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rev. cuid. (Bucaramanga. 2010) ; 12(2): 1-4, mayo 1, 2021.
Article in Spanish | WHO COVID, LILACS (Americas) | ID: covidwho-1811629

ABSTRACT

La inesperada llegada de la pandemia, enfrentó a todo el mundo a cambios drásticos en la forma de vida que se disfrutaba en épocas de normalidad, obligando a la población a diferentes tipos de confinamientos. Estos trajeron consigo el cierre de casi todos los sectores y en consecuencia la interrupción de muchos servicios esenciales, como las intervenciones en el sector educativo. Muchas de estas intervenciones estaban dirigidas, además de a la educación misma, a brindar protección a los escolares, detectar condiciones de riesgo de violencia intrafamiliar, maltrato y trabajo infantil, suministrar raciones alimenticias, vigilar el cumplimiento del esquema de vacunación y a evitar la deserción escolar, entre otras. Aunque los escolares no son el grupo más afectado por COVID-19, un reciente estudio de UNICEF realizado en 87 países revela que, en noviembre de 2020, los niños y los adolescentes representaron el 11% del total de infecciones1, mientras que, en Colombia, la proporción de casos pediátricos (menores de 18 años) se estima entre 7-8% y representan el 0.025% del total de fallecimientos2. Aunque se ha reportado que el riesgo de infección en escolares es menor que el del personal docente y administrativo en instituciones de educación, esta discrepancia pudiera estar sobreestimada debido a una menor probabilidad de detección considerando el curso predominantemente asintomático de la infección en niños. Sin embargo, COVID-19 puede ser una enfermedad severa en los menores, contribuyendo no solo al número de ingresos a unidades de cuidados intensivo sino al de casos fatales3. En términos de la transmisión, un estudio conducido en población infantil evidenció que esta ocurre con mayor frecuencia en el entorno familiar, relacionándose directamente con el estadio de enfermedad del caso índice: comparados con casos asintomáticos aquellos en etapa pre sintomática fueron responsables del doble de casos secundarios (1/3 versus 1/6)4. Esto indica que los niños infectados constituyen una fuente importante de contagio para sus pares, con evidencia de mayor transmisión en el nivel de secundaria comparado con el de primaria5, así como para los miembros del personal docente y administrativo de sus escuelas. Estos últimos, a su vez generarían nuevos casos de infección en la comunidad estudiantil y dada cuenta de su mayor movilidad, también en la población general6. La importancia que la socialización tiene en los procesos de enseñanza-aprendizaje y en el desarrollo psicológico de los niños, niñas, adolescentes y jóvenes es ampliamente reconocida. Además, es conocido el impacto beneficioso que tienen las actividades educativas en la salud física y mental y en general, en la probabilidad que nuestros niños alcancen todo su potencial y tengan una vida plena. En esta dirección, y ajustándose a la coyuntura, el sector educativo ha tenido que instaurar nuevas estrategias, pasando a la modalidad virtual (asistida por las tecnologías de la información y las comunicaciones ­ TICs) y a diferentes modelos de alternancia escolar. La alternancia se ofrece en diferentes modalidades como la híbrida, en la que es posible que un grupo de estudiantes reciban de manera presencial la clase y el resto lo hagan de manera virtual en forma sincrónica, con opciones de participación en ambos espacios. Otra estrategia es el desarrollo de la clase presencial y de manera asincrónica el desarrollo de actividades virtuales en casa, es decir, con grupos de estudiantes que tendrán asistencia a la institución y trabajo virtual o so-lamente asistencia a la institución. Las instituciones que no acojan la alternancia continuarán con su oferta pedagógica en la modalidad virtual. Cualquiera de los modelos de alternancia que las instituciones adopten trae consigo la presencialidad y, por lo tanto, la necesidad de realizar acciones para la disminución del riesgo, la identificación de casos (sintomáticos y asintomáticos) y sus contactos y el seguimiento y aislamiento, cuando ello se requiera. Nadie niega la importancia del regreso a la escuela, pero ésta debe hacerse en condiciones seguras que garanticen la protección de la salud y la vida de escolares, maestros, personal administrativo y de apoyo y de sus familias. Para lograr este objetivo se requiere adherencia y adaptación en cada institución educativa de los protocolos de bioseguridad emanados de los ministerios de educación y salud. Además, se requiere tener en cuenta la situación epidemiológica actual del municipio o área metropolitana y de la evolución de la epidemia en la población local y la comunidad educativa institucional. Esto último, el conocimiento cabal de la situación epidemiológica local e institucional es crucial para poder decidir responsablemente cuando se abre o se cierra una institución educativa, a fin de preservar la salud, el bienestar y la vida de sus integrantes. En particular, al momento de tomar estas decisiones, es esencial tener en cuenta los siguientes aspectos: La situación de la transmisión y la velocidad de contagio del SARS-CoV-2 en la localidad y cómo esto afectará el entorno educativo. El nivel de capacidad de los servicios de salud y especialmente las EPS para detectar y aislar casos sintomáticos y asintomáticos; detectar brotes o conglomerados de casos; identificar y seguir contactos de los casos; y establecer cercos epidemiológicos para detener la transmisión de la enfermedad dentro de la institución educativa. En qué medida la infección y enfermedad en familiares de los estudiantes, profesores y otro personal de la institución, constituye un factor de riesgo para los niños y viceversa. Dada la dinámica de la transmisión, los protocolos de bioseguridad por sí mismos, no garantizan la reducción del riesgo, si no se acompañan del cumplimiento estricto de los mismos, del acondicionamiento de las instituciones educativas para garantizar ambientes seguros, y de un análisis técnico, permanente y veraz de las condiciones de la pandemia en la localidad. Garantizar la ventilación adecuada y los recambios de aire, de los diferentes espacios de las instituciones educativas especialmente en las áreas cerradas, es un factor de especial importancia para disminuir la transmisión del virus. Por lo tanto, este aspecto es un asunto clave en la adecuación de las instituciones educativas. La decisión de abrir una institución de educación, debe estar precedida de un trabajo conjunto entre los escolares, los padres, los maestros, el personal directivo, y el personal de salud, con el fin de fijar los lineamientos básicos de las decisiones y acciones tanto en los asuntos de salud, como de protección de los escolares y del personal y sus familias, la coordinación con las entidades de salud y la anticipación de la mayoría de las situaciones que puedan derivarse de los procesos de apertura. La institución educativa debe definir, con el apoyo del sector salud, los indicadores que les permitan decidir en qué momento la institución debe cerrarse, bien sea de manera parcial o total, dada la existencia de casos en una burbuja (grupos estables de convivencia) o en varias burbujas. Además de los aspectos relacionados con minimizar el riesgo y disminuir la transmisión, en el proceso de apertura deben contemplarse otros aspectos tales como: garantizar el acceso a la educación a distancia a todos los escolares de las poblaciones distantes o rurales, marginadas, de escasos recursos, con discapacidad y cuyos familiares pertenecen a grupos de alto riesgo. Garantizar mecanismos pedagógicos que les permitan a los escolares, superar la brecha en que pudieron haber caído, por las dificultades de acceso a la educación virtual. Proveer la asistencia en salud y nutrición a los escolares, así como la atención a las niñas y adolescentes para la prevención del embarazo, el acoso y el abuso sexual. Ante la situación tan cambiante de la pandemia, es necesario tomar las decisiones de la apertura de las instituciones, en medio de gran incertidumbre. Son muchos los retos que el sector educativo tiene que superar. Pero en la planeación y toma de decisiones, como bien lo enuncia la UNICEF, "la respuesta debe servir de catalizador para mejorar los resultados del aprendizaje, hacer más equitativo el acceso a la enseñanza y fortalecer la protección, la salud y la seguridad de los niños"1. En consecuencia, si bien es prioritario el regreso a la presencialidad especialmente en los niveles de educación básica, deberán primar el principio de la protección y bienestar de los niños y los principios éticos, por encima de cualquier interés político o económico, del ejercicio de autoridad, o de una falsa sensación de seguridad. Conflicto de intereses: Los autores declaran no tener conflicto de intereses.


