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1.
Health Serv Res ; 58(3): 642-653, 2023 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2314515

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The COVID-19 pandemic disproportionately affected racial and ethnic minorities among the general population in the United States; however, little is known regarding its impact on U.S. military Veterans. In this study, our objectives were to identify the extent to which Veterans experienced increased all-cause mortality during the COVID-19 pandemic, stratified by race and ethnicity. DATA SOURCES: Administrative data from the Veterans Health Administration's Corporate Data Warehouse. STUDY DESIGN: We use pre-pandemic data to estimate mortality risk models using five-fold cross-validation and quasi-Poisson regression. Models were stratified by a combined race-ethnicity variable and included controls for major comorbidities, demographic characteristics, and county fixed effects. DATA COLLECTION: We queried data for all Veterans residing in the 50 states plus Washington D.C. during 2016-2020. Veterans were excluded from analyses if they were missing county of residence or race-ethnicity data. Data were then aggregated to the county-year level and stratified by race-ethnicity. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Overall, Veterans' mortality rates were 16% above normal during March-December 2020 which equates to 42,348 excess deaths. However, there was substantial variation by racial and ethnic group. Non-Hispanic White Veterans experienced the smallest relative increase in mortality (17%, 95% CI 11%-24%), while Native American Veterans had the highest increase (40%, 95% CI 17%-73%). Black Veterans (32%, 95% CI 27%-39%) and Hispanic Veterans (26%, 95% CI 17%-36%) had somewhat lower excess mortality, although these changes were significantly higher compared to White Veterans. Disparities were smaller than in the general population. CONCLUSIONS: Minoritized Veterans experienced higher rates excess of mortality during the COVID-19 pandemic compared to White Veterans, though with smaller differences than the general population. This is likely due in part to the long-standing history of structural racism in the United States that has negatively affected the health of minoritized communities via several pathways including health care access, economic, and occupational inequities.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Veterans , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/ethnology , Ethnicity/statistics & numerical data , Hispanic or Latino/statistics & numerical data , Pandemics , United States/epidemiology , Veterans/statistics & numerical data , White/statistics & numerical data , Black or African American/statistics & numerical data , American Indian or Alaska Native/statistics & numerical data , Health Status Disparities , Healthcare Disparities/economics , Healthcare Disparities/ethnology , Healthcare Disparities/statistics & numerical data , Systemic Racism/ethnology , Systemic Racism/statistics & numerical data , Health Services Accessibility , Employment/economics , Employment/statistics & numerical data , Occupations/economics , Occupations/statistics & numerical data
2.
J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry ; 62(4): 398-399, 2023 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2262459

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has resulted in a devastating impact on youth mental health concerns, with rates of anxiety, depression, and suicidality doubling.1 With 1 in 5 youth now experiencing a mental health disorder, the American Academy of Pediatrics, the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, the Children's Hospital Association, and the US Surgeon General have all declared a national state of emergency in child and adolescent mental health.2,3 Although youth mental health has declined overall since the onset of the pandemic, racial minority youth have been disproportionately negatively impacted. Unfortunately, racial disparities in youth mental health have been a long-standing concern, and the impact of COVID-19 has only served to worsen this gap.2 This is consistent with broader population health trends observed throughout the pandemic across age groups, where a higher proportion of racial and ethnic minorities have experienced poverty, violence, educational and vocational disruptions, and poorer health outcomes, including COVID-19-related hospitalizations and deaths.3,4.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Child Health , Healthcare Disparities , Mental Health , Racial Groups , Child Psychiatry/statistics & numerical data , Mental Health/statistics & numerical data , Child Health/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19/epidemiology , Racism/statistics & numerical data , Healthcare Disparities/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Child , Adolescent , Child Development , Racial Groups/statistics & numerical data
3.
Front Public Health ; 11: 1014302, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2287775

