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3.
PLoS One ; 16(12): e0260698, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1581775

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Currently, world is suffering from a respiratory disease names as COVID-19. This is a novel coronavirus (n-CoV), a new strain which has not been previously identified in humans and it has spread in more than 100 locations internationally due to which it is termed as "public health emergency of international concern" (PHEIC) by the World Health Organization So far, no study done as yet to assess whether the dental workforce is aware about the facts and myths related to Covid-19 awareness. OBJECTIVE: This study aims to analyze and compare the level of awareness about the facts and myths related to COVID-19 amongst faculty, dental students and prep year students of the College of Dentistry (COD) as part of an awareness campaign. METHODS: An awareness test about COVID-19 was designed using information from the World Health Organization's (WHO) Myth Busters Awareness webpage. The questionnaire was administrated online to faculty and students, of the College of Dentistry and preparatory year students who had applied for the admission to the dental college using a secure enterprise online assessment platform (Blackboard). The tests were administered over a period of three months from March to June 2020. A written informed consent was obtained. RESULTS: The online COVID-19 awareness test was administered to 810 participants, out of which 325 (40%) were prep year students, 429(53%%) were dental students, and 56 (7%) were faculty members. Analysis of the results showed that 86% of the Faculty were able to correctly identify the facts and the myths related to COVID-19 followed by 81% of the prep year students and 74% of the dental students. Preparatory year student's knowledge related to COVID-19 was found to be high when compared to dental students (26.47±4.27, 23.67±6.2). Student to faculty knowledge score did not differ significantly (p = 0.808). CONCLUSION: This study reports about a successful pilot test conducted to assess the perceived knowledge about facts and myths related to corona virus amongst the dental workforce.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Schools, Dental , COVID-19/prevention & control , Health Workforce/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Saudi Arabia , Students, Dental/statistics & numerical data
4.
Med Care ; 59(Suppl 5): S420-S427, 2021 10 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1410279

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: As coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) rapidly progressed throughout the United States, increased demand for health workers required health workforce data and tools to aid planning and response at local, state, and national levels. OBJECTIVE: We describe the development of 2 estimator tools designed to inform health workforce planning for COVID-19. RESEARCH DESIGN: We estimated supply and demand for intensivists, critical care nurses, hospitalists, respiratory therapists, and pharmacists, using Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation projections for COVID-19 hospital care and National Plan and Provider Enumeration System, Provider Enrollment Chain and Ownership System, American Hospital Association, and Bureau of Labor Statistics Occupation Employment Statistics for workforce supply. We estimated contact tracing workforce needs using Johns Hopkins University COVID-19 case counts and workload parameters based on expert advice. RESULTS: The State Hospital Workforce Deficit Estimator estimated the sufficiency of state hospital-based clinicians to meet projected COVID-19 demand. The Contact Tracing Workforce Estimator calculated the workforce needed based on the 14-day COVID-19 caseload at county, state, and the national level, allowing users to adjust workload parameters to reflect local contexts. CONCLUSIONS: The 2 estimators illustrate the value of integrating health workforce data and analysis with pandemic response planning. The many unknowns associated with COVID-19 required tools to be flexible, allowing users to change assumptions on number of contacts and work capacity. Data limitations were a challenge for both estimators, highlighting the need to invest in health workforce data and data infrastructure as part of future emergency preparedness planning.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Community Health Planning , Health Personnel/statistics & numerical data , Health Workforce/statistics & numerical data , Models, Statistical , Regional Health Planning , Contact Tracing , Humans , United States/epidemiology , Workload
6.
JAAPA ; 34(8): 1-3, 2021 Aug 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1328937

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT: The COVID-19 pandemic has been exceptionally disruptive to healthcare delivery, exposing the strengths and weaknesses of our healthcare system. Though systems will continue to improvise in the short term to provide essential patient care, thoughtful consideration should be given to a long-term approach to improve healthcare delivery. Policy makers, legislators, and healthcare system leaders have the opportunity to reflect on lessons learned during this time and update outdated and detrimental restrictions affecting healthcare providers who have been vital to the pandemic response. This article focuses on lessons learned about the use of physician assistants and NPs, who have been readily deployed during this time.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/therapy , Health Workforce/statistics & numerical data , Nurse Practitioners/statistics & numerical data , Physician Assistants/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19/epidemiology , Humans , Primary Health Care/organization & administration , Workforce/statistics & numerical data
7.
Healthc Q ; 24(2): 15-26, 2021 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1323457

