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1.
Cien Saude Colet ; 26(5): 1873-1884, 2021 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20242970

ABSTRACT

The objective of this research was to analyse federal government interventions in crisis management and the consequences for health professionals. This is a documentary-type qualitative research. Brazilian Federal regulations referring to work and health education produced during the pandemic emergency of COVID-19, published from January 28 to June 2, 2020, were identified. Of the total of 845 documents, 62 were selected in accordance with the inclusion criteria and were then submitted to Thematic Content Analysis. The results and discussions were grouped into four categories:workforce management, workforce protection, workforce training and academic-workforce relationship. Absence of a federal coordinating actions and policies for desinformation were identified. This lacking mechanisms for coordination contributed decisively to the tragic epidemiological situation still underway, especially in terms of the exposure of health workers to the risk of contamination, revealed in the extremely high rates of professionals infected or killed by COVID-19 in Brazil and the failure to control the pandemic in the population.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Health Workforce , Brazil/epidemiology , Humans , Public Policy , SARS-CoV-2
3.
Cien Saude Colet ; 27(11): 4131-4144, 2022 Nov.
Article in Portuguese, English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20239086

ABSTRACT

Studies show that people in vulnerable conditions and some social groups such as women and black people have suffered more intensely from the COVID-19 pandemic impacts. This expression of inequality also manifests itself among healthcare workers, with greater exposure of some specific groups. This paper analyzes the effect of COVID-19 on health care workers and the working conditions in the Brazilian public health system, analyzed from professional, gender, and race perspectives. Data were collected from an online survey of 1,829 health workers conducted in March 2021. Indeed, we identified inequalities in health workers' experiences during the health crisis generated by COVID-19, which are marked by the profession of each worker and are traversed by their gender and race traits.


Estudos mostram que pessoas em condições de vulnerabilidade têm sofrido de forma mais intensa os impactos da pandemia de COVID-19, assim como alguns grupos sociais, como mulheres e negros. Essa expressão de desigualdade também se manifesta entre os trabalhadores da saúde, com maior exposição de alguns grupos específicos. Este artigo analisa a incidência da COVID-19 sobre os trabalhadores da saúde a partir das perspectivas de profissão, gênero e raça. Os dados foram coletados por uma survey online com 1.829 trabalhadores da saúde, realizada no mês de março de 2021. Encontramos que, efetivamente, há desigualdades nas experiências dos trabalhadores da saúde durante a crise sanitária gerada pela COVID-19. Essas desigualdades estão marcadas pela profissão de cada trabalhador e são atravessadas por suas características de gênero e raça.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , Female , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Health Personnel , Health Workforce
4.
Public Health Rep ; 138(1_suppl): 48S-55S, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20235754

ABSTRACT

Public health emergencies impact the well-being of people and communities. Long-term emotional distress is a pervasive and serious consequence of high levels of crisis exposure and low levels of access to mental health care. At highest risk for mental health trauma are historically medically underserved and socially marginalized populations and frontline health care workers (HCWs). Current public health emergency response efforts provide insufficient mental health services for these groups. The ongoing mental health crisis of the COVID-19 pandemic has implications for the resource-strained health care workforce. Public health has an important role in delivering psychosocial care and physical support in tandem with communities. Assessment of US and international public health strategies deployed during past public health emergencies can guide development of population-specific mental health care. The objectives of this topical review were (1) to examine scholarly and other literature on the mental health needs of HCWs and selected US and international policies to address them during the first 2 years of the pandemic and (2) to propose strategies for future responses. We reviewed 316 publications in 10 topic areas. Two-hundred fifty publications were excluded, leaving 66 for this topical review. Findings from our review indicate a need for flexible, tailored mental health outreach for HCWs after disasters. US and global research emphasizes the dearth of institutional mental health support for HCWs and of mental health providers who specialize in helping the health care workforce. Future public health disaster responses must address the mental health needs of HCWs to prevent lasting trauma.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Disasters , Humans , Health Workforce , Pandemics , Mental Health , Emergencies , COVID-19/epidemiology , Workforce
5.
Public Health Rep ; 138(1_suppl): 78S-89S, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20245421

