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2.
Nursing ; 52(1): 38-43, 2022 Jan 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1612691

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT: This article discusses the interconnection between the syndemic effect of racial inequities and disparities as well as the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on Black Americans. It also highlights meaningful reforms and priorities to achieve health equity in Black communities.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Racism , Health Status Disparities , Healthcare Disparities , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Syndemic , United States/epidemiology
4.
Am J Public Health ; 112(1): 29-33, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1597066

ABSTRACT

Minority populations have been disproportionately affected by the COVID-19 pandemic, and disparities have been noted in vaccine uptake. In the state of Arkansas, health equity strike teams (HESTs) were deployed to address vaccine disparities. A total of 13 470 vaccinations were administered by HESTs to 10 047 eligible people at 45 events. Among these individuals, 5645 (56.2%) were African American, 2547 (25.3%) were White, and 1068 (10.6%) were Hispanic. Vaccination efforts must specifically target populations that have been disproportionately affected by the pandemic. (Am J Public Health. 2022;112(1):29-33. https://doi.org/10.2105/AJPH.2021.306564).


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Health Equity/organization & administration , Healthcare Disparities/ethnology , Vaccination/statistics & numerical data , Adult , Aged , Arkansas , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , Health Promotion/organization & administration , Healthcare Disparities/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Middle Aged , Social Determinants of Health
5.
J Cyst Fibros ; 20 Suppl 3: 49-54, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1587337

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Due to the COVID-19 pandemic, there was an uptake of telehealth in cystic fibrosis care. Previous studies show disparities in telehealth use based on socioeconomic status (SES). We aimed to: (1) understand telehealth use and perceptions and (2) identify the facilitators and barriers to telehealth use among people with CF and their families (PwCF) from diverse racial/ethnic and socioeconomic backgrounds. METHODS: We conducted an analysis of the 2020 Cystic Fibrosis State of Care surveys completed by PwCF (PFSoC), CF Care Programs (SoC1) and the CF Foundation Patient Registry (CFFPR). RESULTS: A total of 424 PwCF and 286 programs responded to the PFSoC and SoC1. Among PwCF, 90% self-identified as White, 6% as Hispanic/Latino, and 2% as Black. Racial/ethnic minorities were less likely to have had a telehealth visit (p=.015). This difference was pronounced among the Hispanic/Latino population (p<.01). Telehealth use did not differ by health insurance and was similarly offered independent of financial status. Compared to PwCF who denied financial constraints, those who reported financial difficulties found telehealth more difficult to use (p=.018) and were less likely to think that their concerns (p=.010) or issues that mattered most to them (p=.020) were addressed during telehealth. Programs perceived lack of technology, language barriers, and home conditions as barriers to telehealth in vulnerable populations. CONCLUSION: PFSoC and SoC1 identified differences in telehealth use and care perceptions by ethnicity, race, and socioeconomic characteristics. Further studies are needed to understand how telehealth can change access to CF care in diverse subpopulations.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Communication Barriers , Cystic Fibrosis , Minority Health , Telemedicine , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Communicable Disease Control/methods , Cystic Fibrosis/economics , Cystic Fibrosis/ethnology , Cystic Fibrosis/psychology , Cystic Fibrosis/therapy , Financial Stress/ethnology , Health Services Accessibility/organization & administration , Health Services Accessibility/trends , Healthcare Disparities/ethnology , Healthcare Disparities/standards , Humans , Minority Health/ethnology , Minority Health/standards , Minority Health/statistics & numerical data , Needs Assessment , Organizational Innovation , SARS-CoV-2 , Socioeconomic Factors , Telemedicine/organization & administration , Telemedicine/standards , United States/epidemiology , Vulnerable Populations/statistics & numerical data
6.
Clin Obstet Gynecol ; 65(1): 123-133, 2022 03 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1584009

ABSTRACT

The influence of social determinants of health on disease dynamics and outcomes has become increasingly clear, making them a prime target of investigation and mitigation efforts. The obstetric population is uniquely positioned to provide insight into the health inequities exacerbated by the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic given their susceptibility to infectious disease morbidity and frequent interactions with the health care system, which provide opportunities for ascertainment of disease incidence and severity. This review summarizes the data on disparities identified in the US obstetric population during the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic as they relate to race and ethnicity, built environment, insurance status, language, and immigration status.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Obstetrics , Female , Healthcare Disparities , Humans , Pandemics , Pregnancy , SARS-CoV-2 , United States/epidemiology
7.
Ann Med ; 53(1): 151-159, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1574907

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To utilize publicly reported, state-level data to identify factors associated with the frequency of cases, tests, and mortality in the USA. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Retrospective study using publicly reported data collected included the number of COVID-19 cases, tests and mortality from March 14th through April 30th. Publicly available state-level data was collected which included: demographics comorbidities, state characteristics and environmental factors. Univariate and multivariate regression analyses were performed to identify the significantly associated factors with percent mortality, case and testing frequency. All analyses were state-level analyses and not patient-level analyses. RESULTS: A total of 1,090,500 COVID-19 cases were reported during the study period. The calculated case and testing frequency were 3332 and 19,193 per 1,000,000 patients. There were 63,642 deaths during this period which resulted in a mortality of 5.8%. Factors including to but not limited to population density (beta coefficient 7.5, p < .01), transportation volume (beta coefficient 0.1, p < .01), tourism index (beta coefficient -0.1, p = .02) and older age (beta coefficient 0.2, p = .01) are associated with case frequency and percent mortality. CONCLUSIONS: There were wide variations in testing and case frequencies of COVID-19 among different states in the US. States with higher population density had a higher case and testing rate. States with larger population of elderly and higher tourism had a higher mortality. Key messages There were wide variations in testing and case frequencies of COVID-19 among different states in the USA. States with higher population density had a higher case and testing rate. States with larger population of elderly and higher tourism had a higher mortality.


Subject(s)
Clinical Laboratory Techniques/statistics & numerical data , Coronavirus Infections/mortality , Pneumonia, Viral/mortality , COVID-19 , COVID-19 Testing , Comorbidity , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Female , Healthcare Disparities , Humans , Male , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , United States/epidemiology
14.
J Gen Intern Med ; 36(11): 3545-3549, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1525605

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has underscored the structural inequities facing communities of color and its consequences in lives lost. However, little is known about the COVID-related disparities facing Asian Americans amidst the heightened racism and violence against this community. We analyze the mortality toll of COVID-19 on Asian Americans using multiple measures. In 2020, one in seven Asian American deaths was attributable to COVID-19. We find that while Asian Americans make up a small proportion of COVID-19 deaths in the USA, they experience significantly higher excess all-cause mortality (3.1 times higher), case fatality rate (as high as 53% higher), and percentage of deaths attributed to COVID-19 (2.1 times higher) compared to non-Hispanic Whites. Mounting evidence suggest that disproportionately low testing rates, greater disease severity at care presentation, socioeconomic factors, and racial discrimination contribute to the observed disparities. Improving data reporting and uniformly confronting racism are key components to addressing health inequities facing communities of color.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Racism , Asian Americans , Health Status Disparities , Healthcare Disparities , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , United States/epidemiology
15.
BMJ ; 375: n2608, 2021 11 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1518139

ABSTRACT

The studyLester S, Khatwa M, Sutcliffe K. Service needs of young people affected by adverse childhood experiences (ACEs): A systematic review of UK qualitative evidence. Child Youth Serv Rev 2020;118:105429.To read the full NIHR Alert, go to https://evidence.nihr.ac.uk/alert/support-needs-of-young-people-affected-by-adverse-childhood-experiences/.


Subject(s)
Adverse Childhood Experiences/psychology , Mental Health Services , Social Support , Adolescent , Adult , Child , Female , Healthcare Disparities , Humans , Male , Qualitative Research , United Kingdom , Young Adult
17.
Clin Orthop Relat Res ; 479(7): 1417-1425, 2021 07 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1511052

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Healthcare disparities are well documented across multiple subspecialties in orthopaedics. The widespread implementation of telemedicine risks worsening these disparities if not carefully executed, despite original assumptions that telemedicine improves overall access to care. Telemedicine also poses unique challenges such as potential language or technological barriers that may alter previously described patterns in orthopaedic disparities. QUESTIONS/PURPOSES: Are the proportions of patients who use telemedicine across orthopaedic services different among (1) racial and ethnic minorities, (2) non-English speakers, and (3) patients insured through Medicaid during a 10-week period after the implementation of telemedicine in our healthcare system compared with in-person visits during a similar time period in 2019? METHODS: This was a retrospective comparative study using electronic medical record data to compare new patients establishing orthopaedic care via outpatient telemedicine at two academic urban medical centers between March 2020 and May 2020 with new orthopaedic patients during the same 10-week period in 2019. A total of 11,056 patients were included for analysis, with 1760 in the virtual group and 9296 in the control group. Unadjusted analyses demonstrated patients in the virtual group were younger (median age 57 years versus 59 years; p < 0.001), but there were no differences with regard to gender (56% female versus 56% female; p = 0.66). We used self-reported race or ethnicity as our primary independent variable, with primary language and insurance status considered secondarily. Unadjusted and multivariable adjusted analyses were performed for our primary and secondary predictors using logistic regression. We also assessed interactions between race or ethnicity, primary language, and insurance type. RESULTS: After adjusting for age, gender, subspecialty, insurance, and median household income, we found that patients who were Hispanic (odds ratio 0.59 [95% confidence interval 0.39 to 0.91]; p = 0.02) or Asian were less likely (OR 0.73 [95% CI 0.53 to 0.99]; p = 0.04) to be seen through telemedicine than were patients who were white. After controlling for confounding variables, we also found that speakers of languages other than English or Spanish were less likely to have a telemedicine visit than were people whose primary language was English (OR 0.34 [95% CI 0.18 to 0.65]; p = 0.001), and that patients insured through Medicaid were less likely to be seen via telemedicine than were patients who were privately insured (OR 0.83 [95% CI 0.69 to 0.98]; p = 0.03). CONCLUSION: Despite initial promises that telemedicine would help to bridge gaps in healthcare, our results demonstrate disparities in orthopaedic telemedicine use based on race or ethnicity, language, and insurance type. The telemedicine group was slightly younger, which we do not believe undermines the findings. As healthcare moves toward increased telemedicine use, we suggest several approaches to ensure that patients of certain racial, ethnic, or language groups do not experience disparate barriers to care. These might include individual patient- or provider-level approaches like expanded telemedicine schedules to accommodate weekends and evenings, institutional investment in culturally conscious outreach materials such as advertisements on community transport systems, or government-level provisions such as reimbursement for telephone-only encounters. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Level III, therapeutic study.


Subject(s)
Health Services Accessibility , Healthcare Disparities/statistics & numerical data , Minority Groups/statistics & numerical data , Orthopedic Procedures/statistics & numerical data , Telemedicine/statistics & numerical data , Adult , Female , Health Plan Implementation , Healthcare Disparities/ethnology , Humans , Insurance Coverage/statistics & numerical data , Language , Male , Medicaid , Middle Aged , Odds Ratio , Retrospective Studies , Telemedicine/methods , United States
19.
Pediatr Clin North Am ; 68(6): 1157-1169, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1504878

ABSTRACT

Pediatric gastroenterologists took on a variety of challenges during the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic, including learning about a new disease and how to recognize and manage it, prevent its spread among their patients and health professions colleagues, and make decisions about managing patients with chronic gastrointestinal and liver problems in light of the threat. They adapted their practice to accommodate drastically decreased numbers of in-person visits, adopting telehealth technologies, and instituting new protocols to perform endoscopies safely. The workforce pipeline was also affected by the impact of the pandemic on trainee education, clinical experience, research, and job searches.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Child Welfare/statistics & numerical data , Gastroenterology/organization & administration , Health Equity/statistics & numerical data , Healthcare Disparities/statistics & numerical data , Social Determinants of Health , Child , Health Services Accessibility/organization & administration , Health Status Disparities , Humans , Socioeconomic Factors , United States
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