ABSTRACT

Background: At the beginning of the COVID-19 pandemic, it was foreseen that the number of face-to-face psychiatry consultations would suffer a reduction. In order to compensate, the Australian Government introduced new Medicare-subsidized telephone and video-linked consultations. This study investigates how these developments affected the pre-existing inequity of psychiatry service delivery in Australia. Methods: The study analyses five and a half years of national Medicare data listing all subsidized psychiatry consultation consumption aggregated to areas defined as Statistical Area level 3 (SA3s; which have population sizes of 30 k-300 k). Face-to-face, video-linked and telephone consultations are considered separately. The analysis consists of presenting rates of consumption, concentration graphs, and concentration indices to quantify inequity, using Socio Economic Indexes for Areas (SEIFA) scores to rank the SA3 areas according to socio-economic disadvantage. Results: There is a 22% drop in the rate of face-to-face psychiatry consultation consumption across Australia in the final study period compared with the last study period predating the COVID-19 pandemic. However, the loss is made up by the introduction of the new subsidized telephone and video-linked consultations. Referring to the same time periods, there is a reduction in the inequity of the distribution of face-to-face consultations, where the concentration index reduces from 0.166 to 0.129. The new subsidized video-linked consultations are distributed with severe inequity in the great majority of subpopulations studied. Australia-wide, video-linked consultations are also distributed with gross inequity, with a concentration index of 0.356 in the final study period. The effect of this upon overall inequity was to cancel out the reduction of inequity resulting from the reduction of face-to face appointments. Conclusion: Australian subsidized video-linked psychiatry consultations have been distributed with gross inequity and have been a significant exacerbator of the overall inequity of psychiatric service provision. Future policy decisions wishing to reduce this inequity should take care to reduce the risk posed by expanding telepsychiatry.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Data Analysis , Pandemics , Psychiatry , Telemedicine , Psychiatry/statistics & numerical data , Telemedicine/organization & administration , Telemedicine/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/psychology , Humans , Australia/epidemiology , Remote Consultation/statistics & numerical data , Healthcare Disparities/statistics & numerical data , Mental Health/standards , Mental Health/statistics & numerical data , Young Adult , Adult , Middle Aged , Office Visits/statistics & numerical data , Rural Health/statistics & numerical data , Urban Health/statistics & numerical data , Videoconferencing/statistics & numerical data
7.
JAMA ; 328(9): 861-871, 2022 09 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2058978

ABSTRACT

Importance: Novel therapies for type 2 diabetes can reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease and chronic kidney disease progression. The equitability of these agents' prescription across racial and ethnic groups has not been well-evaluated. Objective: To investigate differences in the prescription of sodium-glucose cotransporter-2 inhibitors (SGLT2i) and glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists (GLP-1 RA) among adult patients with type 2 diabetes by racial and ethnic groups. Design, Setting, and Participants: Cross-sectional analysis of data from the US Veterans Health Administration's Corporate Data Warehouse. The sample included adult patients with type 2 diabetes and at least 2 primary care clinic visits from January 1, 2019, to December 31, 2020. Exposures: Self-identified race and self-identified ethnicity. Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary outcomes were prevalent SGLT2i or GLP-1 RA prescription, defined as any active prescription during the study period. Results: Among 1 197 914 patients (mean age, 68 years; 96% men; 1% American Indian or Alaska Native, 2% Asian, Native Hawaiian, or Other Pacific Islander, 20% Black or African American, 71% White, and 7% of Hispanic or Latino ethnicity), 10.7% and 7.7% were prescribed an SGLT2i or a GLP-1 RA, respectively. Prescription rates for SGLT2i and GLP-1 RA, respectively, were 11% and 8.4% among American Indian or Alaska Native patients; 11.8% and 8% among Asian, Native Hawaiian, or Other Pacific Islander patients; 8.8% and 6.1% among Black or African American patients; and 11.3% and 8.2% among White patients, respectively. Prescription rates for SGLT2i and GLP-1 RA, respectively, were 11% and 7.1% among Hispanic or Latino patients and 10.7% and 7.8% among non-Hispanic or Latino patients. After accounting for patient- and system-level factors, all racial groups had significantly lower odds of SGLT2i and GLP-1 RA prescription compared with White patients. Black patients had the lowest odds of prescription compared with White patients (adjusted odds ratio, 0.72 [95% CI, 0.71-0.74] for SGLT2i and 0.64 [95% CI, 0.63-0.66] for GLP-1 RA). Patients of Hispanic or Latino ethnicity had significantly lower odds of prescription (0.90 [95% CI, 0.88-0.93] for SGLT2i and 0.88 [95% CI, 0.85-0.91] for GLP-1 RA) compared with non-Hispanic or Latino patients. Conclusions and Relevance: Among patients with type 2 diabetes in the Veterans Health Administration system during 2019 and 2020, prescription rates of SGLT2i and GLP-1 RA medications were low, and individuals of several different racial groups and those of Hispanic ethnicity had statistically significantly lower odds of receiving prescriptions for these medications compared with individuals of White race and non-Hispanic ethnicity. Further research is needed to understand the mechanisms underlying these differences in rates of prescribing and the potential relationship with differences in clinical outcomes.


Subject(s)
Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Glucagon-Like Peptide-1 Receptor , Healthcare Disparities , Prescriptions , Sodium-Glucose Transporter 2 Inhibitors , Veterans Health , Adult , Aged , Cross-Sectional Studies , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/drug therapy , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/ethnology , Ethnicity/statistics & numerical data , Female , Glucagon-Like Peptide-1 Receptor/agonists , Health Equity/statistics & numerical data , Healthcare Disparities/ethnology , Healthcare Disparities/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Hypoglycemic Agents/therapeutic use , Male , Practice Patterns, Physicians'/statistics & numerical data , Prescriptions/statistics & numerical data , Professional Practice/statistics & numerical data , Racial Groups/statistics & numerical data , Sodium-Glucose Transporter 2 Inhibitors/therapeutic use , United States/epidemiology , Veterans Health/ethnology , Veterans Health/statistics & numerical data
8.
J Behav Med ; 45(5): 760-770, 2022 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2048387

ABSTRACT

Medical avoidance is common among U.S. adults, and may be emphasized among members of marginalized communities due to discrimination concerns. In the current study, we investigated whether this disparity in avoidance was maintained or exacerbated during the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic. We assessed the likelihood of avoiding medical care due to general-, discrimination-, and COVID-19-related concerns in an online sample (N = 471). As hypothesized, marginalized groups (i.e., non-White race, Latinx/e ethnicity, non-heterosexual sexual orientation, high BMI) endorsed more general- and discrimination-related medical avoidance than majoritized groups. However, marginalized groups were equally likely to seek COVID-19 treatment as majoritized groups. Implications for reducing medical avoidance among marginalized groups are discussed.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Healthcare Disparities , Pandemics , Patient Acceptance of Health Care , Social Marginalization , Vulnerable Populations , Adult , Body Mass Index , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/therapy , Ethnicity/statistics & numerical data , Female , Healthcare Disparities/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Male , Patient Acceptance of Health Care/statistics & numerical data , Racial Groups/statistics & numerical data , Sexual Behavior , Treatment Refusal/statistics & numerical data , United States/epidemiology , Vulnerable Populations/statistics & numerical data
9.
Int J Equity Health ; 21(1): 122, 2022 08 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2021297

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The equality in the distribution of vaccines between and within countries along with follow sanitation tips and observe social distance, are effective strategies to rid the world of COVID-19 pandemic. Inequality in the distribution of COVID-19 vaccine, in addition to causing inequity to the population health, has a significant impact on the process of economic recovery. METHODS: All published original papers on the inequality of Covid-19 vaccine distribution and the factors affecting it were searched in PubMed, Web of Science, Scopus and ProQuest databases between December 2020 to 30 May 2022. Selection of articles, extraction of their data and qualitative assessment (by STROBE) were performed by two researchers separately. Data graphing form was used to extract detailed data from each study and then, the collected data were classified. RESULTS: A total of 4623 articles were evaluated. After removing duplicates and screening the title, abstract and full text of articles, 22 articles were selected and entered into the study. Fifteen (68.17%) studies were conducted in the United States, three (13.64%) in Europe, three (13.64%) in Asia and one (6.66%) in Oceania. Factors affecting the inequality in the distribution of COVID-19 vaccine were classified into macro and micro levels determinants. CONCLUSION: Macro determinants of inequality in the Covid-19 vaccine distribution were consisted of economic (stability and country's economic status, Gross Domestic Product (GDP) per capita, financial support and human development index), infrastructure and health system (appropriate information system, functional cold chains in vaccine transport, transport infrastructure, medical and non-medical facilities per capita, healthcare access and quality), legal and politics (vaccination allocation rules, health policies, political ideology and racial bias), and epidemiologic and demographic factors (Covid-19 incidence and deaths rate, life expectancy, vulnerability to Covid-19, working in medical setting, comorbidities, social vulnerability, incarceration and education index). Moreover, micro/ individual level factors were included in economic (household's income, home ownership, employment, poverty, access to healthy food and residency in the deprived areas) and demographic and social characteristics (sex, age, race, ethnic, religion, disability, location (urban/rural) and insurance coverage).