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: In times of heightened population health needs, the health workforce must respond quickly and efficiently, especially at the state level. We examined state governors' executive orders related to 2 key health workforce flexibility issues, scope of practice (SOP) and licensing, in response to the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: We conducted an in-depth document review of state governors' executive orders introduced in 2020 in all 50 states and the District of Columbia. We conducted a thematic content analysis of the executive order language using an inductive process and then categorized executive orders by profession (advanced practice registered nurses, physician assistants, and pharmacists) and degree of flexibility granted; for licensing, we indicated yes or no for easing or waiving cross-state regulatory barriers. RESULTS: We identified executive orders in 36 states containing explicit directives addressing SOP or out-of-state licensing, with those in 20 states easing regulatory barriers pertaining to both workforce issues. Seventeen states issued executive orders expanding SOP for advanced practice nurses and physician assistants, most commonly by completely waiving physician practice agreements, while those in 9 states expanded pharmacist SOP. Executive orders in 31 states and the District of Columbia eased or waived out-of-state licensing regulatory barriers, usually for all health care professionals. CONCLUSION: Governor directives issued through executive orders played an important role in expanding health workforce flexibility in the first year of the pandemic, especially in states with restrictive practice regulations prior to COVID-19. Future research should examine what effects these temporary flexibilities may have had on patient and practice outcomes or on permanent efforts to relax practice restrictions for health care professionals.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , Health Workforce , Pandemics , Workforce , District of Columbia
6.
Int J Public Health ; 68: 1605861, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20243455

ABSTRACT

Objectives: This study assesses the opinions of health professionals in Malaysia on the disruption of non-communicable disease (NCD) services during the COVID-19 pandemic from March 2020 to January 2022. Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional online survey with 191 non-clinical public health workers and clinical health service workers in Malaysia from November 2021 to January 2022. Participants were recruited by the Malaysian Ministry of Health using major networks including key experts and practitioners. Secondary respondents were subsequently enrolled through snowballing. Results: The most notable issues raised by the survey participants relate to NCD service disruption, the redirection of NCD care resources, and NCD care being overburdened post-pandemic. Respondents also reported accounts of resilience and prompt reaction from the healthcare system, as well as calls for innovation. Conclusion: Most respondents perceived that the challenges arising from COVID-19 were mostly managed well by the healthcare system, which was able to provide the necessary services to NCD patients during this health emergency. However, the study identifies gaps in the health system response and preparedness capacity, and highlights solutions for strengthening NCD services.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Noncommunicable Diseases , Humans , Malaysia/epidemiology , Noncommunicable Diseases/epidemiology , Pandemics , Cross-Sectional Studies , COVID-19/epidemiology , Health Workforce
7.
Bull World Health Organ ; 101(6): 362-362A, 2023 06 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20234342
10.
Am J Public Health ; 113(6): 689-699, 2023 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2324048

ABSTRACT

Objectives. To compare rural versus urban local public health workforce competencies and training needs, COVID-19 impact, and turnover risk. Methods. Using the 2021 Public Health Workforce Interest and Needs Survey, we examined the association between local public health agency rural versus urban location in the United States (n = 29 751) and individual local public health staff reports of skill proficiencies, training needs, turnover risk, experiences of bullying due to work as a public health professional, and posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms attributable to COVID-19. Results. Rural staff had higher odds than urban staff of reporting proficiencies in community engagement, cross-sectoral partnerships, and systems and strategic thinking as well as training needs in data-based decision-making and in diversity, equity, and inclusion. Rural staff were also more likely than urban staff to report leaving because of stress, experiences of bullying, and avoiding situations that made them think about COVID-19. Conclusions. Our findings demonstrate that rural staff have unique competencies and training needs but also experience significant stress. Public Health Implications. Our findings provide the opportunity to accurately target rural workforce development trainings and illustrate the need to address reported stress and experiences of bullying. (Am J Public Health. 2023;113(6):689-699. https://doi.org/10.2105/AJPH.2023.307273).


