectivas y mejorar la adherencia a las medidas de prevención. Objetivo: Identificar la CAP relacionada con COVID-19 en pacientes venezolanos cribados en la carpa de triaje del Hospital Universitario de Caracas. Materiales y métodos: Realizamos un estudio transversal entre 215 pacientes entre el 25 de abril y el 25 de mayo de 2020, con entrevistas en persona utilizando una encuesta KAP. Resultados: La mayoría de los pacientes encuestados (53,5%) se encontraban asintomáticos. La mayoría de ellos, tanto del grupo sintomático como asintomático, tenían un conocimiento adecuado sobre los síntomas y la transmisión de la enfermedad y la mayoría dijo que practicaban la cuarentena, el lavado frecuente de manos y el uso de mascarillas en las áreas públicas. Sin embargo, el reemplazo diario de mascarillas de tela fue más frecuente en el grupo asintomático, mientras que el reemplazo cada tres días fue más frecuente en el grupo sintomático. Finalmente, más de la mitad de los participantes admitieron haber estado en lugares concurridos, una práctica común entre los sintomáticos en comparación con los asintomáticos. Conclusiones: Este es el primer estudio CAP en Venezuela sobre COVID-19. El conocimiento y las prácticas entre los venezolanos podrían mejorarse fortaleciendo los programas de educación y capacitación. Esta información de la fase inicial de la pandemia en Venezuela puede contribuir al diseño de estrategias de promoción y prevención del COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/transmission , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Adult , Asymptomatic Infections/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Crowding , Female , Hand Disinfection , Health Surveys/methods , Health Surveys/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Male , Masks/statistics & numerical data , Physical Distancing , Symptom Assessment , Triage , Venezuela/epidemiology
7.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 118(31)2021 08 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1327244

ABSTRACT

There are multiple sources of data giving information about the number of SARS-CoV-2 infections in the population, but all have major drawbacks, including biases and delayed reporting. For example, the number of confirmed cases largely underestimates the number of infections, and deaths lag infections substantially, while test positivity rates tend to greatly overestimate prevalence. Representative random prevalence surveys, the only putatively unbiased source, are sparse in time and space, and the results can come with big delays. Reliable estimates of population prevalence are necessary for understanding the spread of the virus and the effectiveness of mitigation strategies. We develop a simple Bayesian framework to estimate viral prevalence by combining several of the main available data sources. It is based on a discrete-time Susceptible-Infected-Removed (SIR) model with time-varying reproductive parameter. Our model includes likelihood components that incorporate data on deaths due to the virus, confirmed cases, and the number of tests administered on each day. We anchor our inference with data from random-sample testing surveys in Indiana and Ohio. We use the results from these two states to calibrate the model on positive test counts and proceed to estimate the infection fatality rate and the number of new infections on each day in each state in the United States. We estimate the extent to which reported COVID cases have underestimated true infection counts, which was large, especially in the first months of the pandemic. We explore the implications of our results for progress toward herd immunity.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Health Surveys/methods , Basic Reproduction Number , Bayes Theorem , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/transmission , Health Surveys/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Immunity, Herd , Incidence , Models, Statistical , Mortality , Prevalence , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , United States/epidemiology
8.
J Intellect Disabil Res ; 65(10): 890-897, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1295063