ABSTRACT

During the COVID-19 pandemic, the rapid surge in demand for critical supplies and public health efforts needed to guard against virus transmission have placed enormous pressure on health systems worldwide. These pressures and the uncertainty they have created have impacted the health workforce in a substantial way. This paper examines the relationship between health supply chain capacity and the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on Canada's health workforce. The findings of this research also highlight the impact of the pandemic on health workers, specifically the relationship between the health supply chain and the autonomy of the health workforce.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Equipment and Supplies/supply & distribution , Health Workforce/organization & administration , Professional Autonomy , Canada/epidemiology , Decision Making, Organizational , Fear/psychology , Health Workforce/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Personal Protective Equipment/supply & distribution , Resource Allocation/organization & administration , Uncertainty
9.
Ann Emerg Med ; 78(4): 487-499, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1267588

ABSTRACT

STUDY OBJECTIVE: We describe how the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic affected the economics of emergency department care (ED). METHODS: We conducted an observational study of 136 EDs from January 2019 to September 2020, using 2020-to-2019 3-week moving ratios for ED visits, complexity, revenue, and staffing expenses. We tabulated 2020-to-2019 staffing ratios and calculated hour and full-time-equivalent changes. RESULTS: Following the COVID-19 pandemic's onset, geriatric (age ≥65), adult (age 18 to 64), and pediatric (age <18) ED visits declined by 43%, 40%, and 73%, respectively, compared to 2019 visits and rose thereafter but remained below 2019 levels through September. Relative value units per visit rose by 8%, 9%, and 18%, respectively, compared to 2019, while ED admission rates rose by 32%. Both fell subsequently but remained above 2019 levels through September. Revenues dropped sharply early in the pandemic and rose gradually but remained below 2019 levels. In medium and large EDs, staffing and expenses were lowered with a lag, largely compensating for lower revenue at these sites, and barely at freestanding EDs. Staffing and expense reductions could not match revenue losses in smaller EDs. During the pandemic, emergency physician and advanced practice provider clinical hours and compensation fell 15% and 27%, respectively, corresponding to 174 lost physician and 193 lost advanced practice provider full-time-equivalent positions. CONCLUSION: The COVID-19 pandemic adversely impacted the economics of ED care, with large drops in overall and, in particular, low-acuity ED visits, necessitating reductions in clinical hours. Staffing cutbacks could not match reduced revenue at small EDs with minimum emergency physician coverage requirements.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/economics , Emergency Service, Hospital/economics , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Child , Emergency Service, Hospital/statistics & numerical data , Emergency Service, Hospital/trends , Health Workforce/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Middle Aged , Personnel, Hospital/economics , Personnel, Hospital/statistics & numerical data , United States
11.
J Am Geriatr Soc ; 69(9): 2393-2403, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1261152

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: US nursing homes are required to follow Centers for Disease Control guidance for COVID-19 transmission-based precautions (TBP) when admitting COVID-positive patients. OBJECTIVE: To assess how frequently nursing homes had shortages of personal protective equipment (PPE) or staffing in weeks when they admitted COVID-positive patients, which likely made it more difficult to follow TBP, and to compare facility characteristics by admissions practices. DESIGN AND SETTING: Facility-level data from the Nursing Home COVID-19 Public File for the period between June 7, 2020 and March 7, 2021 was combined with additional data. The percentages of nursing homes that admitted COVID-positive patients and that had shortages when admitting were calculated for each week. Descriptive statistics and logistic regression models were used to examine the relationship between facility characteristics and the likelihood of admitting COVID-positive patients. MEASUREMENTS: Facilities were categorized as having admitted COVID-positive patients in a week if one or more admissions requiring TBP were reported for that week. Facilities that reported having less than a 1-week supply of any type of PPE or being short any type of staff in a week were defined, respectively, as having a PPE shortage or staffing shortage in that week. RESULTS: Over the 40-week study period, 39% of US nursing homes admitted COVID-positive patients in at least 1 week in which they were experiencing PPE or staffing shortages. Facilities that admitted COVID-positive patients with shortages generally had lower Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services overall five-star ratings than other facilities. Only a small percentage of facilities that admitted COVID-positive patients while facing shortages were located in counties with severe shortages of PPE or staffing. In logistic regression models, shortages were not associated with COVID-positive admissions. CONCLUSION: The widespread practice of admitting COVID-positive patients while facing shortages may have put nursing home residents and staff at heightened risk of COVID-19 infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Health Workforce/statistics & numerical data , Homes for the Aged/statistics & numerical data , Nursing Homes/statistics & numerical data , Patient Admission/statistics & numerical data , Personal Protective Equipment/supply & distribution , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Female , Humans , Infection Control/statistics & numerical data , Male , Middle Aged , Nursing Staff/supply & distribution , SARS-CoV-2 , United States
12.
Acad Med ; 96(6): 808-812, 2021 06 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1242112