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Public Health , Humans , United States/epidemiology , Public Health/education , Health Workforce , COVID-19/epidemiology , Workforce , Surveys and Questionnaires
11.
BMJ ; 381: e073043, 2023 05 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2320606

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To explore inequalities in human resources for health (HRH) in relation to all cause and cause specific mortality globally in 1990-2019. DESIGN: Observational study. SETTING: 172 countries and territories. DATA SOURCES: Databases of the Global Burden of Disease Study 2019, United Nations Statistics, and Our World in Data. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The main outcome was age standardized all cause mortality per 100 000 population in relation to HRH density per 10 000 population, and secondary outcome was age standardized cause specific mortality. The Lorenz curve and the concentration index (CCI) were used to assess trends and inequalities in HRH. RESULTS: Globally, the total HRH density per 10 000 population increased, from 56.0 in 1990 to 142.5 in 2019, whereas age standardized all cause mortality per 100 000 population decreased, from 995.5 in 1990 to 743.8 in 2019. The Lorenz curve lay below the equality line and CCI was 0.43 (P<0.05), indicating that the health workforce was more concentrated among countries and territories ranked high on the human development index. The CCI for HRH was stable, at about 0.42-0.43 between 1990 and 2001 and continued to decline (narrowed inequality), from 0.43 in 2001 to 0.38 in 2019 (P<0.001). In the multivariable generalized estimating equation model, a negative association was found between total HRH level and all cause mortality, with the highest levels of HRH as reference (low: incidence risk ratio 1.15, 95% confidence interval 1.00 to 1.32; middle: 1.14, 1.01 to 1.29; high: 1.18, 1.08 to 1.28). A negative association between total HRH density and mortality rate was more pronounced for some types of cause specific mortality, including neglected tropical diseases and malaria, enteric infections, maternal and neonatal disorders, and diabetes and kidney diseases. The risk of death was more likely to be higher in people from countries and territories with a lower density of doctors, dentistry staff, pharmaceutical staff, aides and emergency medical workers, optometrists, psychologists, personal care workers, physiotherapists, and radiographers. CONCLUSIONS: Inequalities in HRH have been decreasing over the past 30 years globally but persist. All cause mortality and most types of cause specific mortality were relatively higher in countries and territories with a limited health workforce, especially for several specific HRH types among priority diseases. The findings highlight the importance of strengthening political commitment to develop equity oriented health workforce policies, expanding health financing, and implementing targeted measures to reduce deaths related to inadequate HRH to achieve universal health coverage by 2030.


Subject(s)
Global Health , Malaria , Infant, Newborn , Humans , Cause of Death , Workforce , Health Workforce
12.
PLoS One ; 18(5): e0285705, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2319915

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: In recognition of the interconnected nature of complex challenges such as COVID-19, a collaborative, multisectoral, and transdisciplinary approach, referred to as One Health, has been employed to address sustainable development and strengthen global health security. Although significant investments have been made to build global health capacity, characterization of the One Health is absent from the literature. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We collected and analyzed perspectives from students, graduates, workers, and employers in One Health through a multinational online survey across health disciplines and sectors. Respondents were recruited through professional networks. A total of 828 respondents from 66 countries participated, representing governmental and academic institutions and students, among others; 57% were female, and 56% had completed professional health degrees. Interpersonal communication, communication with non-scientific audiences, and the ability to work in transdisciplinary teams were valued in the workplace and were considered essential competencies to build an interdisciplinary health workforce. Employers indicated difficulty recruiting workers, while workers indicated limited availability of positions. Employers identified limited funding and ill-defined career pathways as prominent challenges for retaining One Health workers. CONCLUSIONS: Successful One Health workers use interpersonal skills and scientific knowledge to address complex health challenges. Aligning the definition of One Health will likely improve the matching of job seekers and employers. Encouraging the employment of the One Health approach for a diverse range of positions, even if they do not explicitly include "One Health" in the job title, and clarifying the expectations, roles and responsibilities within a transdisciplinary team will lead to building a stronger workforce. As One Health has evolved to address food insecurity, emerging diseases, and antimicrobial resistance, it holds promise for supporting an interdisciplinary global health workforce that can make substantial progress on Sustainable Development Goals and improve global health security for all.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Health Workforce , Humans , Female , Male , Global Health , COVID-19/epidemiology , Workplace , Workforce
13.
J Public Health Manag Pract ; 29(Suppl 1): S45-S47, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2317095

ABSTRACT

Since the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic, news and nationwide survey efforts have reported harassment and bullying among local health officials, departments, and personnel, concurrent to a shortage of public health staff in the United States. We examined a nationally representative sample of local public health professionals (LPHPs) from the 2021 Public Health Workforce Interests and Needs Survey (PH WINS) data set to explore reported experiences with harassment, threats, and bullying; self-rated mental and emotional well-being; and intent to leave an organization. Results indicated that experience of harassment was negatively associated with ratings of mental and emotional health and positively associated with an intent to leave an organization. We discuss implications and recommendations to mitigate these risks for the nation's local public health workforce.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Public Health , Humans , United States/epidemiology , Public Health/methods , Job Satisfaction , COVID-19/epidemiology , Pandemics , Health Workforce , Surveys and Questionnaires
14.
J Public Health Manag Pract ; 29(Suppl 1): S22-S34, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2315811

