Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 1.096
Filter
1.
J Psychosoc Nurs Ment Health Serv ; 59(5): 6, 2021 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20240855
2.
J Psychosoc Nurs Ment Health Serv ; 59(5): 6, 2021 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20231724
4.
J Prim Care Community Health ; 14: 21501319231174810, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20239780

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: COVID-19 disproportionally affected Hispanic/Latinx populations exacerbating systemic health inequities. The pilot study aimed to explore barriers to COVID-19 vaccination across Hispanic/Latinx communities in Southern California. METHODS: Cross-sectional survey of 200 participants to identify common barriers to vaccine hesitancy among Hispanics/Latinx individuals in Southern California utilizing a 14-item survey and questionnaire in English and Spanish. RESULTS: Of the 200 participants that completed questionnaires, 37% identified a knowledge deficit, 8% identified misinformation, and 15% identified additional barriers such as awaiting appointments, immigration status, transportation issues, or religious reasons as barriers to not receiving the COVID-19 vaccine. Wald statistics denoted that household members with COVID-19 infection within the past 3 months saw a medical provider within the last year, wearing a mask in public often, and barriers to vaccination (not knowing enough about the vaccine) predicted vaccine. These variables indicated changes in the likelihood of obtaining vaccination. CONCLUSION: The most crucial factor for increasing vaccination rates was directly reaching out to the community and actively conducting surveys to address the barriers and concerns encountered by Hispanic/Latinx participants.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Healthcare Disparities , Vaccination , Humans , COVID-19/prevention & control , Cross-Sectional Studies , Hispanic or Latino , Pilot Projects
6.
JAMA ; 329(23): 2013-2014, 2023 06 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20234550

ABSTRACT

This Viewpoint discusses the proliferation of decentralized clinical trials during the COVID-19 pandemic and the need for rigorous studies to inform whether decentralized approaches promote or prevent access to clinical trials for people facing health disparities.


Subject(s)
Clinical Trials as Topic , Health Equity , Humans , Healthcare Disparities , Pandemics , Clinical Trials as Topic/methods , Clinical Trials as Topic/organization & administration
7.
J Natl Med Assoc ; 115(2S): S13-S18, 2023 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20234134
8.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 23(1): 542, 2023 May 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20244270

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Evidence on inequalities in the health services use is important for public policy formulation, even more so in a pandemic context. The aim of this study was to evaluate socioeconomic inequities in the specialized health use services according to health insurance and income, following COVID-19 in individuals residing in Southern Brazil. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional telephone survey with individuals aged 18 years or older diagnosed with symptomatic COVID-19 using the RT-PCR test between December 2020 and March 2021. Questions were asked about attendance at a health care facility following COVID-19, the facilities used, health insurance and income. Inequalities were assessed by the following measures: Slope Index of Inequality (SII) and Concentration Index (CIX). Adjusted analyses were performed using Poisson regression with robust variance adjustment using the Stata 16.1 statistical package. RESULTS: 2,919 people (76.4% of those eligible) were interviewed. Of these, 24.7% (95%CI 23.2; 36.3) used at least one specialized health service and 20.3% (95%CI 18.9; 21.8) had at least one consultation with specialist doctors after diagnosis of COVID-19. Individuals with health insurance were more likely to use specialized services. The probability of using specialized services was up to three times higher among the richest compared to the poorest. CONCLUSIONS: There are socioeconomic inequalities in the specialized services use by individuals following COVID-19 in the far south of Brazil. It is necessary to reduce the difficulty in accessing and using specialized services and to extrapolate the logic that purchasing power transposes health needs. The strengthening of the public health system is essential to guarantee the population's right to health.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Healthcare Disparities , Humans , Socioeconomic Factors , Brazil/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , COVID-19/epidemiology , Health Services
9.
Endocr Pract ; 29(7): 529-537, 2023 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20235696