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 is a worldwide pandemic, with frontlines that look drastically different than in past conflicts: that is, women now make up a sizeable majority of the health care workforce. American women have a long history of helping in times of hardship, filling positions on the home front vacated by men who enlisted as soldiers during World War I and similarly serving in crucial roles on U.S. military bases, on farms, and in factories during World War II. The COVID-19 pandemic has represented a novel battleground, as the first in which women have taken center stage, not only in their roles as physicians, respiratory therapists, nurses, and the like, but also by serving in leadership positions and facilitating innovations in science, technology, and policy. Yet, the pandemic has exacerbated multiple pain points that have disproportionally impacted women in health care, including shortages in correctly sized personal protective equipment and uniforms, inadequate support for pregnant and breastfeeding providers, and challenges associated with work-life balance and obtaining childcare. While the pandemic has facilitated several positive advancements in addressing these challenges, there is still much work to be done for women to achieve equity and optimal support in their roles on the frontlines.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Health Workforce/statistics & numerical data , Women, Working/history , Workforce/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , Empowerment , Female , Gender Equity , Health Personnel/trends , History, 20th Century , Humans , Leadership , Personal Protective Equipment/supply & distribution , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Women, Working/statistics & numerical data , World War I , World War II
13.
Lancet ; 397(10288): 1992-2011, 2021 05 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1218908

ABSTRACT

Approximately 13% of the total UK workforce is employed in the health and care sector. Despite substantial workforce planning efforts, the effectiveness of this planning has been criticised. Education, training, and workforce plans have typically considered each health-care profession in isolation and have not adequately responded to changing health and care needs. The results are persistent vacancies, poor morale, and low retention. Areas of particular concern highlighted in this Health Policy paper include primary care, mental health, nursing, clinical and non-clinical support, and social care. Responses to workforce shortfalls have included a high reliance on foreign and temporary staff, small-scale changes in skill mix, and enhanced recruitment drives. Impending challenges for the UK health and care workforce include growing multimorbidity, an increasing shortfall in the supply of unpaid carers, and the relative decline of the attractiveness of the National Health Service (NHS) as an employer internationally. We argue that to secure a sustainable and fit-for-purpose health and care workforce, integrated workforce approaches need to be developed alongside reforms to education and training that reflect changes in roles and skill mix, as well as the trend towards multidisciplinary working. Enhancing career development opportunities, promoting staff wellbeing, and tackling discrimination in the NHS are all needed to improve recruitment, retention, and morale of staff. An urgent priority is to offer sufficient aftercare and support to staff who have been exposed to high-risk situations and traumatic experiences during the COVID-19 pandemic. In response to growing calls to recognise and reward health and care staff, growth in pay must at least keep pace with projected rises in average earnings, which in turn will require linking future NHS funding allocations to rises in pay. Through illustrative projections, we show that, to sustain annual growth in the workforce at approximately 2·4%, increases in NHS expenditure of 4% annually in real terms will be required. Above all, a radical long-term strategic vision is needed to ensure that the future NHS workforce is fit for purpose.


Subject(s)
Health Policy , Health Workforce/statistics & numerical data , State Medicine/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19/psychology , Health Occupations/economics , Health Occupations/education , Health Workforce/economics , Humans , Occupational Stress , Personnel Selection , State Medicine/economics , United Kingdom
15.
Am J Public Health ; 111(3): 475-484, 2021 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1140576

ABSTRACT

Objectives. To improve understanding of the future public health workforce by analyzing first-destination employment outcomes of public health graduates.Methods. We assessed graduate outcomes for those graduating in 2015-2018 using descriptive statistics and the Pearson χ2 test.Results. In our analysis of data on 53 463 graduates, we found that 73% were employed; 15% enrolled in further education; 5% entered a fellowship, internship, residency, volunteer, or service program; and 6% were not employed. Employed graduates went to work in health care (27%), corporations (24%), academia (19%), government (17%), nonprofit (12%), and other sectors (1%). In 2018, 9% of bachelor's, 4% of master's, and 2% of doctoral graduates were not employed but seeking employment.Conclusions. Today's public health graduates are successful in finding employment in various sectors. This new workforce may expand public health's reach and lead to healthier communities overall.Public Health Implications. With predicted shortages in the governmental public health workforce and expanding hiring because of COVID-19, policymakers need to work to ensure the supply of public health graduates meets the demands of the workforce.


