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1.
J Cyst Fibros ; 20 Suppl 3: 49-54, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1587337

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Due to the COVID-19 pandemic, there was an uptake of telehealth in cystic fibrosis care. Previous studies show disparities in telehealth use based on socioeconomic status (SES). We aimed to: (1) understand telehealth use and perceptions and (2) identify the facilitators and barriers to telehealth use among people with CF and their families (PwCF) from diverse racial/ethnic and socioeconomic backgrounds. METHODS: We conducted an analysis of the 2020 Cystic Fibrosis State of Care surveys completed by PwCF (PFSoC), CF Care Programs (SoC1) and the CF Foundation Patient Registry (CFFPR). RESULTS: A total of 424 PwCF and 286 programs responded to the PFSoC and SoC1. Among PwCF, 90% self-identified as White, 6% as Hispanic/Latino, and 2% as Black. Racial/ethnic minorities were less likely to have had a telehealth visit (p=.015). This difference was pronounced among the Hispanic/Latino population (p<.01). Telehealth use did not differ by health insurance and was similarly offered independent of financial status. Compared to PwCF who denied financial constraints, those who reported financial difficulties found telehealth more difficult to use (p=.018) and were less likely to think that their concerns (p=.010) or issues that mattered most to them (p=.020) were addressed during telehealth. Programs perceived lack of technology, language barriers, and home conditions as barriers to telehealth in vulnerable populations. CONCLUSION: PFSoC and SoC1 identified differences in telehealth use and care perceptions by ethnicity, race, and socioeconomic characteristics. Further studies are needed to understand how telehealth can change access to CF care in diverse subpopulations.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Communication Barriers , Cystic Fibrosis , Minority Health , Telemedicine , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Communicable Disease Control/methods , Cystic Fibrosis/economics , Cystic Fibrosis/ethnology , Cystic Fibrosis/psychology , Cystic Fibrosis/therapy , Financial Stress/ethnology , Health Services Accessibility/organization & administration , Health Services Accessibility/trends , Healthcare Disparities/ethnology , Healthcare Disparities/standards , Humans , Minority Health/ethnology , Minority Health/standards , Minority Health/statistics & numerical data , Needs Assessment , Organizational Innovation , SARS-CoV-2 , Socioeconomic Factors , Telemedicine/organization & administration , Telemedicine/standards , United States/epidemiology , Vulnerable Populations/statistics & numerical data
3.
J Healthc Manag ; 66(4): 258-270, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1475897

ABSTRACT

EXECUTIVE SUMMARY: Home hospital care (HHC) is a new and exciting concept that holds the promise of achieving all three components of the Triple Aim and reducing health disparities. As an innovative care delivery model, HHC substitutes traditional inpatient hospital care with hospital care at home for older patients with certain conditions. Studies have shown evidence of reduced cost of care, improved patient satisfaction, and enhanced quality and safety of care for patients treated through this model. The steady growth in Medicare Advantage enrollment and the expansion in 2020 of the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services (CMS) Hospitals Without Walls program to include acute hospital care at home creates an opportunity for hospitals to implement such programs and be financially rewarded for reducing costs. Capacity constraints exacerbated by the COVID-19 pandemic suggest that now is the ideal time for healthcare leaders to test and advance the concept of HHC in their communities.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Critical Care Nursing/economics , Critical Care Nursing/standards , Healthcare Disparities/standards , Home Care Services/economics , Home Care Services/standards , Quality of Health Care/standards , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Female , Healthcare Disparities/economics , Healthcare Disparities/statistics & numerical data , Home Care Services/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Patient Satisfaction/statistics & numerical data , Practice Guidelines as Topic , Quality of Health Care/economics , Quality of Health Care/statistics & numerical data , SARS-CoV-2 , United States
4.
Hastings Cent Rep ; 51(3): 3-4, 2021 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1239985

ABSTRACT

The Covid-19 pandemic has exposed four myths in bioethics. First, the flood of bioethics publications on how to allocate scarce resources in crisis conditions has assumed authorities would declare the onset of crisis standards of care, yet few have done so. This leaves guidelines in limbo and patients unprotected. Second, the pandemic's realities have exploded traditional boundaries between clinical, research, and public health ethics, requiring bioethics to face the interdigitation of learning, doing, and allocating. Third, without empirical research, the success or failure of ethics guidelines remains unknown, demonstrating that crafting ethics guidance is only the start. And fourth, the pandemic's glaring health inequities require new commitment to learn from communities facing extraordinary challenges. Without that new learning, bioethics methods cannot succeed. The pandemic is a wake-up call, and bioethics must rise to the challenge.