The unexpected arrival of the pandemic brought everyone to face drastic changes in the way people used to live in normal times, forcing them to experience different types of home confinement. These resulted in the closure of almost all sectors and, consequently, the disruption of many essential services, such as educational interventions. Many of these interventions were aimed, apart from education itself, at providing protection to schoolchildren, detecting risk conditions of domestic violence, child abuse and child labor, providing school meals, monitoring compliance with immunization programs and preventing school dropout, among others.Although schoolchildren are not the group most affected by COVID-19, a recent UNICEF study conducted in 87 countries found that in November 2020, children and adolescents accounted for 11% of reported COVID-19 infections1, while in Colombia the number of pediatric COVID-19 cases (patients aged < 18 years) is estimated at 7-8% representing 0.025% of deaths2.While the risk of infection in schoolchildren has been reported to be lower than that of teaching and administrative staff in schools, this difference may be overestimated due to a lower probability of detection considering the predominantly asymptomatic course of infection in children. However, COVID-19 can be a severe disease in young people, contributing not only to the number of admissions to intensive care units but also to the number of deaths3.As for COVID-19 transmission, a study conducted with children showed that it occurs more frequently in the home environment, which is directly related to the stage of disease of the index case (that is, compared to asymptomatic cases, those in the pre- 2Revista Cuidarte mayo - agosto 2021;12(2): e2244http://dx.doi.org/10.15649/cuidarte.2244symptomatic stage were responsible for twice as many secondary cases as index case (1/3 versus 1/6)4. This means that infected children are an important source of infection for their peers, suggesting greater transmission rates in high school compared to elementary school5, as well as in teachers and school administrative staff. The latter would in turn lead to new cases of infection in the school community and, given their greater mobility, also in the general population6.The importance of socialization in teaching-learning processes and the psychological development of children, adolescents and young people is widely recognized. Furthermore, the positive impacts that educational activities have on physical and mental health and more generally, the chances that our children will reach their full potential and have a fulfilling life are well-known. In this regard, and in response to the current situation, the education sector needed to implement new strategies, switching to online education (assisted by information and communications technology (ICT)) and different models of educational alternation.Educational alternation can be offered in different modes such as hybrid learning, in which a group of students has in-person classes and the rest of the group receive online instruction in a synchronous way, providing options for participation in both spaces. Another strategy combines in-person instruction and asynchronous online activities at home, i.e., a group of students will have in-person and remote instruction and another one will only have in-person instruction. Schools that do not implement any educational alternation model will continue with their educational online offer. Every alternation model implemented by schools entails face-to-face instruction and, therefore, the need to take actions for risk reduction, identification of symptomatic and asymptomatic cases, contact tracing, subsequent follow up and self-isolation, when required.No one denies the importance of returning to school. However, this should be safely done to protect the health and life of students, teachers, school administrative and support staff and their families. To this end, each school is required to adhere to and adapt biosafety protocols issued by the ministries of education and health. In addition, the current epidemiological situation of each municipality or urban area as well as the course of the outbreak in the local population and school community need to be taken into account. A complete understanding of the local and institutional epidemiological situation is crucial to make responsible decisions when reopening or closing schools to protect the health, wellbeing and life of the school community.The following aspects are essential to consider when making these decisions:-Transmission and speed rates of SARS-CoV-2 infection in the local population and their impact on the educational environment.-Health care services capacity, especially in Health Promotion Agencies (EPSs in Spanish), to detect and isolate symptomatic and asymptomatic cases; detect outbreaks or clusters of This means that infected children are an important source of infection for their peers, suggesting greater transmission rates in high school compared to elementary school5, as well as in teachers and school administrative staff. A complete understanding of the local and institutional epidemiological situation is crucial to make responsible decisions when reopening or closing schools to protect the health, wellbeing and life of the school community. 3Revista Cuidarte mayo - agosto 2021;12(2): e2244http://dx.doi.org/10.15649/cuidarte.2244COVID-19 cases; identify and trace contacts and implement epidemiological fences to stop disease transmission within the school community.-The degree to which coronavirus infection and disease in students, teachers and other school staff 's relatives can become a risk factor for children and vice versa.-Considering transmission dynamics of COVID-19, biosafety protocols alone do not ensure risk reduction unless supported by strict compliance, school preparation to ensure safe environments and technical, ongoing and accurate analysis of the pandemic situation in the local territory.-Proper ventilation and air circulation of school areas, especially indoors, is a key factor in reducing virus transmission. Therefore, it is a key issue to consider in school preparation.-The decision to reopen a school should be preceded by joint efforts among students, parents, teachers, school board and healthcare personnel to define the basic guidelines for decision making and management actions on healthcare issues, protection of students, staff and their families, as well as coordination with healthcare agencies and anticipation of potential challenges that may arise from school reopening.-Supported by the healthcare sector, schools need to define the indicators that will help them decide when the school should be closed, either partially or totally, given the existence of cases in one bubble (stable coexistence groups) or several bubbles.-In addition to risk and transmission reduction, aspects such as access to distance learning to all schoolchildren from remote, rural, marginalized, low-income, disabled populations and those having relatives at higher risk for COVID-19 should be considered in school reopenings.-Teaching mechanisms should be in place to overcome any gap that schoolchildren may have fallen into due to difficulties in accessing online learning.-Implementation of health and nutrition assistance for children, in addition to health care services for girls and adolescents to prevent pregnancy, harassment and sexual abuse.Faced with the rapidly changing situation of the pandemic, it is necessary to make decisions on school reopening in the midst of great uncertainty. Although there are many challenges that the education sector needs to overcome, during planning and decision making "the response should serve as a catalyst to improve learning outcomes, increase equitable access to education and strengthen the protection, health and safety of children"1 as stated by UNICEF. Consequently, while the return to in-person education is a priority, especially for basic education, the principle of protection and wellbeing of children and ethical principles should take precedence over any political or economic interest, the exercise of authority or a false sense of security.Conflict of interest statement: The authors declare that there is no conflict of interest.