Subject(s)
Education, Public Health Professional/statistics & numerical data , Employment/statistics & numerical data , Health Workforce/statistics & numerical data , Education, Graduate/statistics & numerical data , Health Education/statistics & numerical data , Health Policy , Humans
16.
J Laryngol Otol ; 135(5): 391-395, 2021 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1139694

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: As a response to the acute strain placed on the National Health Service during the first wave of coronavirus disease 2019 in the UK, a number of junior doctors including ENT trainees were redeployed to other clinical specialties. This presented these trainees with novel challenges and opportunities. METHODS: A qualitative study was performed to explore these experiences, undertaking semi-structured interviews with ENT trainees between 17th and 30th July. Participants were recruited through purposeful sampling. Interview transcripts underwent thematic analysis using Dedoose software. RESULTS: Seven ENT trainees were interviewed, ranging from specialty trainee years four to eight ('ST4' to 'ST8') in grade. Six core themes were identified: organisation of redeployment, utilisation of skill set, emotional impact of redeployment, redeployed team dynamics, concerns about safety and impact on training. CONCLUSION: The ENT trainees' experiences of redeployment described highlight some important lessons and considerations for future redeployments.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/psychology , Health Workforce/statistics & numerical data , Otolaryngologists/supply & distribution , State Medicine/statistics & numerical data , Adult , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , Clinical Competence/statistics & numerical data , Decision Making/physiology , Female , Humans , Interviews as Topic , Male , Otolaryngologists/education , Otolaryngologists/psychology , Qualitative Research , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , State Medicine/organization & administration , Training Support/statistics & numerical data , United Kingdom/epidemiology
18.
J Glob Health ; 10(2): 020509, 2020 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1106356

ABSTRACT

Background: The COVID-19 pandemic has overwhelmed hospitals in several areas in high-income countries. An effective response to this pandemic requires health care workers (HCWs) to be present at work, particularly in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) where they are already in critically low supply. To inform whether and to what degree policymakers in Bangladesh, and LMICs more broadly, should expect a drop in HCW attendance as COVID-19 continues to spread, this study aims to determine how HCW attendance has changed during the early stages of the COVID-19 pandemic in Bangladesh. Methods: This study analyzed daily fingerprint-verified attendance data from all 527 public-sector secondary and tertiary care facilities in Bangladesh to describe HCW attendance from January 26, 2019 to March 22, 2020, by cadre, hospital type, and geographic division. We then regressed HCW attendance onto fixed effects for day-of-week, month, and hospital, as well as indicators for each of three pandemic periods: a China-focused period (January 11, 2020 (first confirmed COVID-19 death in China) until January 29, 2020), international-spread period (January 30, 2020 (World Health Organization's declaration of a global emergency) until March 6, 2020), and local-spread period (March 7, 2020 (first confirmed COVID-19 case in Bangladesh) until the end of the study period). Findings: On average between January 26, 2019 and March 22, 2020, 34.1% of doctors, 64.6% of nurses, and 70.6% of other health care staff were present for their scheduled shift. HCWs' attendance rate increased with time in 2019 among all cadres. Nurses' attendance level dropped by 2.5% points (95% confidence interval (CI) = -3.2% to -1.8%) and 3.5% points (95% CI = -4.5% to -2.5%) during the international-spread and the local-spread periods of the COVID-19 pandemic, relative to the China-focused period. Similarly, the attendance level of other health care staff declined by 0.3% points (95% CI = -0.8% to 0.2%) and 2.3% points (95% CI = -3.0% to -1.6%) during the international-spread and local-spread periods, respectively. Among doctors, however, the international-spread and local-spread periods were associated with a statistically significant increase in attendance by 3.7% points (95% CI = 2.5% to 4.8%) and 4.9% points (95% CI = 3.5% to 6.4%), respectively. The reduction in attendance levels across all HCWs during the local-spread period was much greater at large hospitals, where the majority of COVID-19 testing and treatment took place, than that at small hospitals. Conclusions: After a year of significant improvements, HCWs' attendance levels among nurses and other health care staff (who form the majority of Bangladesh's health care workforce) have declined during the early stages of the COVID-19 pandemic. This finding may portend an even greater decrease in attendance if COVID-19 continues to spread in Bangladesh. Policymakers in Bangladesh and similar LMICs should undertake major efforts to achieve high attendance levels among HCWs, particularly nurses, such as by providing sufficient personal protective equipment as well as monetary and non-monetary incentives.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections , Health Workforce/statistics & numerical data , Hospitals, Public/statistics & numerical data , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , Secondary Care/statistics & numerical data , Tertiary Healthcare/statistics & numerical data , Adult , Bangladesh/epidemiology , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Female , Humans , Longitudinal Studies , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2 , Secondary Care/organization & administration , Tertiary Healthcare/organization & administration
19.
J Med Imaging Radiat Oncol ; 65(2): 139-145, 2021 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1085304