Subject(s)
Bioethical Issues/standards , COVID-19/epidemiology , Health Care Rationing/organization & administration , Biomedical Research/ethics , Biomedical Research/organization & administration , Health Care Rationing/ethics , Health Care Rationing/standards , Health Status Disparities , Healthcare Disparities/ethics , Healthcare Disparities/standards , Humans , Pandemics , Public Health , SARS-CoV-2
5.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 10(11): e020997, 2021 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1234323

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic is a public health crisis, having killed more than 514 000 US adults as of March 2, 2021. COVID-19 mitigation strategies have unintended consequences on managing chronic conditions such as hypertension, a leading cause of cardiovascular disease and health disparities in the United States. During the first wave of the pandemic in the United States, the combination of observed racial/ethnic inequities in COVID-19 deaths and social unrest reinvigorated a national conversation about systemic racism in health care and society. The 4th Annual University of Utah Translational Hypertension Symposium gathered frontline clinicians, researchers, and leaders from diverse backgrounds to discuss the intersection of these 2 critical social and public health phenomena and to highlight preexisting disparities in hypertension treatment and control exacerbated by COVID-19. The discussion underscored environmental and socioeconomic factors that are deeply embedded in US health care and research that impact inequities in hypertension. Structural racism plays a central role at both the health system and individual levels. At the same time, virtual healthcare platforms are being accelerated into widespread use by COVID-19, which may widen the divide in healthcare access across levels of wealth, geography, and education. Blood pressure control rates are declining, especially among communities of color and those without health insurance or access to health care. Hypertension awareness, therapeutic lifestyle changes, and evidence-based pharmacotherapy are essential. There is a need to improve the implementation of community-based interventions and blood pressure self-monitoring, which can help build patient trust and increase healthcare engagement.


Subject(s)
Blood Pressure Monitoring, Ambulatory , COVID-19/epidemiology , Health Services Accessibility , Healthcare Disparities/standards , Hypertension , Racism/prevention & control , Social Determinants of Health/ethnology , Blood Pressure Monitoring, Ambulatory/methods , Blood Pressure Monitoring, Ambulatory/statistics & numerical data , Health Services Accessibility/organization & administration , Health Services Accessibility/standards , Health Status Disparities , Humans , Hypertension/ethnology , Hypertension/therapy , Needs Assessment , SARS-CoV-2 , Socioeconomic Factors , United States/epidemiology
6.
Ann Glob Health ; 87(1): 34, 2021 04 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1173034

ABSTRACT

Background: Incidence and mortality from COVID-19 are starkly elevated in poor, minority and marginalized communities. These differences reflect longstanding disparities in income, housing, air quality, preexisting health status, legal protections, and access to health care. The COVID-19 pandemic and its economic consequences have made these ancient disparities plainly visible. Methodology: As scholars in Catholic research universities committed to advancing both scientific knowledge and social justice, we examined these disparities through the lenses of both epidemiology and ethics. Findings: We see these widening disparities as not only as threats to human health, societal stability, and planetary health, but also as moral wrongs - outward manifestations of unrecognized privilege and greed. They are the concrete consequences of policies that promote structural violence and institutionalize racism. Recommendations: We encourage governments to take the following three scientific and ethical justified actions to reduce disparities, prevent future pandemics, and advance the common good: (1) Invest in public health systems; (2) Reduce economic inequities by making health care affordable to all; providing education, including early education, to all children; strengthening environmental and occupational safeguards; and creating more just tax structures; and (3) Preserve our Common Home, the small blue planet on which we all live.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Health Status Disparities , Healthcare Disparities , Minority Health , Quality of Life , Social Justice/standards , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/psychology , Global Health , Healthcare Disparities/ethics , Healthcare Disparities/standards , Healthcare Disparities/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Minority Health/ethics , Minority Health/standards , Minority Health/statistics & numerical data , Quality Improvement , Social Determinants of Health
8.
Heart ; 107(9): 734-740, 2021 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1123608