A inesperada chegada da pandemia, enfrentou a todos mudanças drásticas na forma de vida que se desfrutava em épocas de normalidade, obrigando a população a diferentes tipos de confinamento. Estes levaram ao encerramento de quase todos os setores e, consequentemente, à interrupção de muitos serviços essenciais, como as intervenções no sector da educação. Muitas destas intervenções eram dirigidas, além da própria educação, a proporcionar proteção aos alunos, identificar as condições de risco de violência doméstica, maus-tratos e trabalho infantil, fornecer porções alimentares, controlar o cumprimento do plano de vacinação e evitar a deserção escolar, entre outras. Embora os alunos não sejam o grupo mais afetado pela COVID-19, um estudo recente da UNICEF realizado em 87 países revela que, em Novembro de 2020, crianças e adolescentes representaram 11% do total de infeção1, enquanto, na Colômbia, a proporção de casos pediátricos (menores de 18 anos) é estimada entre 7-8% e representam 0.025% do total de mortes2. Embora se tenha relatado que o risco de infecção em escolas é menor do que o do pessoal docente e administrativo em instituições de educação 3, esta discrepância pode ser sobrestimada devido a uma menor probabilidade de detecção, tendo em conta o curso predominantemente assintomático da infecção em crianças. No entanto, COVID-19 pode ser uma doença grave em crianças, contribuindo não só para o número de entradas nas unidades de cuidados intensivos, mas também para o número de casos fatais3. Em termos de transmissão, um estudo conduzido em população infantil evidenciou que a transmissão acontece com maior 2Revista Cuidarte mayo - agosto 2021;12(2): e2244http://dx.doi.org/10.15649/cuidarte.2244frequência no ambiente familiar, relacionadas diretamente com o estádio da doença do caso índice: comparados com casos assintomáticos aqueles em etapa pré-sintomática foram responsáveis pelo dobro de casos secundários (1/3 versus 1/6)4. Isto indica que as crianças infectadas constituem uma fonte importante de contágio para os seus pares, com evidência de maior transmissão no nível secundário comparado com o primário5, como para os membros do pessoal docente e administrativo das suas escolas. Estes últimos, por sua vez, gerariam novos casos de infecção na comunidade estudantil e dada a sua maior movimentação, também na população geral6. A importância que a socialização tem nos processos de ensino-aprendizagem e no desenvolvimento psicológico dos meninos, meninas, adolescentes e jovens é amplamente reconhecida. Além disso, é conhecido o impacto benéfico das atividades educativas na saúde física e mental e em geral, na probabilidade que nossas crianças alcançarem todo o seu potencial e terem uma vida plena. Neste sentido, e adaptando-se à conjuntura, o setor da educação teve que instaurar novas estratégias, passando à modalidade virtual (assistida pelas tecnologias da informação e das comunicações - TICs) e a diferentes modelos de alternância escolar. A alternância é oferecida em diferentes modalidades, como a híbrida, na qual um grupo de estudantes pode receber a aula em forma presencial e os restantes podem fazê-lo de forma virtual e sincronizada, com opções de participação em ambos os espaços. Outra estratégia é o desenvolvimento da classe presencial e de maneira assíncrona o desenvolvimento de atividades virtuais em casa, ou seja, com grupos de estudantes que terão assistência à instituição e trabalho virtual ou apenas assistência à instituição. As instituições que não acolham a alternância continuarão com sua oferta pedagógica na modalidade virtual. Qualquer dos modelos de alternância que as instituições adotem traz consigo a presencialidade e, portanto, a necessidade de realizar ações para a diminuição do risco, a identificação de casos (sintomáticos e assintomáticos) e respectivos contatos, bem como a monitorização e o isolamento, se necessário.Ninguém nega a importância do regresso à escola, mas isso deve ser feito em condições seguras que garantam a proteção da saúde e da vida de alunos, professores, pessoal administrativo e de apoio e das suas famílias. Para alcançar este objetivo, requer-se adesão e adaptação em cada instituição educativa dos protocolos de biossegurança emitidos dos ministérios de educação e saúde. Além disso, é necessário ter em conta a situação epidemiológica atual do município ou área metropolitana e a evolução da epidemia na população local e na comunidade educativa institucional. Este último, o pleno conhecimento da situação epidemiológica local e institucional é crucial para poder decidir responsavelmente quando se abre ou fecha uma instituição educativa, a fim de preservar a saúde, o bem-estar e a vida de seus integrantes. Em particular, no momento das tomadas de decisões, é essencial ter em conta os seguintes aspectos: Isto indica que as crianças infectadas constituem uma fonte importante de contágio para os seus pares, com evidência de maior transmissão no nível secundário comparado com o primário5, como para os membros do pessoal docente e administrativo das suas escolas., o pleno conhecimento da situação epidemiológica local e institucional é crucial para poder decidir responsavelmente quando se abre ou fecha uma instituição educativa, a fim de preservar a saúde, o bem-estar e a vida de seus integrantes. 3Revista Cuidarte mayo - agosto 2021;12(2): e2244http://dx.doi.org/10.15649/cuidarte.2244- A situação da transmissão e a velocidade de contágio do SARS-CoV-2 na localidade e como isso afetará o ambiente educacional- O nível de capacidade dos serviços de saúde e, em especial, das EPS (entidades promotoras de saúde) para detectar e isolar casos sintomáticos e assintomáticos; detectar surtos ou conglomerados de casos; identificar e acompanhar os contatos dos casos e estabelecer barreiras epidemiológicas para impedir a transmissão da doença dentro da instituição de ensino. - Em que medida a infecção e a doença nos familiares dos estudantes, professores e outro pessoal da instituição constituem um fator de risco para as crianças e vice-versa.- Dada a dinâmica da transmissão, os protocolos de biossegurança, por si só, não garantem a redução do risco, se não forem acompanhados do cumprimento estrito dos mesmos, do acondicionamento das instituições educativas para garantir ambientes seguros, e de uma análise técnica, permanente e verdadeira das condições da pandemia na localidade.- Garantir a ventilação adequada e a mudança de ar dos diferentes espaços das instituições educativas, especialmente nas áreas fechadas, é um fator de especial importância para diminuir a transmissão do vírus. Portanto, este aspecto é uma questão chave na adequação das instituições de ensino. - A decisão de abrir uma instituição de educação deve ser precedida de um trabalho conjunto entre os escolares, os pais, os professores, o pessoal dirigente, e o pessoal de saúde, a fim de estabelecer as orientações básicas das decisões e ações, tanto em matéria de saúde como de proteção dos estudantes e do pessoal e suas respectivas famílias, a coordenação com as instituições de saúde e a antecipação da maioria das situações que possam resultar dos processos de abertura. - A instituição educativa deve definir, com o apoio do sector da saúde, os indicadores que lhes permitam decidir em que momento a instituição deve ser encerrada, seja de forma parcial ou total, dada a existência de casos numa bolha (grupos estáveis de convivência) ou em várias bolhas. - Além dos aspectos relacionados com minimizar o risco e diminuir a transmissão, O processo de abertura deve contemplar outros aspectos, tais como: garantir o acesso à educação à distância a todos os alunos das populações distantes ou rurais, marginalizadas, de escassos recursos, com deficiência e cujos familiares pertencem a grupos de alto risco.- Garantir mecanismos pedagógicos que permitam aos alunos, superar a brecha em que podem ter caído, pelas dificuldades de acesso à educação virtual. - Fornecer cuidados de saúde e nutrição às crianças em idade escolar, bem como de cuidados às meninas e adolescentes para a prevenção da gravidez e do assédio sexual.Perante a situação tão variável da pandemia, é necessário tomar as decisões de abertura das instituições, no meio de grande incerteza. São muitos os desafios que o setor da educação tem que enfrentar. Mas na planificação e tomada de decisão, como bem o indica a UNICEF, "a resposta deve servir de catalisador para melhorar os resultados da aprendizagem, tornar mais equitativo o acesso ao ensino e reforçar a proteção, a saúde e a segurança das crianças"1. Embora seja prioritário o regresso à presencialidade, especialmente nos níveis de educação básica, deverão prevalecer o princípio da proteção e do bem-estar das crianças e os princípios éticos, acima de qualquer interesse político ou econômico, do exercício de autoridade ou de uma falsa sensação de segurança.Conflito de interesses: Os autores declaram não ter conflito de interesses.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Health
2.
PLoS One ; 17(3): e0264970, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1736516