ABSTRACT

CONTEXT: Big Cities Health Coalition member health departments (BCHC HDs) serve more than 61 million people across their jurisdictions, nearly 20% of the US population. As such, they have particular challenges and opportunities in how they do their work. This article focuses on BCHC HDs that participated in the 2021 Public Health Workforce Interests and Needs Survey (PH WINS) and describes workplace perceptions, training needs, COVID-19 efforts, and well-being. OBJECTIVE: To describe key characteristics of the governmental public health workforce among BCHC HDs, including demographics, perceptions, and needs. DESIGN: Using a subsample of data from the 2021 PH WINS that included 29 BCHC HDs, descriptive statistics on many of the topics covered by the 2021 PH WINS were analyzed and compared with the 2017 PH WINS. SETTING: Twenty-nine BCHC HDs in cities across the United States. PARTICIPANTS: In total, 7922 of 29 661 staff members (response rate of 27%) from participating BCHC HDs. RESULTS: Most BCHC HD respondents self-identified as a woman (76%, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 75%-77%), and as Black, Indigenous, and people of color (69%, 95% CI: 68%-70%), similar to findings from the 2017 PH WINS (75%, 95% CI: 74%-76%; 67%, 95% CI: 66%-69%, respectively). Most respondents believe that their organization prioritizes diversity, equity, and inclusion (70%, 95% CI: 69%-72%). Thirty percent (95% CI: 29%-32%) intend to leave their organizations within 1 year, and 18% (95% CI: 17%-19%) plan to retire within 5 years. Staff connect their work with agency goals and priorities (86%, 95% CI: 85%-87%) and are determined to give their best effort every day (91%, 95% CI: 90%-91%). CONCLUSION: As the need for an all-encompassing focus on COVID-19 lessons, BCHC HDs should continue to focus on prioritizing staff retention, enhancing communication between senior staff and employees, and fostering an environment where innovation and creativity are rewarded.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Health Workforce , Female , United States , Humans , Cities , COVID-19/epidemiology , Workforce , Surveys and Questionnaires , Public Health/methods
15.
J Public Health Manag Pract ; 29(Suppl 1): S14-S21, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2313119

ABSTRACT

CONTEXT: The COVID-19 pandemic and other public health challenges have increased the need for longitudinal data quantifying the changes in the state public health workforce. OBJECTIVE: To characterize the state of governmental public health workforce among state health agency (SHA) staff across the United States and provide longitudinal comparisons to 2 prior fieldings of the survey. DESIGN: State health agency leaders were invited to have their workforce to participate in PH WINS 2021. As in prior fieldings, participating agencies provided staff lists used to send e-mail invitations to employees to participate in this electronic survey. SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: State health agency staff. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: PH WINS 2021 maintains the 4 primary domains from 2014 and 2017 (ie, workplace engagement, training needs assessment, emerging public health concepts, and demographics) and includes new questions related to the mental and emotional well-being; the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on staff retention; and the workforce's awareness of and confidence in emerging public health concepts. RESULTS: The percentage of SHA staff who self-identify as Black, Indigenous, and people of color increased from 30% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 29%-32%) to 35% (95% CI: 35%-37%) between 2014 and 2021. Staff younger than 31 years accounted for 11% (95% CI: 10%-12%) of the SHA workforce in 2021 compared with 8% in 2014 (95% CI: 8%-9%). From 2014 to 2021, staff who self-identify as a woman increased from 72% (95% CI: 71%-74%) to 76% (95% CI: 75%-77%). Overall, 22% (95% CI: 21%-23%) of the SHA workforce rated their mental health as poor/fair. CONCLUSION: The 2021 PH WINS results represent unique and current perspectives on the SHA workforce and can inform future public health infrastructure investments, research, and field practice to ensure a strong public health system.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Health Workforce , Female , Humans , United States , COVID-19/epidemiology , Pandemics , Workforce , State Government , Surveys and Questionnaires , Public Health/methods
16.
J Public Health Manag Pract ; 29(Suppl 1): S107-S115, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2312844