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: We examined diabetes outpatient management during the first 2 years of the Coronavirus Disease 2019 pandemic in an endocrinology practice with a focus on health care disparities in outcomes. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective cohort study examining adults with diabetes during 3 time periods: T1 (March 2019-February 2020), T2 (March 2020-February 2021), and T3 (March 2021-February 2022). Clinical outcomes included body mass index (BMI), systolic blood pressure (SBP), Hemoglobin A1c (HgbA1c), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL), and urine albumin:creatinine ratio. Appointment types (virtual vs in-person) were also collected. RESULTS: Frequencies of HgbA1c, BMI, and SBP measurements reduced by 36.0%, 46.3%, and 48.5% in T2, respectively, and remaining 8.7% (HgbA1c), 13.4% (BMI), and 15.2% (SBP) lower at the end of the study period (P < .001) compared to prepandemic levels. However, the average HgbA1c and LDL slightly improved. Clinic appointments per patient increased during the pandemic, fueled by telehealth utilization. Women had fewer in-person visits during T2, those older than 65 had better HgbA1c, and the most socioeconomically deprived group had the worst HgbA1c during every time period. In addition, black patients had worse HgbA1c, LDL, and SBP values throughout the study, which did not worsen over the pandemic. CONCLUSION: While the frequency of health measurements had not fully recovered 2 years into the pandemic, this did not translate to worse diabetes management or a widening of pre-existing disparities. Our study emphasizes the role of equitable health care in minimizing inequalities in diabetes, particularly during times of crisis.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus , Telemedicine , Adult , Humans , Female , Retrospective Studies , Outpatients , Healthcare Disparities , Pandemics , COVID-19/epidemiology , Glycated Hemoglobin
11.
J Natl Med Assoc ; 115(2S): S46-S53, 2023 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20235075

ABSTRACT

Lung cancer is the second most common cancer and the leading cause of cancer death among men and women in the United States. Despite a substantial decline in lung cancer incidence and mortality across all races in the last few decades, medically underserved racial and ethnic minority populations continue to carry the greatest burden of disease throughout the lung cancer continuum. Black individuals experience a higher incidence of lung cancer due to lower rates of low-dose computed tomography screening, which translate into advanced disease stage at diagnosis and poorer survival outcomes compared with White individuals. With respect to treatment, Black patients are less likely to receive gold standard surgery, have access to biomarker testing or high-quality treatment compared with White patients. The reasons for those disparities are multifactorial and include socioeconomic (eg, poverty, lack of health insurance, and inadequate education), and geographic inequalities. The objective of this article is to review the sources of racial and ethnic disparities in lung cancer, and to propose recommendations to help address them.


Subject(s)
Ethnicity , Lung Neoplasms , Male , Humans , Female , United States/epidemiology , Healthcare Disparities , Minority Groups , Lung Neoplasms/diagnosis , Lung Neoplasms/epidemiology , Racial Groups
12.
AMIA Annu Symp Proc ; 2022: 396-405, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20241303

ABSTRACT

Including social determinants of health (SDoH) data in health outcomes research is essential for studying the sources of healthcare disparities and developing strategies to mitigate stressors. In this report, we describe a pragmatic design and approach to explore the encoding needs for transmitting SDoH screening tool responses from a large safety-net hospital into the National Covid Cohort Collaborative (N3C) OMOP dataset. We provide a stepwise account of designing data mapping and ingestion for patient-level SDoH and summarize the results of screening. Our approach demonstrates that sharing of these important data - typically stored as non-standard, EHR vendor specific codes - is feasible. As SDoH screening gains broader use nationally, the approach described in this paper could be used for other screening instruments and improve the interoperability of these important data.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Social Determinants of Health , Cohort Studies , Healthcare Disparities , Humans , Mass Screening
13.
BMC Med Inform Decis Mak ; 23(1): 95, 2023 05 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2323459