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: This study was conducted to examine the relationship between fear of COVID-19, psychological well-being, and satisfaction with life in nursing students. METHODS: A descriptive and cross-sectional design was used in this study. The study was carried out at a university Faculty of Health Sciences Department of Nursing between May 17 and June 25, 2021. The JASP 0.14.1. Software was used for statistical analysis. Kruskal-Wallis test was used for the comparison of three or more groups, Mann-Whitney U test was used for the comparisons of two groups, and Bonferroni-corrected Mann-Whitney U test was used for post hoc analysis. To determine the risk factors for "The Fear of COVID-19 Scale," linear regression analysis with backward stepwise modeling was used. RESULTS: The mean score of the students was 18.48±6.87 from the Fear of COVID-19 Scale, 38.42±12.60 from the Psychological Well-Being Scale, and 13.12±4.97 from the Satisfaction with Life Scale. According to the results of the regression model established, independent variables explained 12.5% of the dependent variables, but the regression model established was found to be statistically significant. A one-unit increase in the satisfaction with life scale increased the fear of COVID-19 scale score by 0.224 units, and this increase was found statistically significant (p = 0.030) as a result of linear regression analysis used with backward stepwise modeling. CONCLUSION: In conclusion, it was found that the students' fear of COVID-19 was below the medium level, their psychological well-being was above the medium level, and that their life satisfaction was below the medium level.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/psychology , Fear/psychology , Students, Nursing/psychology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Health/trends , Humans , Male , Personal Satisfaction , Quality of Life/psychology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Turkey , Universities , Young Adult
3.
Movimento (Porto Alegre) ; 27: e27011, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | WHO COVID, LILACS (Americas) | ID: covidwho-1609147