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: This study uses findings from the most recent iterations of the Public Health Workforce Interest and Needs Survey (PH WINS) to describe importance, skill level, and gaps of key public health competencies as well as characteristics associated with gaps. DESIGN: Repeated cross-sectional analysis of the 2017 and 2021 PH WINS data. SETTING: State and local health departments. PARTICIPANTS: Nationally representative population of state and local governmental public health workers. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Gaps of key public health competencies related to data, evidence-based approaches, health equity and social justice, factors that affect public health, cross-sectoral partnerships, and community health assessments and improvement plans. Gaps reflect areas of high importance and low skill level. Differences in gaps among the traditional public health workforce and those hired specifically for COVID-19 response. RESULTS: For most competency areas, more than 20% of the public health workforce perceived a gap. Gaps related to environmental factors that affect public health, social determinants of health and cross-sector partnerships, and community health assessments and improvement plans were the largest. Tenure in public health practice, highest level of education, and having formal public health training were associated with lower odds of gaps in most areas. In a secondary analysis of traditional public health workforce compared with those hired specifically for COVID-19 response, those hired for COVID-19 response reported significantly fewer gaps for all but one competency considered. CONCLUSIONS: A substantial proportion of the public health workforce perceives gaps in competency areas that are of high importance to the evolving role of public health. As public health continues to adjust and modernize in response to the COVID-19 pandemic and other historic changes, understanding and addressing training needs of the workforce will be instrumental to public health's ability to respond to the needs of the public.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Public Health , Humans , Health Workforce , Cross-Sectional Studies , COVID-19/epidemiology , Pandemics , Workforce , Surveys and Questionnaires
17.
Sante Publique ; 34(4): 549-556, 2022.
Article in French | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2309359

ABSTRACT

Objective : Faced with the uncertainty about the acceptability of COVID-19 vaccination, we conducted this study to better guide communication strategies for health worker adherence to vaccination.Methods : We conducted a cross-sectional study for analytical purposes, from 15 to 26 February 2021 among health workers in health facilities in the Gbêkê health region.Results : Health workers were predominantly female (53.5 %) and the 30-39 age group was the most represented (52 %). Television was the main source of information (74.4 %). The respondents knew that they were at risk of contracting COVID-19 (82.5 %) and that people with co-morbidities were the most victim of severe forms (70.4 %). The majority of respondents systematically wear a mask in hospital (91%). They said that 51.1 % of them would get vaccinated. The majority of respondents would systematically wear a mask in hospital (91 %). Multivariate analysis shows that vaccine acceptability was statistically associated with fear of dying from the disease (p=0.046) and case management (p=0.026).Conclusion : In order to achieve better adherence to COVID-19 vaccination, it would be necessary to strengthen the capacity of these agents.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , Female , Male , Cote d'Ivoire , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , Cross-Sectional Studies , Vaccination , Health Workforce
18.
J Behav Health Serv Res ; 50(2): 147-149, 2023 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2296890

Subject(s)
Health Workforce , Humans
20.
Aust Health Rev ; 47(2): 246-253, 2023 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2291237

ABSTRACT

Objective Studies of Australian health workforce demographics tend to be limited to single professions, a set geographic area, or based on incomplete data. This study aims to comprehensively describe changes to the demographic characteristics of Australia's regulated health professions over 6 years. Methods Data were sourced from the Australian Health Practitioner Regulation Agency (Ahpra) registration database, and a retrospective analysis of 15 of the 16 regulated health professions between 1 July 2015 and 30 June 2021 was conducted. Variables including profession, age, gender and state/territory locations for the practitioners' principal places of practice were analysed descriptively and via appropriate statistical tests. Results Changes in age, gender representation, and place of practice varied significantly and in different ways across the 15 professions. The total number of registered health practitioners increased by 141 161 (22%) from 2016 to 2021. The number of registered health practitioners per 100 000 population increased by 14% from 2016, with considerable variation across the professions. In 2021, women accounted for 76.3% of health practitioners across the 15 health professions, a significant increase of 0.5% points since 2016. Conclusions Changes to demographics, especially in ageing workforces and feminising professions, can have implications for workforce planning and sustainability. Future research could build on this demographic trend data by investigating causes or undertaking workforce supply or demand modelling.


Subject(s)
Health Occupations , Health Workforce , Humans , Female , Australia , Retrospective Studies , Demography
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