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Healthcare Disparities , Asia , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/supply & distribution , Demography , Europe , Healthcare Disparities/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Oceania , Socioeconomic Factors , United States
10.
Contraception ; 115: 17-21, 2022 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1966462

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Prior research identified a significant decline in the number of abortions in Louisiana at the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic, as well as increases in second-trimester abortions and decreases in medication abortions. This study examines how service disruptions in particular areas of the state disparately affected access to abortion care based on geography. STUDY DESIGN: We collected monthly service data from Louisiana's abortion clinics (January 2018-May 2020) and conducted mystery client calls to determine whether clinics were scheduling appointments at pandemic onset (April-May 2020). We used segmented regression to assess whether service disruptions modified the main pandemic effects on the number, timing, and type of abortions using stratified models and interaction terms. Additionally, we calculated the median distance that Louisiana residents traveled to the clinic where they obtained care. RESULTS: For residents whose closest clinic was consistently scheduling appointments at the onset of the pandemic, the number of monthly abortions did not change (IRR = 1.07, 95% CI: 0.84-1.36). For those whose closest clinic services were disrupted, the number of monthly abortions decreased by 46% (IRR = 0.54, 95% CI: 0.45-0.65). Similarly, increases in second-trimester abortions and decreases in medication abortions were concentrated in areas where residents experienced service disruptions (AOR = 2.25, 95% CI: 1.21-4.56 and AOR = 0.59, 95% CI: 0.29-0.87, respectively) and were not seen elsewhere in the state. CONCLUSION: Changes in the number, timing and type of abortions were concentrated among residents in particular areas of Louisiana. The early stages of the COVID-19 pandemic exacerbated geographic disparities in access to abortion care. IMPLICATIONS: Disruptions in services at the beginning of the COVID-19 pandemic in Louisiana meaningfully affected pregnant people's ability to obtain an abortion at their nearest clinic. These findings reinforce the importance of developing mechanisms to support pregnant people during emergency situations when traveling to a nearby clinic is no longer possible.


Subject(s)
Abortion, Induced , COVID-19 , Healthcare Disparities , Pandemics , Abortion, Induced/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19/epidemiology , Female , Geography , Healthcare Disparities/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Louisiana/epidemiology , Pregnancy
12.
Am J Public Health ; 112(1): 29-33, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1841235

ABSTRACT

Minority populations have been disproportionately affected by the COVID-19 pandemic, and disparities have been noted in vaccine uptake. In the state of Arkansas, health equity strike teams (HESTs) were deployed to address vaccine disparities. A total of 13 470 vaccinations were administered by HESTs to 10 047 eligible people at 45 events. Among these individuals, 5645 (56.2%) were African American, 2547 (25.3%) were White, and 1068 (10.6%) were Hispanic. Vaccination efforts must specifically target populations that have been disproportionately affected by the pandemic. (Am J Public Health. 2022;112(1):29-33. https://doi.org/10.2105/AJPH.2021.306564).