ABSTRACT

The situation created by the novel coronavirus disease has affected education worldwide, resulting in the urgent need for programs that promote physical activity at home and responsible use of internet-connected devices. This work provides a didactic proposal to perform Expressive Movement & Creative Dance (EMCD) at home adaptable to distinct educational levels and useful as a valuable online or face-to-face education experience even when the coronavirus crisis ends. The proposal is based on the Laban Movement Analysis, the Theatre of the Oppressed, and Lipdub. It seeks to develop students' own artistic body language, emotional intelligence, healthy physical activity and social awareness. Furthermore, it intends to promote the creation of a new social movement (#VIDLOP) using art and popular media as empowering and democratic channels for building a better world. In conclusion, this may be a promising proposal to develop the EMCD and human awareness in challenging scenarios and distinct educational settings.


A situação causada pela nova doença do coronavírus afetou a educação em todo o mundo, sendo urgente a aplicação de programas que promovam a atividade física em casa e o uso responsável de dispositivos conectados à internet. O presente trabalho apresenta uma proposta didática de Expressão Corporal (EC) para a sua prática desde casa, adaptável a diferentes níveis educacionais, e útil também como uma valiosa experiência educacional on-line ou presencial mesmo quando a crise do coronavírus acabe. Esta proposta baseia-se na Análise Laban de Movimento, no Teatro do Oprimido e no Lipdub. Procura desenvolver a linguagem corporal artística própria, a inteligência emocional, comportamentos saudáveis de atividade física e a consciência social dos alunos; e promover a criação de um novo movimento social (#VIDLOP), usando a arte e a mídia popular como canais democráticos e de poder para construir um mundo melhor. Em conclusão, esta pode ser uma proposta promissora para o desenvolvimento da EC e da consciência humana em cenários desafiadores e em diferentes ambientes educacionais.


La situación provocada por la nueva enfermedad del coronavirus ha afectado a la educación en todo el mundo, por lo que es urgente la aplicación de programas que promuevan la actividad física en el hogar y el uso responsable de dispositivos conectados a internet. El presente trabajo presenta una propuesta didáctica de Expresión Corporal (EC) para practicar desde casa, adaptable a diferentes niveles educativos, y útil también como una valiosa experiencia educativa online o presencial, incluso cuando la crisis del coronavirus acabe. Esta propuesta se basa en el Análisis del Movimiento de Laban, en el Teatro del Oprimido y en el Lipdub. Busca desarrollar el lenguaje corporal artístico propio, la inteligencia emocional, comportamientos saludables de actividad física y la conciencia social de los alumnos, además de promover la creación de un nuevo movimiento social (#VIDLOP), utilizando arte y medios de comunicación populares como canales democráticos y de poder para construir un mundo mejor. En conclusión, esta puede ser una propuesta prometedora para el desarrollo de la EC y la conciencia humana en escenarios desafiantes y en diferentes entornos educativos.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Social Isolation , Health , Coronavirus Infections , Coronavirus , Motor Activity , Physical Education and Training , Internet , Kinesics
5.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 70(50): 1723-1730, 2021 Dec 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1575163