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: People with an intellectual impairment experience high levels of social and health inequalities. We investigated the impact of COVID-19 on the physical and mental health of people with intellectual impairment, controlling for demographic risk, socio-economic circumstances and pre-pandemic health levels. METHOD: Data were drawn from two UK birth cohorts that surveyed their participants on the impact of COVID-19 in May 2020: the Millennium Cohort Study (20-year-old participants) and the British Cohort Survey (50-year-old participants). Health outcomes (COVID-19 infection, COVID-19 symptoms, self-reported physical health, mental health, health service use and impact on health behaviours) were compared between people with and without intellectual impairment, adjusting for gender and ethnicity. Differences were further adjusted for self-reported health pre-pandemic and the impact of COVID-19 on socio-economic circumstances. RESULTS: Controlling for gender and ethnicity, poor health was reported less often by younger adults [relative risks (RR): 0.44 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.23, 0.86] and more often by older adults (RR: 1.99 95% CI 1.45, 2.73) with intellectual impairment compared with peers. Older adults were also more likely to experience fever and loss of taste/smell. Adjusting for pre-pandemic health and socio-economic circumstances eliminated some differences in the older cohort, but not in the younger one. CONCLUSION: In young adulthood, the impact of COVID-19 on health outcomes was not negative. The pattern was reversed in later adulthood, although differences were mostly eliminated after adjustment suggesting a socio-economic and age gradient of COVID-19 impacts on intellectual impairment.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Health Status , Health Surveys/statistics & numerical data , Intellectual Disability/complications , Adult , Age Factors , Cohort Studies , Female , Health Surveys/methods , Humans , Longitudinal Studies , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , United Kingdom , Young Adult
9.
Int J Methods Psychiatr Res ; 30(3): e1885, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1293275

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: A small country in the Arabian Peninsula, Qatar experienced rapid economic growth in the last 3 decades accompanied by major socio-demographic shifts towards a younger and more highly educated population. To date, no national epidemiological study has examined the prevalence, associated factors, or sequelae of mental disorders in Qatar's general population. METHODS: The World Mental Health Qatar (WMHQ) is a national mental health needs assessment survey and is the first carried out in collaboration with the World Mental Health Survey initiative to assess the prevalence and burden of psychiatric illnesses among the full Arabic speaking population (nationals and non-nationals) within the same country. RESULTS: Standard translation and harmonization procedures were used to develop the WMHQ instrument. A survey quality control system with standard performance indicators was developed to ensure interviewer adherence to standard practices. A pilot study was then carried out just prior to the COVID-19 pandemic. Endorsement from public health authorities and sequential revision of the interview schedule led to full survey completion (as opposed to partial completion) and good overall response rate. CONCLUSIONS: The WMHQ survey will provide timely and actionable information based on quality enhancement procedures put in place during the development and piloting of the study.


Subject(s)
Health Surveys/methods , Mental Disorders/epidemiology , Adult , Developing Countries/statistics & numerical data , Female , Humans , Interviews as Topic , Male , Mental Disorders/etiology , Pilot Projects , Prevalence , Qatar/epidemiology , Risk Factors
10.
Adv Rheumatol ; 61(1): 41, 2021 06 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1286851

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: During the COVID-19 pandemic, individuals faced psychological stress caused by fear and anxiety due to the high transmission and mortality rate of the disease, the social isolation, economic problems, and difficulties in reaching health services. Fibromyalgia (FM) is a chronic centralized pain sensitivity disorder. Psychological, physical and/or autoimmune stressors were found to increase FM symptoms. This pilot study aimed to evaluate the COVID-19 fear and anxiety level, and to examine their effect on disease severity, sleep quality, and mood in FM patients compared to control group. METHODS: This pilot study conducted as a cross-sectional study, and included 62 participants. Participants were divided into two groups: FM patient group (n = 31) and control group (n = 31). Symptom severity, sleep quality, and mood were determined using the Revised Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire (FIQR), Pitsburg Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), and Hospital Anxiety Depression Scale (HADS), respectively. In order to evaluate the level of COVID-19 fear and anxiety, the Fear of COVID-19 Scale (FCV-19S) and Coronavirus Anxiety Scale (CAS) were used compared to control group. RESULTS: FIQR, PSQI, HAD-A, HAD-D, FCV-19S and CAS scores were significantly higher in the FM group (p = 0.01). A positive significant correlation was found between FCV-19S and CAS results and FIQR, PSQI, and HAD-anx results in FM patients (p < 0.05). CONCLUSION: This pilot study showed that, the individuals with FM can be more affected by psychological stress, and this situation negatively affects the symptom severity, sleep quality, and mood in FM patients, so these patients should be closely monitored in terms of psychological stressors and their effects during pandemics. More studies with more participants are necessary to describe the challenges lived by fibromyalgia population.