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: There are concerns that healthcare and outcomes of black, Asian and minority ethnic (BAME) communities are disproportionately impacted by the COVID-19 pandemic. We investigated admission rates, treatment and mortality of BAME with acute myocardial infarction (AMI) during COVID-19. METHODS: Using multisource national healthcare records, patients hospitalised with AMI in England during 1 February-27 May 2020 were included in the COVID-19 group, whereas patients admitted during the same period in the previous three consecutive years were included in a pre-COVID-19 group. Multilevel hierarchical regression analyses were used to quantify the changes in-hospital and 7-day mortality in BAME compared with whites. RESULTS: Of 73 746 patients, higher proportions of BAME patients (16.7% vs 10.1%) were hospitalised with AMI during the COVID-19 period compared with pre-COVID-19. BAME patients admitted during the COVID-19 period were younger, male and likely to present with ST-elevation acute myocardial infarction. COVID-19 BAME group admitted with non-ST-elevation acute myocardial infarction less frequently received coronary angiography (86.1% vs 90.0%, p<0.001) and had a longer median delay to reperfusion (4.1 hours vs 3.7 hours, p<0.001) compared with whites. BAME had higher in-hospital (OR 1.68, 95% CI 1.27 to 2.28) and 7-day mortality (OR 1.81 95% CI 1.31 to 2.19) during COVID-19 compared with pre-COVID-19 period. CONCLUSION: In this multisource linked cohort study, compared with whites, BAME patients had proportionally higher hospitalisation rates with AMI, less frequently received guidelines indicated care and had higher early mortality during COVID-19 period compared with pre-COVID-19 period. There is a need to develop clinical pathways to achieve equity in the management of these vulnerable populations.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Critical Pathways , Healthcare Disparities , Non-ST Elevated Myocardial Infarction , ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/therapy , Coronary Angiography/methods , Coronary Angiography/statistics & numerical data , Critical Pathways/organization & administration , Critical Pathways/standards , England/epidemiology , Female , Health Services Needs and Demand , Healthcare Disparities/standards , Healthcare Disparities/statistics & numerical data , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Non-ST Elevated Myocardial Infarction/ethnology , Non-ST Elevated Myocardial Infarction/therapy , Outcome and Process Assessment, Health Care , Race Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction/ethnology , ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction/therapy
9.
PLoS Med ; 18(1): e1003490, 2021 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1021593

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 epidemic in the United States is widespread, with more than 200,000 deaths reported as of September 23, 2020. While ecological studies show higher burdens of COVID-19 mortality in areas with higher rates of poverty, little is known about social determinants of COVID-19 mortality at the individual level. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We estimated the proportions of COVID-19 deaths by age, sex, race/ethnicity, and comorbid conditions using their reported univariate proportions among COVID-19 deaths and correlations among these variables in the general population from the 2017-2018 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). We used these proportions to randomly sample individuals from NHANES. We analyzed the distributions of COVID-19 deaths by race/ethnicity, income, education level, and veteran status. We analyzed the association of these characteristics with mortality by logistic regression. Summary demographics of deaths include mean age 71.6 years, 45.9% female, and 45.1% non-Hispanic white. We found that disproportionate deaths occurred among individuals with nonwhite race/ethnicity (54.8% of deaths, 95% CI 49.0%-59.6%, p < 0.001), individuals with income below the median (67.5%, 95% CI 63.4%-71.5%, p < 0.001), individuals with less than a high school level of education (25.6%, 95% CI 23.4% -27.9%, p < 0.001), and veterans (19.5%, 95% CI 15.8%-23.4%, p < 0.001). Except for veteran status, these characteristics are significantly associated with COVID-19 mortality in multiple logistic regression. Limitations include the lack of institutionalized people in the sample (e.g., nursing home residents and incarcerated persons), the need to use comorbidity data collected from outside the US, and the assumption of the same correlations among variables for the noninstitutionalized population and COVID-19 decedents. CONCLUSIONS: Substantial inequalities in COVID-19 mortality are likely, with disproportionate burdens falling on those who are of racial/ethnic minorities, are poor, have less education, and are veterans. Healthcare systems must ensure adequate access to these groups. Public health measures should specifically reach these groups, and data on social determinants should be systematically collected from people with COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/mortality , Healthcare Disparities/standards , Public Health , Social Determinants of Health/statistics & numerical data , Socioeconomic Factors , Aged , Comorbidity , Female , Health Services Needs and Demand , Humans , Male , Mortality , Public Health/methods , Public Health/standards , Quality Improvement/organization & administration , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , United States , Veterans Health/statistics & numerical data
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