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Ethnic and Racial Minorities , Ethnicity/statistics & numerical data , Health Equity/organization & administration , Healthcare Disparities/ethnology , Vaccination/statistics & numerical data , Adult , Aged , Arkansas , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , Health Promotion/organization & administration , Healthcare Disparities/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Middle Aged , Social Determinants of Health
13.
AJR Am J Roentgenol ; 218(2): 270-278, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1793148

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND. The need for second visits between screening mammography and diagnostic imaging contributes to disparities in the time to breast cancer diagnosis. During the COVID-19 pandemic, an immediate-read screening mammography program was implemented to reduce patient visits and decrease time to diagnostic imaging. OBJECTIVE. The purpose of this study was to measure the impact of an immediate-read screening program with focus on disparities in same-day diagnostic imaging after abnormal findings are made at screening mammography. METHODS. In May 2020, an immediate-read screening program was implemented whereby a dedicated breast imaging radiologist interpreted all screening mammograms in real time; patients received results before discharge; and efforts were made to perform any recommended diagnostic imaging during the visit (performed by different radiologists). Screening mammographic examinations performed from June 1, 2019, through October 31, 2019 (preimplementation period), and from June 1, 2020, through October 31, 2020 (postimplementation period), were retrospectively identified. Patient characteristics were recorded from the electronic medical record. Multivariable logistic regression models incorporating patient age, race and ethnicity, language, and insurance type were estimated to identify factors associated with same-day diagnostic imaging. Screening metrics were compared between periods. RESULTS. A total of 8222 preimplementation and 7235 postimplementation screening examinations were included; 521 patients had abnormal screening findings before implementation, and 359 after implementation. Before implementation, 14.8% of patients underwent same-day diagnostic imaging after abnormal screening mammograms. This percentage increased to 60.7% after implementation. Before implementation, patients who identified their race as other than White had significantly lower odds than patients who identified their race as White of undergoing same-day diagnostic imaging after receiving abnormal screening results (adjusted odds ratio, 0.30; 95% CI, 0.10-0.86; p = .03). After implementation, the odds of same-day diagnostic imaging were not significantly different between patients of other races and White patients (adjusted odds ratio, 0.92; 95% CI, 0.50-1.71; p = .80). After implementation, there was no significant difference in race and ethnicity between patients who underwent and those who did not undergo same-day diagnostic imaging after receiving abnormal results of screening mammography (p > .05). The rate of abnormal interpretation was significantly lower after than it was before implementation (5.0% vs 6.3%; p < .001). Cancer detection rate and PPV1 (PPV based on positive findings at screening examination) were not significantly different before and after implementation (p > .05). CONCLUSION. Implementation of the immediate-read screening mammography program reduced prior racial and ethnic disparities in same-day diagnostic imaging after abnormal screening mammograms. CLINICAL IMPACT. An immediate-read screening program provides a new paradigm for improved screening mammography workflow that allows more rapid diagnostic workup with reduced disparities in care.


Subject(s)
Breast Neoplasms/diagnostic imaging , COVID-19/prevention & control , Delayed Diagnosis/prevention & control , Healthcare Disparities/statistics & numerical data , Image Interpretation, Computer-Assisted/methods , Mammography/methods , Racial Groups/statistics & numerical data , Adult , Breast/diagnostic imaging , Female , Humans , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Time
14.
Sex Transm Infect ; 98(2): 128-131, 2022 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1691279

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Women living with HIV in the UK are an ethnically diverse group with significant psychosocial challenges. Increasing numbers are reaching older age. We describe psychological and socioeconomic factors among women with HIV in England aged 45-60 and explore associations with ethnicity. METHODS: Analysis of cross-sectional data on 724 women recruited to the PRIME Study. Psychological symptoms were measured using the Patient Health Questionnaire 4 and social isolation with a modified Duke-UNC Functional Social Support Scale. RESULTS: Black African (BA) women were more likely than Black Caribbean or White British (WB) women to have a university education (48.3%, 27.0%, 25.7%, respectively, p<0.001), but were not more likely to be employed (68.4%, 61.4%, 65.2%, p=0.56) and were less likely to have enough money to meet their basic needs (56.4%, 63.0%, 82.9%, p<0.001). BA women were less likely to report being diagnosed with depression than WB women (adjusted odds ratio (aOR) 0.40, p<0.001) but more likely to report current psychological distress (aOR 3.34, p<0.05). CONCLUSIONS: We report high levels of poverty, psychological distress and social isolation in this ethnically diverse group of midlife women with HIV, especially among those who were BA. Despite being more likely to experience psychological distress, BA women were less likely to have been diagnosed with depression suggesting a possible inequity in access to mental health services. Holistic HIV care requires awareness of the psychosocial needs of older women living with HIV, which may be more pronounced in racially minoritised communities, and prompt referral for support including psychology, peer support and advice about benefits.


Subject(s)
Black People/statistics & numerical data , HIV Infections/psychology , Healthcare Disparities/ethnology , Mental Health/ethnology , Socioeconomic Factors , Age Factors , Anxiety/etiology , Black People/psychology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depression/etiology , Female , HIV Infections/complications , HIV Infections/epidemiology , Healthcare Disparities/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Middle Aged , Poverty/statistics & numerical data , Social Support , Surveys and Questionnaires , United Kingdom/epidemiology , White People
17.
Dermatol Online J ; 27(10)2021 Oct 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1643787

ABSTRACT

Social distancing requirements associated with the COVID-19 pandemic have allowed for the expansion of different healthcare delivery modalities. Namely, there has been an increase in the utilization of remote diagnostic services for both primary and specialist care. Dermatology care has traditionally been inaccessible to many pediatric patients; this is due in part to a limited number of practicing pediatric dermatologists, as well as a maldistribution of the pediatric dermatology workforce with the majority of providers located in large metropolitan areas. There is therefore a need for an accessible alternative for care to reach underserved patient populations. This commentary highlights evidence from recent studies on remote dermatology care (teledermatology) and how it has not only improved access to dermatologic care but also quality of care. Although teledermatology does not completely replace traditional in-person visits and is limited by poor broadband access in traditionally underserved areas, teledermatology can, in some instances, be a cost-effective and efficient alternative for pediatric patients otherwise lacking dermatologic care.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Dermatologists/supply & distribution , Dermatology/methods , Health Services Accessibility , Telemedicine , Child , Child, Preschool , Dermatology/statistics & numerical data , Health Services Accessibility/statistics & numerical data , Healthcare Disparities/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Pediatricians/supply & distribution , Telemedicine/statistics & numerical data
19.
Ophthalmic Epidemiol ; 29(6): 613-620, 2022 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1569401

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To explore individual and community factors associated with adherence to physician recommended urgent eye visits via a tele-triage system during the COVID-19 pandemic. METHOD: We retrospectively reviewed acute visit requests and medical exam data between April 6, 2020 and June 6, 2020. Patient demographics and adherence to visit were examined. Census tract level community characteristics from the U.S. Census Bureau and zip code level COVID-19 related death data from the Cook County Medical Examiner's Office were appended to each geocoded patient address. Descriptive statistics, t-tests, and logistic regression analyses were performed to explore the effects of individual and community variables on adherence to visit. RESULTS: Of 229 patients recommended an urgent visit, 216 had matching criteria on chart review, and 192 (88.9%) adhered to their visit. No difference in adherence was found based on individual characteristics including: age (p = .24), gender (p = .94), race (p = .56), insurance (p = .28), nor new versus established patient status (p = .20). However, individuals who did not adhere were more likely to reside in neighborhoods with a greater proportion of Blacks (59.4% vs. 33.4%; p = .03), greater unemployment rates (17.5% vs. 10.7%; p < .01), and greater cumulative deaths from COVID-19 (56 vs. 31; p = .01). Unemployment rate continued to be statistically significant after controlling for race and cumulative deaths from COVID-19 (p = .04). CONCLUSION: We found that as community unemployment rate increases, adherence to urgent eye visits decreases, after controlling for relevant neighborhood characteristics. Unemployment rates were highest in predominantly Black neighborhoods early in the pandemic, which may have contributed to existing racial disparities in eye care.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Eye , Office Visits , Ophthalmology , Patient Compliance , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , Pandemics , Residence Characteristics/statistics & numerical data , Retrospective Studies , Patient Compliance/ethnology , Patient Compliance/statistics & numerical data , Triage/methods , Telemedicine/methods , Healthcare Disparities/economics , Healthcare Disparities/ethnology , Healthcare Disparities/statistics & numerical data , Office Visits/economics , Office Visits/statistics & numerical data , Ophthalmology/statistics & numerical data , Unemployment/statistics & numerical data , Physical Examination/economics , Physical Examination/statistics & numerical data
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