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: We aimed to study anxiety and burnout among Division of Radiological Sciences (RADSC) staff during the COVID-19 pandemic and identify potential risk and protective factors. These outcomes were compared with non-RADSC staff. METHODS: A cross-sectional online study was conducted between 12 March and 20 July 2020 in the largest public tertiary hospital receiving COVID-19 cases. Burnout and anxiety were assessed with the Physician Work-Life Scale and the Generalized Anxiety Disorder-7 Scale, respectively. Workplace factors were examined as potential risk and protective factors using multivariable ordinary least squares regression analyses, adjusting for pertinent demographic characteristics. RESULTS: RADSC staff (n = 180) and non-RADSC staff (n = 1458) demonstrated moderate-to-severe anxiety rates of 6.7 and 13.2 % and burnout rates of 17.8 and 23.9 %, respectively. RADSC staff reported significantly lower anxiety (mean ± SD: 4.0 ± 3.7 vs 4.9 ± 4.5; P-value < 0.05), burnout (mean ± SD: 1.9 ± 0.7 vs 2.1 ± 0.8; P-value < 0.01), increased teamwork (82.2% vs 74.1%; P-value < 0.05) and fewer night shifts (36.7% vs 41.1%; P-value < 0.01). Among RADSC staff, higher job dedication was associated with lower anxiety (b (95% CI) = -0.28 (-0.45, -0.11)) and burnout (b (95% CI) = -0.07 (-0.11,-0.04)), while longer than usual working hours was associated with increased anxiety (b (95% CI) = 1.42 (0.36, 2.45)) and burnout (b (95% CI) = 0.28 (0.09, 0.48)). CONCLUSIONS: A proportion of RADSC staff reported significant burnout and anxiety, although less compared to the larger hospital cohort. Measures to prevent longer than usual work hours and increase feelings of enthusiasm and pride in one's job may further reduce the prevalence of anxiety problems and burnout in radiology departments.


Subject(s)
Anxiety Disorders/epidemiology , Burnout, Professional/epidemiology , COVID-19/psychology , Health Workforce/statistics & numerical data , Pandemics , Radiology Department, Hospital , Adult , Anxiety Disorders/psychology , Burnout, Professional/psychology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Male , SARS-CoV-2 , Singapore
20.
Mo Med ; 118(1): 45-49, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1068451

ABSTRACT

Healthcare providers perform lifesaving work in unusually stressful work environments due to the challenges and related risks of battling the unprecedented COVID-19 pandemic. The potential personal and professional toll is substantial. This article describes how one healthcare facility benefited from existing peer support resources to address workforce well-being, ensuring that resources were available to support workforce resilience throughout the protracted COVID response.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/psychology , Health Personnel/psychology , Health Workforce/statistics & numerical data , Occupational Health/standards , Workplace/psychology , Adaptation, Psychological/physiology , Adult , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , Delivery of Health Care/organization & administration , Health Resources/supply & distribution , Humans , Male , Mental Health/trends , Missouri/epidemiology , Occupational Stress/epidemiology , Occupational Stress/psychology , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Self-Help Groups/organization & administration , Universities/organization & administration , Workplace/statistics & numerical data
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