ABSTRACT

Vaccination is critical to controlling the COVID-19 pandemic, and health care providers play an important role in achieving high vaccination coverage (1). To examine the prevalence of report of a provider recommendation for COVID-19 vaccination and its association with COVID-19 vaccination coverage and attitudes, CDC analyzed data among adults aged ≥18 years from the National Immunization Survey-Adult COVID Module (NIS-ACM), a nationally representative cellular telephone survey. Prevalence of report of a provider recommendation for COVID-19 vaccination among adults increased from 34.6%, during April 22-May 29, to 40.5%, during August 29-September 25, 2021. Adults who reported a provider recommendation for COVID-19 vaccination were more likely to have received ≥1 dose of a COVID-19 vaccine (77.6%) than were those who did not receive a recommendation (61.9%) (adjusted prevalence ratio [aPR] = 1.12). Report of a provider recommendation was associated with concern about COVID-19 (aPR = 1.31), belief that COVID-19 vaccines are important to protect oneself (aPR = 1.15), belief that COVID-19 vaccination was very or completely safe (aPR = 1.17), and perception that many or all of their family and friends had received COVID-19 vaccination (aPR = 1.19). Empowering health care providers to recommend vaccination to their patients could help reinforce confidence in, and increase coverage with, COVID-19 vaccines, particularly among groups known to have lower COVID-19 vaccination coverage, including younger adults, racial/ethnic minorities, and rural residents.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Health Personnel/psychology , Physician-Patient Relations , Vaccination/statistics & numerical data , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Female , Health , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , United States/epidemiology , Young Adult
6.
Molecules ; 26(22)2021 Nov 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1524088

ABSTRACT

Plants consistently synthesize and accumulate medically valuable secondary metabolites which can be isolated and clinically tested under in vitro conditions. An advancement with such important phytochemical production has been recognized and utilized as herbal drugs. Bioactive andrographolide (AGL; C20H30O5) isolated from Andrographis paniculate (AP) (Kalmegh) is a diterpenoid lactones having multifunctional medicinal properties including anti-manic, anti-inflammatory, liver, and lung protective. AGL is known for its immunostimulant activity against a variety of microbial infections thereby, regulating classical and alternative macrophage activation, Ag-specific antibody production during immune disorder therapy. In vitro studies with AGL found it to be effective against multiple tumors, neuronal disorders, diabetes, pneumonia, fibrosis, and other diverse therapeutic misadventures. Generally, virus-based diseases like ZIKA, influenza A virus subtype (H1NI), Ebola (EBOV), Dengue (DENV), and coronavirus (COVID-19) epidemics have greatly increased scientific interest and demands to develop more effective and economical immunomodulating drugs with minimal side effects. Trials and in vitro pharmacological studies with AGL and medicinally beneficial herbs might contribute to benefit the human population without using chemical-based synthetic drugs. In this review, we have discussed the possible role of AGL as a promising herbal-chemo remedy during human diseases, viral infections and as an immunity booster.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/chemistry , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Diterpenes/chemistry , Diterpenes/pharmacology , Plants, Medicinal/chemistry , Plants, Medicinal/immunology , Virus Diseases/drug therapy , Antiviral Agents/chemical synthesis , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Diterpenes/chemical synthesis , Diterpenes/therapeutic use , Health , Humans , Immune System/drug effects
7.
Nature ; 600(7887): 121-126, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1521756

ABSTRACT

Mental health is an important component of public health, especially in times of crisis. However, monitoring public mental health is difficult because data are often patchy and low-frequency1-3. Here we complement established approaches by using data from helplines, which offer a real-time measure of 'revealed' distress and mental health concerns across a range of topics4-9. We collected data on 8 million calls from 19 countries, focusing on the COVID-19 crisis. Call volumes peaked six weeks after the initial outbreak, at 35% above pre-pandemic levels. The increase was driven mainly by fear (including fear of infection), loneliness and, later in the pandemic, concerns about physical health. Relationship issues, economic problems, violence and suicidal ideation, however, were less prevalent than before the pandemic. This pattern was apparent both during the first wave and during subsequent COVID-19 waves. Issues linked directly to the pandemic therefore seem to have replaced rather than exacerbated underlying anxieties. Conditional on infection rates, suicide-related calls increased when containment policies became more stringent and decreased when income support was extended. This implies that financial relief can allay the distress triggered by lockdown measures and illustrates the insights that can be gleaned from the statistical analysis of helpline data.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Hotlines/statistics & numerical data , Mental Health/statistics & numerical data , Adult , Behavior, Addictive , Datasets as Topic , Employment , Fear , Female , France/epidemiology , Germany/epidemiology , Health , Health Policy , Humans , Internationality , Loneliness , Male , United States/epidemiology , Violence
9.
Saúde Soc ; 30(3): e200888, 2021. graf
Article in Portuguese | WHO COVID, LILACS (Americas) | ID: covidwho-1359117

ABSTRACT

Resumo Este relato de experiência descreve e analisa o projeto de ensino "O que podem os corpos em tempos de pandemia?" desenvolvido com turmas do 1o ano do ensino médio integrado ao curso técnico em Eventos, do Instituto Federal de Mato Grosso no âmbito da disciplina Educação Física, durante a pandemia da covid-19. A proposta de ensino foi baseada nos estudos culturais e no multiculturalismo, abordando os seguintes temas: conceitos de saúde; dicas para manter a saúde física e mental durante a pandemia; vulnerabilidades de indígenas, negros, mulheres e população LGBTQIA+ na pandemia e imagem corporal. Este projeto abordou temas sociais relevantes, promoveu uma maior utilização das tecnologias digitais no processo de ensino-aprendizagem, bem como estimulou a produção cultural dos estudantes.


Abstract This experience report describes and analyses the remote teaching project "What can bodies do in times of pandemic?" developed with classes from the 1st year of High School integrated to the technical course in Events, from the Federal Institute of Mato Grosso (FIMT), within the scope of the Physical Education discipline during the covid-19 pandemic. We rely on Cultural Studies and multiculturalism to develop our teaching proposal. The topics covered were: health concepts; tips for maintaining physical and mental health during the pandemic; vulnerabilities of indigenous, black, women and LGBTQIA+ population in the pandemic; and body image. Despite the difficulties encountered, this project addressed relevant social issues, promoted greater use of digital technologies in the teaching-learning process, as well as stimulated the students' cultural production.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Physical Education and Training , Teaching , Health , Cultural Diversity , Pandemics , COVID-19
10.
Cells ; 10(7)2021 07 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1323128

ABSTRACT

Programmed cell death is a conserved evolutionary process of cell suicide that is central to the development and integrity of eukaryotic organisms [...].


Subject(s)
Apoptosis , Disease , Health , Animals , Apoptosis/drug effects , Biological Products/pharmacology , Caenorhabditis elegans/drug effects , Caspase 2/metabolism , Humans , Mitochondria/drug effects , Mitochondria/metabolism , Neoplasms/pathology , Nerve Degeneration/pathology
11.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 118(25)2021 06 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1287854

ABSTRACT

Individuals who are minoritized as a result of race, sexual identity, gender, or socioeconomic status experience a higher prevalence of many diseases. Understanding the biological processes that cause and maintain these socially driven health inequities is essential for addressing them. The gut microbiome is strongly shaped by host environments and affects host metabolic, immune, and neuroendocrine functions, making it an important pathway by which differences in experiences caused by social, political, and economic forces could contribute to health inequities. Nevertheless, few studies have directly integrated the gut microbiome into investigations of health inequities. Here, we argue that accounting for host-gut microbe interactions will improve understanding and management of health inequities, and that health policy must begin to consider the microbiome as an important pathway linking environments to population health.


Subject(s)
Gastrointestinal Microbiome , Health Status Disparities , Disease , Health , Humans , Mental Health , Publications
12.
J Clin Exp Neuropsychol ; 43(5): 497-513, 2021 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1272921

ABSTRACT

Introduction: The rapid development of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) into a pandemic required people to quickly acquire, evaluate, and apply novel complex health-related information about the virus and transmission risks. This study examined the potentially unique and synergistic roles of individual differences in neurocognition and health literacy in the early uptake and use of COVID-19 public health information.Method: Data were collected between April 23 and 21 May 2020, a period during which 42 out of 50 states were under a stay-at-home order. Participants were 217 healthy adults who completed a telephone-based battery that included standard tests of neurocognition, health literacy, verbal IQ, personality, and anxiety. Participants also completed measures of COVID-19 information-seeking skills, knowledge, prevention intentions, and prevention behaviors.Results: A series of hierarchical multiple regressions with data-driven covariates showed that neurocognition (viz, episodic verbal memory and executive functions) was independently related to COVID-19 knowledge (e.g. symptoms, risks) at a medium effect size, but not to information-seeking skills, prevention intentions, or prevention behaviors. Health literacy was independently related to all measured aspects of COVID-19 health information and did not interact with neurocognition in any COVID-19 health domain.Conclusions: Individual differences in neurocognition and health literacy played independent and meaningful roles in the initial acquisition of knowledge related to COVID-19, which is a novel human health condition. Future studies might examine whether neurocognitive supports (e.g. spaced retrieval practice, elaboration) can improve COVID-19-related knowledge and health behaviors in vulnerable populations.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Health Behavior , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Health Literacy , Individuality , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Health , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2 , Young Adult
13.
Lancet ; 397(10291): 2304-2308, 2021 06 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1265895

ABSTRACT

Strong US-China collaboration on health and medicine is a crucial element of the global effort against COVID-19. We review the history of health collaboration and exchanges between the public and private sectors in the USA and China, including the long-lasting collaboration between governmental public health agencies of the two countries. Academic and scientific exchanges should be reinvigorated and the increasing valuable role of non-profit foundations acknowledged. The shared interests of the two countries and the magnitude of the pandemic necessitate both countries to collaborate and cooperate. We provide recommendations to the two governments and the global health community to control the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic and prepare for future threats. TRANSLATION: For the Chinese translation of the abstract see Supplementary Materials section.


Subject(s)
Health , International Cooperation/history , Medicine , China , Global Health , Government Agencies , History, 20th Century , History, 21st Century , Humans , Private Sector , Public Health , Public Sector , Science , United States , Universities
14.
Rev. colomb. anestesiol ; 49(3): e100, July-Sept. 2021.
Article in English | WHO COVID, LILACS (Americas) | ID: covidwho-1262655

ABSTRACT

While pondering about a way to convey a message of hope, kindness and solidarity to my anesthesiology colleagues and to all the healthcare professionals and workers in Colombia and around the world, who are in the frontlines of the COVID-19 pandemic, I realized - once again- the severe impact it has had on our mental health and our lives. In the history of our generation and probably since 1918, mankind had not experienced the deleterious effect of a pandemic of such magnitude on our lives. A disrupting event of such magnitude invites us to reflect daily. So, I remembered that we, Colombian anesthesiologists, have a fantastic leader who sets an example for many of us, and who is renowned worldwide. A global leader in innovation and the creation of the future: Professor Alejandro Jadad. He used to speak often about pandemics, but pandemics of health and joy.


Mientras reflexionaba sobre una manera de transmitir un mensaje de esperanza, amabilidad y solidaridad a mis colegas de anestesiología y a todos los profesionales y trabajadores de la salud en Colombia y en todo el mundo, que se encuentran en la primera línea de la pandemia de COVID-19, me di cuenta: una vez de nuevo, el impacto severo que ha tenido en nuestra salud mental y nuestras vidas. En la historia de nuestra generación y probablemente desde 1918, la humanidad no había experimentado el efecto deletéreo de una pandemia de tal magnitud en nuestras vidas. Un acontecimiento perturbador de tal magnitud nos invita a reflexionar a diario. Entonces, recordé que nosotros, los anestesiólogos colombianos, tenemos un líder fantástico que es un ejemplo para muchos de nosotros y que es reconocido mundialmente. Líder mundial en innovación y creación de futuro: el profesor Alejandro Jadad. Solía ​​hablar a menudo de pandemias, pero de pandemias de salud y alegría.


Subject(s)
Humans , Health Personnel , Delivery of Health Care , Pandemics , Anesthesiology , Occupational Groups , Societies , Health , Mental Health , Richter Scale , Anesthesiologists , History
15.
Biomed Res Int ; 2021: 6680764, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1191261

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: In recent years, several controversial reports of the correlation between altmetric score and citations have been published (range: -0.2 to 0.8). We conducted a meta-analysis to provide an in-depth statistical analysis of the correlation between altmetric score and number of citations in the field of health sciences. METHODS: Three online databases (Web of Science, Scopus, and PubMed) were systematically searched, without language restrictions, from the earliest publication date available through February 29, 2020, using the keywords "altmetric," "citation," and "correlation." Grey literature was also searched via WorldCat, Open Grey, and Google Scholar (first 100 hits only). All studies in the field of health sciences that reported on this correlation were included. Effect sizes were calculated using Fisher's z transformation of correlations. Subgroup analyses based on citation source and sampling methods were performed. RESULTS: From 27 included articles, 8 articles comprise several independent studies. The total sample size was 9,943 articles comprised of 35 studies. The overall pooled effect size was 0.19 (95% confidence interval 0.13 to 0.26). Bivariate partial prediction of interaction between effect size, citation source, and sampling method showed a greater effect size with Web of Science compared with Scopus and Dimensions. Egger's regression showed a marginally nonsignificant publication bias (p = 0.055), and trim-and-fill analysis estimated one missing study in this meta-analysis. CONCLUSION: In health sciences, currently altmetric score has a positive but weak correlation with number of citations (pooled correlation = 0.19, 95% C.I 0.12 to 0.25). We emphasize on future examinations to assess changes of correlation pattern between altmetric score and citations over time.


Subject(s)
Bibliometrics , Publications , Health , Humans , Publication Bias , Regression Analysis
16.
Health Serv Manage Res ; 34(1): 1-2, 2021 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1166740

Subject(s)
Health , Humans
17.
Rev. adm. pública (Online) ; 55(1): 215-228, Jan.-Feb. 2021. graf
Article in English | WHO COVID, LILACS (Americas) | ID: covidwho-1159200

ABSTRACT

Abstract The COVID-19 pandemic has all features of a wicked problem. It is not only a crisis of intensive care but also a more complex health, social, economic, and humanitarian crisis. Moreover, its risks will continue until mass vaccination is undertaken, hence, the control of contagiousness relies on citizens' responsible behavior. Strategies to fight COVID-19 in Lombardy, Veneto (Italy) and in Ticino (Switzerland) have shown that a more balanced approach focusing not exclusively on hospitals but also on a territorial basis, pays off. Therefore, a more integrated approach is beneficial from a clinical, social, and economic point of view providing procedures for future emergencies.


Resumo A pandemia da COVID-19 mostra todas as características de um problema prejudicial. Não se trata somente de uma crise de cuidados intensivos, mas também de uma crise sanitária, social, econômica e humanitária mais complexa. Ademais, seus riscos continuarão até que se leve a cabo uma vacinação massiva pois o controle do contagio depende dela e do comportamento responsável dos cidadãos. As estratégias de luta contra a COVID-19 na Lombardia, Vêneto (Italia) e Ticino (Suíça) têm apontado ser mais frutífero um enfoque mais equilibrado que não se centra exclusivamente nos hospitais senão também no território. Portanto, um enfoque mais integrado traz benefícios do ponto de vista clínico, social e econômico ao mesmo tempo que fornece também a preparação para as futuras emergências.


Resumen La pandemia de COVID-19 muestra todas las características de un grave problema. No se trata sólo de una crisis de cuidados intensivos, sino también de una crisis sanitaria, social, económica y humanitaria más compleja. Además, sus riesgos continuarán hasta que se lleve a cabo una vacunación masiva, de esto depende el control del contagio, y también del comportamiento responsable de los ciudadanos. Las estrategias de lucha contra la COVID-19 en Lombardía, Véneto (Italia) y Tesino (Suiza) han demostrado que es más fructífero un enfoque más equilibrado que no se centre exclusivamente en los hospitales, sino también en el territorio. Por tanto, un enfoque más integrado será beneficioso desde el punto de vista clínico, social y económico, y brindará también preparación para futuras emergencias.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Health Behavior , Health , Mass Vaccination , Coronavirus Infections , eHealth Strategies
20.
Eur Addict Res ; 27(4): 239-241, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1066975

ABSTRACT

The ongoing COVID-19 pandemic is likely to have a profound impact on the lives of high-risk drug users and on the services responding to their needs in at least two important ways: first, through the restrictive measures introduced to mitigate the spread of the virus and, second, as a result of extensive economic downturn. Currently there is great uncertainty as to the future intensity and duration of the pandemic. In addition, the lessons we have been able to learn from previous economic downturns may be of limited applicability to the current situation, which differs in a number of significant respects. Experience nevertheless suggests that the potential consequences for drug users' health and well-being may be severe. The ongoing uncertainty serves to underline the importance of close monitoring of the drug situation and preparing flexible and innovative solutions to be able to meet new challenges which may arise.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/economics , COVID-19/prevention & control , Drug Users/statistics & numerical data , Economic Recession/statistics & numerical data , Physical Distancing , Substance-Related Disorders/rehabilitation , Crisis Intervention , Drug Users/psychology , Health , Humans , Pandemics , Substance-Related Disorders/economics , Uncertainty
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