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Telemedicine has become more convenient and advantageous due to the rapid development of the internet and telecommunications. A growing number of patients are turning to telemedicine for health consultations and health-related information. Telemedicine can increase access to medical care by removing geographical and other barriers. In most nations, the COVID-19 pandemic imposed social isolation. This has accelerated the transition to telemedicine, which has become the most commonly utilized method of outpatient care in many places. Telehealth can assist resolve gaps in access to healthcare services and health outcomes, in addition to its primary function of boosting accessibility to remote health services. However, as the benefits of telemedicine become more apparent, so do the limitations of serving vulnerable groups. Some populations may lack digital literacy or internet access. Homeless persons, the elderly, and people with inadequate language skills are also affected. In such circumstances, telemedicine has the potential to exacerbate health inequities. AIM AND METHODS: In this narrative review (using the PubMed and Google scholar database), the different benefits and drawbacks of telemedicine are discussed, both globally and in Israel, with particular focus paid to special populations and to the telehealth usage during the Covid-19 period. FINDINGS: The contradiction and paradox of using telemedicine to address health inequities yet sometimes making them worse is highlighted. The effectiveness of telemedicine in bridging access to healthcare inequities is explored along with a number of potential solutions. CONCLUSIONS: Policy makers should identify barriers among special populations to using telemedicine. They should initiate interventions to overcome these barriers, while adapting them to the needs of these groups.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Telecommunications , Telemedicine , Humans , Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , Healthcare Disparities , Pandemics
14.
Health Serv Res ; 58(3): 642-653, 2023 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2314515

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The COVID-19 pandemic disproportionately affected racial and ethnic minorities among the general population in the United States; however, little is known regarding its impact on U.S. military Veterans. In this study, our objectives were to identify the extent to which Veterans experienced increased all-cause mortality during the COVID-19 pandemic, stratified by race and ethnicity. DATA SOURCES: Administrative data from the Veterans Health Administration's Corporate Data Warehouse. STUDY DESIGN: We use pre-pandemic data to estimate mortality risk models using five-fold cross-validation and quasi-Poisson regression. Models were stratified by a combined race-ethnicity variable and included controls for major comorbidities, demographic characteristics, and county fixed effects. DATA COLLECTION: We queried data for all Veterans residing in the 50 states plus Washington D.C. during 2016-2020. Veterans were excluded from analyses if they were missing county of residence or race-ethnicity data. Data were then aggregated to the county-year level and stratified by race-ethnicity. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Overall, Veterans' mortality rates were 16% above normal during March-December 2020 which equates to 42,348 excess deaths. However, there was substantial variation by racial and ethnic group. Non-Hispanic White Veterans experienced the smallest relative increase in mortality (17%, 95% CI 11%-24%), while Native American Veterans had the highest increase (40%, 95% CI 17%-73%). Black Veterans (32%, 95% CI 27%-39%) and Hispanic Veterans (26%, 95% CI 17%-36%) had somewhat lower excess mortality, although these changes were significantly higher compared to White Veterans. Disparities were smaller than in the general population. CONCLUSIONS: Minoritized Veterans experienced higher rates excess of mortality during the COVID-19 pandemic compared to White Veterans, though with smaller differences than the general population. This is likely due in part to the long-standing history of structural racism in the United States that has negatively affected the health of minoritized communities via several pathways including health care access, economic, and occupational inequities.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Veterans , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/ethnology , Ethnicity/statistics & numerical data , Hispanic or Latino/statistics & numerical data , Pandemics , United States/epidemiology , Veterans/statistics & numerical data , White/statistics & numerical data , Black or African American/statistics & numerical data , American Indian or Alaska Native/statistics & numerical data , Health Status Disparities , Healthcare Disparities/economics , Healthcare Disparities/ethnology , Healthcare Disparities/statistics & numerical data , Systemic Racism/ethnology , Systemic Racism/statistics & numerical data , Health Services Accessibility , Employment/economics , Employment/statistics & numerical data , Occupations/economics , Occupations/statistics & numerical data
15.
Health Aff (Millwood) ; 42(5): 731, 2023 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2319545
17.
Phys Med Rehabil Clin N Am ; 34(3): 657-675, 2023 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2309211

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease-2019 pandemic exposed and expanded upon preexisting health care disparities. Individuals with disabilities and those who identify with racial/ethnic minority groups have been disproportionately adversely impacted. These inequities are likely present in the proportions of individuals impacted by post-acute sequelae of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 infection requiring specialized rehabilitation. Specific populations including, but not limited to pregnant, pediatric, and older individuals, may also necessitate tailored medical care during acute infection and beyond. Telemedicine may reduce the care gap. Further research and clinical guidance are needed to provide equitable, culturally competent, and individualized care to these historically or socially marginalized and underrepresented populations.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , Child , COVID-19/epidemiology , Ethnicity , Healthcare Disparities , SARS-CoV-2 , Pandemics , Minority Groups , Health Services Accessibility
18.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 72(16): 437-444, 2023 Apr 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2294643