Subject(s)
Affect , Anxiety/diagnosis , COVID-19/psychology , Fear , Fibromyalgia/psychology , Sleep , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/transmission , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Health Surveys/methods , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pilot Projects , Severity of Illness Index , Socioeconomic Factors
11.
J UOEH ; 43(2): 217-225, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1257104

ABSTRACT

The ever-changing social implications of the COVID-19 pandemic have resulted in an urgent need to understand the working environments and health status of workers. We conducted a nationwide Internet-based health survey of Japanese workers in December 2020, in the midst the country's "third wave" of COVID-19 infection. Of 33,087 surveys collected, 6,051 were determined to have invalid responses. The 27,036 surveys included in the study were balanced in terms of geographical area, sex of participants, and type of work, according to the sampling plan. Men were more likely than women to have telecommuted, while women were more likely to have resigned since April 2020. Forty percent and 9.1% of respondents had a K6 score of 5 or higher and 13 or higher, respectively, and they did not exhibit extremely poor health. The present study describes the protocol used to conduct an Internet-based health survey of workers and a summary of its results during a period when COVID-19 was spreading rapidly in Japan. In the future, we plan to use this survey to examine the impact of COVID-19 on workers' work styles and health.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Health Status , Health Surveys/methods , Internet , Occupational Health , Teleworking/statistics & numerical data , Adult , Female , Humans , Japan , Male , Middle Aged , Prospective Studies , Sex Factors , Time Factors
12.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 8139, 2021 04 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1185445

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic and its social and economic consequences have had adverse impacts on physical and mental health worldwide and exposed all segments of the population to protracted uncertainty and daily disruptions. The CoRonavIruS health and Impact Survey (CRISIS) was developed for use as an easy to implement and robust questionnaire covering key domains relevant to mental distress and resilience during the pandemic. Ongoing studies using CRISIS include international studies of COVID-related ill health conducted during different phases of the pandemic and follow-up studies of cohorts characterized before the COVID pandemic. In the current work, we demonstrate the feasibility, psychometric structure, and construct validity of this survey. We then show that pre-existing mood states, perceived COVID risk, and lifestyle changes are strongly associated with negative mood states during the pandemic in population samples of adults and in parents reporting on their children in the US and UK. These findings are highly reproducible and we find a high degree of consistency in the power of these factors to predict mental health during the pandemic.


Subject(s)
Affect , COVID-19/psychology , Forecasting/methods , Health Surveys/methods , Mental Health/trends , Adolescent , Adult , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Humans , Life Style , Male , Middle Aged , United Kingdom , United States , Young Adult
13.
J Med Internet Res ; 23(4): e24577, 2021 04 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1158313

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: eHealth literacy can potentially facilitate web-based information seeking and taking informed measures. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to evaluate socioeconomic disparities in eHealth literacy and seeking of web-based information on COVID-19, and their associations with COVID-19 preventive behaviors. METHODS: The COVID-19 Health Information Survey (CoVHIns), using telephonic (n=500) and web-based surveys (n=1001), was conducted among adults in Hong Kong in April 2020. The Chinese eHealth literacy scale (eHEALS; score range 8-40) was used to measure eHealth literacy. COVID-19 preventive behaviors included wearing surgical masks, wearing fabric masks, washing hands, social distancing, and adding water or bleach to the household drainage system. Adjusted beta coefficients and the slope indices of inequality for the eHEALS score by socioeconomic status, adjusted odds ratios (aORs) for seeking of web-based information on COVID-19 by socioeconomic status, and aORs for the high adherence to preventive behaviors by the eHEALS score and seeking of web-based information on COVID-19 were calculated. RESULTS: The mean eHEALS score was 26.10 (SD 7.70). Age was inversely associated with the eHEALS score, but education and personal income were positively associated with the eHEALS score and seeking of web-based information on COVID-19 (for all, P for trend<.05). Participants who sought web-based information on COVID-19 showed high adherence to the practice of wearing surgical masks (aOR 1.56, 95% CI 1.15-2.13), washing hands (aOR 1.33, 95% CI 1.05-1.71), social distancing (aOR 1.48, 95% CI 1.14-1.93), and adding water or bleach to the household drainage system (aOR 1.67, 95% CI 1.28-2.18). Those with the highest eHEALS score displayed high adherence to the practice of wearing surgical masks (aOR 3.84, 95% CI 1.63-9.05), washing hands (aOR 4.14, 95% CI 2.46-6.96), social distancing (aOR 2.25, 95% CI 1.39-3.65), and adding water or bleach to the household drainage system (aOR 1.94, 95% CI 1.19-3.16), compared to those with the lowest eHEALS score. CONCLUSIONS: Chinese adults with a higher socioeconomic status had higher eHealth literacy and sought more web-based information on COVID-19; both these factors were associated with a high adherence to the guidelines for preventive behaviors during the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Health Literacy/methods , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Telemedicine/methods , Adult , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Health Surveys/methods , Hong Kong/epidemiology , Humans , Male , Pandemics , Socioeconomic Factors
14.
Ann Ig ; 33(6): 533-542, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1076848

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: To date, it is unknown how many Italians have had or have a mild SARS-CoV-2 infection, because of the lack of epidemiological studies involving the general population. STUDY DESIGN: Aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence/incidence of a symptoms-based mild SARS-CoV-2 infection in southern Tuscany, by using an online survey. METHODS: An anonymous random middle-aged sample of 3,460 individuals completed the survey. A symptom-score ≥5, calculated on 195 patients with RT-PCR COVID-19 disease (sensitivity/specificity of 0.815/0.780 respectively) was used for the diagnosis. RESULTS: This cut-off highlighted that 12.3% of all the population might have had a SARS-CoV-2 infection, while 3.9% of them might have it at the time of the survey. Female sex (OR=1.334 [1.029-1.728]; p=0.030), obesity status (OR=1.961 [1.304-2.949]; p=0.001), asthma (OR=2.035 [1.433-2.890]; p=0.0001), autoim-mune diseases (OR=2.103 [1.381-3.201]; p=0.001), were all risk factors for showing mild SARS-CoV-2 infection. Instead, the elderly had a low probability to develop mild forms of the disease (OR=0.984 [0.975-0.994]; p=0.001). CONCLUSION: A remarkable number of subjects in Southern Tuscany may have already had a mild SARS-CoV-2 infection. Symptoms scores might be used to screen subjects with a suspected infection. Female sex, obesity, asthma, autoimmune diseases may be factors linked with mild forms of COVID-19 disease.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , Public Health , Symptom Assessment/statistics & numerical data , Age Factors , Asthma/complications , Autoimmune Diseases/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , Female , Health Surveys/methods , Health Surveys/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Incidence , Italy/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Obesity/complications , Prevalence , Risk Factors , Sensitivity and Specificity , Sex Factors
15.
Transl Psychiatry ; 11(1): 28, 2021 01 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1065848

ABSTRACT

The integration of technology in clinical care is growing rapidly and has become especially relevant during the global COVID-19 pandemic. Smartphone-based digital phenotyping, or the use of integrated sensors to identify patterns in behavior and symptomatology, has shown potential in detecting subtle moment-to-moment changes. These changes, often referred to as anomalies, represent significant deviations from an individual's baseline, may be useful in informing the risk of relapse in serious mental illness. Our investigation of smartphone-based anomaly detection resulted in 89% sensitivity and 75% specificity for predicting relapse in schizophrenia. These results demonstrate the potential of longitudinal collection of real-time behavior and symptomatology via smartphones and the clinical utility of individualized analysis. Future studies are necessary to explore how specificity can be improved, just-in-time adaptive interventions utilized, and clinical integration achieved.


Subject(s)
Health Surveys/methods , Schizophrenia/diagnosis , Telemedicine/methods , Accelerometry/methods , Accelerometry/psychology , Adult , Boston , Ecological Momentary Assessment/statistics & numerical data , Female , Humans , Longitudinal Studies , Male , Mobile Applications , Movement , Phenotype , Recurrence , Reproducibility of Results , Risk Assessment , Schizophrenia/physiopathology , Screen Time , Sensitivity and Specificity , Sleep , Smartphone , Social Behavior
17.
BMJ Open ; 11(1): e042871, 2021 01 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1027130

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: In the first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic, social isolation, school/child care closures and employment instability have created unprecedented conditions for families raising children at home. This study describes the mental health impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic on families with children in Canada. DESIGN, SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: This descriptive study used a nationally representative, cross-sectional survey of adults living in Canada (n=3000) to examine the mental health impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic. Outcomes among parents with children <18 years old living at home (n=618) were compared with the rest of the sample. Data were collected via an online survey between 14 May to 29 May 2020. OUTCOME MEASURES: Participants reported on changes to their mental health since the onset of the pandemic and sources of stress, emotional responses, substance use patterns and suicidality/self-harm. Additionally, parents identified changes in their interactions with their children, impacts on their children's mental health and sources of support accessed. RESULTS: 44.3% of parents with children <18 years living at home reported worse mental health as a result of the COVID-19 pandemic compared with 35.6% of respondents without children <18 living at home, χ2 (1, n=3000)=16.2, p<0.001. More parents compared with the rest of the sample reported increased alcohol consumption (27.7% vs 16.1%, χ2 (1, n=3000)=43.8, p<0.001), suicidal thoughts/feelings (8.3% vs 5.2%, χ2 (1, n=3000)=8.0, p=0.005) and stress about being safe from physical/emotional domestic violence (11.5% vs 7.9%, χ2 (1, n=3000)=8.1, p=0.005). 24.8% (95% CI 21.4 to 28.4) of parents reported their children's mental health had worsened since the pandemic. Parents also reported more frequent negative as well as positive interactions with their children due to the pandemic (eg, more conflicts, 22.2% (95% CI 19.0 to 25.7); increased feelings of closeness, 49.7% (95% CI 45.7 to 53.7)). CONCLUSIONS: This study identifies that families with children <18 at home have experienced deteriorated mental health due to the pandemic. Population-level responses are required to adequately respond to families' diverse needs and mitigate the potential for widening health and social inequities for parents and children.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/psychology , Family Health/statistics & numerical data , Health Surveys/statistics & numerical data , Mental Disorders/epidemiology , Mental Disorders/psychology , Adolescent , Adult , Canada/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Health Surveys/methods , Humans , Longitudinal Studies , Male , Middle Aged , Quarantine/psychology , SARS-CoV-2 , Social Isolation/psychology , Stress, Psychological/epidemiology , Stress, Psychological/psychology , Young Adult
18.
In Vivo ; 35(1): 663-670, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1011860

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic has changed the organisation of medical care. PATIENTS AND METHODS: This is the first prospective observational study on patient-reported outcomes, quality of life (HRQOL) and satisfaction in patients with cancer with their care management in a day hospital during the period of May-June 2020. The Generalised Anxiety Disorder Screener and 12-Item Short-Form Health Survey were used. RESULTS: The survey was completed by 189 of 267 patients. They were generally aged 61 to 70 years and women and presented with lung, breast, or colorectal cancer. Patients had low anxiety scores (mean: 3.2±4.5), with only 11.1% showing anxiety. Risk factors of anxiety included female gender (p=0.03) and lifestyle (residence, family environment) (p=0.01). The patient's physical health was stable, whereas mental health had deteriorated (p<0.0001). Risk factors of altered HRQOL included age and lifestyle. Patients greatly appreciated all the facilities of the day hospital and its organisation. CONCLUSION: This study shows a preserved HRQOL and low anxiety of patients with cancer during the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Health Surveys/statistics & numerical data , Neoplasms/psychology , Neoplasms/therapy , Quality of Life/psychology , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Anxiety/psychology , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Health Surveys/methods , Humans , Male , Medical Oncology/methods , Medical Oncology/statistics & numerical data , Middle Aged , Neoplasms/classification , Pandemics , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/physiology
19.
Paediatr Anaesth ; 31(3): 268-274, 2021 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-991653

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The global coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic caused state-wide shutdowns of elective surgical activities in March and April of 2020 forcing graduate medical education program directors and their trainees in the United States to quickly adapt to new rules and circumstances. AIM: The aim of this study was to determine the effect of the current pandemic on pediatric anesthesiology fellow education and wellness nationally in order to guide creation of optimal support systems for fellows during the ongoing pandemic. METHODS: In July 2020, an electronically distributed survey was sent to all United States-based pediatric anesthesiology fellowship program directors who were asked to distribute the survey to all current/graduating fellows. RESULTS: A total of 75 out of 184 pediatric anesthesiology fellows (41%) responded to the survey. Major domains identified include reduction of clinical time, financial impact, mental health/wellness effects, and concerns about the overall quality of the fellowship educational experience. Respondents indicated that the pandemic has led to personal quarantine (and/or illness) leave time (21.3%), changes in finances (42.7%) and career opportunities (37.3%), decreased clinical education/experience (28%), and a dissatisfaction with the modified didactic experience (22.7%). In addition, a majority of respondents (97.3%) experienced increased stressors during this pandemic, including worry for family members (80%), stress due to changes in certifying examinations (76%), and fear of contracting COVID-19 from a patient (72%). CONCLUSION: While the results of this survey are only one snapshot in time during an evolving pandemic, these results highlight important domains where program directors and other departmental leaders might focus limited resources to maximize the educational experiences and overall wellness for pediatric anesthesiology fellows.


Subject(s)
Anesthesiology/education , COVID-19/prevention & control , Fellowships and Scholarships/methods , Health Status , Mental Health , Pediatrics/education , Education, Medical, Graduate/methods , Health Surveys/methods , Health Surveys/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , United States
20.
Am Heart J ; 232: 84-93, 2021 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-893407

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Tailored Antiplatelet Initiation to Lessen Outcomes Due to Decreased Clopidogrel Response after Percutaneous Coronary Intervention (TAILOR-PCI) is the largest cardiovascular genotype-based randomized pragmatic trial (NCT#01742117) to evaluate the role of genotype-guided selection of oral P2Y12 inhibitor therapy in improving ischemic outcomes after PCI. The trial has been extended from the original 12- to 24-month follow-up, using study coordinator-initiated telephone visits. TAILOR-PCI Digital Study tests the feasibility of extending the trial follow-up in a subset of patients for up to 24 months using state-of-the-art digital solutions. The rationale, design, and approach of extended digital study of patients recruited into a large, international, multi-center clinical trial has not been previously described. METHODS: A total of 930 patients from U.S. and Canadian sites previously enrolled in the 5,302 patient TAILOR-PCI trial within 23 months of randomization are invited by mail to the Digital Study website (http://tailorpci.eurekaplatform.org) and by up to 2 recruiting telephone calls. Eureka, a direct-to-participant digital research platform, is used to consent and collect prospective data on patients for the digital study. Patients are asked to answer health-related surveys at fixed intervals using the Eureka mobile app and or desktop platform. The likelihood of patients enrolled in a randomized clinical trial transitioning to a registry using digital technology, the reasons for nonparticipation and engagement rates are evaluated. To capture hospitalizations, patients may optionally enable geofencing, a process that allows background location tracking and triggering of surveys if a hospital visit greater than 4 hours is detected. In addition, patients answer digital hospitalization surveys every month. Hospitalization data received from the Digital Study will be compared to data collected from study coordinator telephone visits during the same time frame. CONCLUSIONS: The TAILOR-PCI Digital Study evaluates the feasibility of transitioning a large multicenter randomized clinical trial to a digital registry. The study could provide evidence for the ability of digital technology to follow clinical trial patients and to ascertain trial-related events thus also building the foundation for conducting digital clinical trials. Such a digital approach may be especially pertinent in the era of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Internet-Based Intervention , Multicenter Studies as Topic , Patient Generated Health Data , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , Registries , COVID-19/epidemiology , Clopidogrel/therapeutic use , Continuity of Patient Care , Feasibility Studies , Follow-Up Studies , Genotype , Geographic Information Systems , Health Surveys/methods , Humans , Ischemia/drug therapy , Mobile Applications , Patient Compliance , Patient Participation , Percutaneous Coronary Intervention , Postoperative Complications/drug therapy , Pragmatic Clinical Trials as Topic , Purinergic P2Y Receptor Antagonists/therapeutic use , Research Design , SARS-CoV-2 , Telephone
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