ABSTRACT

In 2021, the CDC Director declared that racism is a serious threat to public health,* reflecting a growing awareness of racism as a cause of health inequities, health disparities, and disease. Racial and ethnic disparities in COVID-19-related hospitalization and death (1,2) illustrate the need to examine root causes, including experiences of discrimination. This report describes the association between reported experiences of discrimination in U.S. health care settings and COVID-19 vaccination status and intent to be vaccinated by race and ethnicity during April 22, 2021-November 26, 2022, based on the analysis of interview data collected from 1,154,347 respondents to the National Immunization Survey-Adult COVID Module (NIS-ACM). Overall, 3.5% of adults aged ≥18 years reported having worse health care experiences compared with persons of other races and ethnicities (i.e., they experienced discrimination), with significantly higher percentages reported by persons who identified as non-Hispanic Black or African American (Black) (10.7%), non-Hispanic American Indian or Alaska Native (AI/AN) (7.2%), non-Hispanic multiple or other race (multiple or other race) (6.7%), Hispanic or Latino (Hispanic) (4.5%), non-Hispanic Native Hawaiian or other Pacific Islander (NHOPI) (3.9%), and non-Hispanic Asian (Asian) (2.8%) than by non-Hispanic White (White) persons (1.6%). Unadjusted differences in prevalence of being unvaccinated against COVID-19 among respondents reporting worse health care experiences than persons of other races and ethnicities compared with those who reported that their health care experiences were the same as those of persons of other races and ethnicities were statistically significant overall (5.3) and for NHOPI (19.2), White (10.5), multiple or other race (5.7), Black (4.6), Asian (4.3), and Hispanic (2.6) adults. Findings were similar for vaccination intent. Eliminating inequitable experiences in health care settings might help reduce some disparities in receipt of a COVID-19 vaccine.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Healthcare Disparities , Racism , Adolescent , Adult , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , Ethnicity , Health Services Accessibility , United States/epidemiology
20.
J Rural Health ; 39(3): 617-624, 2023 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2298027

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Although telehealth access and utilization have increased during the pandemic, rural and low-income disparities persist. We sought to assess whether access or willingness to use telehealth differed between rural and non-rural and low-income and non-low-income adults and measure the prevalence of perceived barriers. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional study using COVID-19's Unequal Racial Burden (CURB) online survey (December 17, 2020-February 17, 2021), which included 2 nationally representative cohorts of rural and low-income Black/African American, Latino, and White adults. Non-rural and non-low-income participants from the main, nationally representative sample were matched for rural versus non-rural and low-income versus non-low-income comparisons. We measured perceived telehealth access, willingness to use telehealth, and perceived telehealth barriers. FINDINGS: Rural (38.6% vs 44.9%) and low-income adults (42.0% vs 47.4%) were less likely to report telehealth access, compared to non-rural and non-low-income counterparts. After adjustment, rural adults were still less likely to report telehealth access (adjusted prevalence ratio [aPR] = 0.89, 95% CI = 0.79-0.99); no differences were seen between low-income and non-low-income adults (aPR = 1.02, 95% CI = 0.88-1.17). The majority of adults reported willingness to use telehealth (rural = 78.4%; low-income = 79.0%), with no differences between rural and non-rural (aPR = 0.99, 95% CI = 0.92-1.08) or low-income versus non-low-income (aPR = 1.01, 95% CI = 0.91-1.13). No racial/ethnic differences were observed in willingness to use telehealth. The prevalence of perceived telehealth barriers was low, with the majority reporting no barriers (rural = 57.4%; low-income = 56.9%). CONCLUSIONS: Lack of access (and awareness of access) is likely a primary driver of disparities in rural telehealth use. Race/ethnicity was not associated with telehealth willingness, suggesting that equal utilization is possible once granted access.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Telemedicine , Adult , Humans , United States , Cross-Sectional Studies , Healthcare Disparities , COVID-19/epidemiology , White
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL