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1.
JAMA Netw Open ; 5(5): e2211967, 2022 05 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1843825

ABSTRACT

Importance: Identifying the associations between severe COVID-19 and individual cardiovascular conditions in pediatric patients may inform treatment. Objective: To assess the association between previous or preexisting cardiovascular conditions and severity of COVID-19 in pediatric patients. Design, Setting, and Participants: This retrospective cohort study used data from a large, multicenter, electronic health records database in the US. The cohort included patients aged 2 months to 17 years with a laboratory-confirmed diagnosis of COVID-19 or a diagnosis code indicating infection or exposure to SARS-CoV-2 at 85 health systems between March 1, 2020, and January 31, 2021. Exposures: Diagnoses for 26 cardiovascular conditions between January 1, 2015, and December 31, 2019 (before infection with SARS-CoV-2). Main Outcomes and Measures: The main outcome was severe COVID-19, defined as need for supplemental oxygen or in-hospital death. Mixed-effects, random intercept logistic regression modeling assessed the significance and magnitude of associations between 26 cardiovascular conditions and COVID-19 severity. Multiple comparison adjustment was performed using the Benjamini-Hochberg false discovery rate procedure. Results: The study comprised 171 416 pediatric patients; the median age was 8 years (IQR, 2-14 years), and 50.28% were male. Of these patients, 17 065 (9.96%) had severe COVID-19. The random intercept model showed that the following cardiovascular conditions were associated with severe COVID-19: cardiac arrest (odds ratio [OR], 9.92; 95% CI, 6.93-14.20), cardiogenic shock (OR, 3.07; 95% CI, 1.90-4.96), heart surgery (OR, 3.04; 95% CI, 2.26-4.08), cardiopulmonary disease (OR, 1.91; 95% CI, 1.56-2.34), heart failure (OR, 1.82; 95% CI, 1.46-2.26), hypotension (OR, 1.57; 95% CI, 1.38-1.79), nontraumatic cerebral hemorrhage (OR, 1.54; 95% CI, 1.24-1.91), pericarditis (OR, 1.50; 95% CI, 1.17-1.94), simple biventricular defects (OR, 1.45; 95% CI, 1.29-1.62), venous embolism and thrombosis (OR, 1.39; 95% CI, 1.11-1.73), other hypertensive disorders (OR, 1.34; 95% CI, 1.09-1.63), complex biventricular defects (OR, 1.33; 95% CI, 1.14-1.54), and essential primary hypertension (OR, 1.22; 95% CI, 1.08-1.38). Furthermore, 194 of 258 patients (75.19%) with a history of cardiac arrest were younger than 12 years. Conclusions and Relevance: The findings suggest that some previous or preexisting cardiovascular conditions are associated with increased severity of COVID-19 among pediatric patients in the US and that morbidity may be increased among individuals children younger than 12 years with previous cardiac arrest.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Heart Arrest , Adolescent , COVID-19/epidemiology , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Heart Arrest/epidemiology , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Male , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
2.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 6978, 2022 04 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1815602

ABSTRACT

Cardiovascular adverse conditions are caused by coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) infections and reported as side-effects of the COVID-19 vaccines. Enriching current vaccine safety surveillance systems with additional data sources may improve the understanding of COVID-19 vaccine safety. Using a unique dataset from Israel National Emergency Medical Services (EMS) from 2019 to 2021, the study aims to evaluate the association between the volume of cardiac arrest and acute coronary syndrome EMS calls in the 16-39-year-old population with potential factors including COVID-19 infection and vaccination rates. An increase of over 25% was detected in both call types during January-May 2021, compared with the years 2019-2020. Using Negative Binomial regression models, the weekly emergency call counts were significantly associated with the rates of 1st and 2nd vaccine doses administered to this age group but were not with COVID-19 infection rates. While not establishing causal relationships, the findings raise concerns regarding vaccine-induced undetected severe cardiovascular side-effects and underscore the already established causal relationship between vaccines and myocarditis, a frequent cause of unexpected cardiac arrest in young individuals. Surveillance of potential vaccine side-effects and COVID-19 outcomes should incorporate EMS and other health data to identify public health trends (e.g., increased in EMS calls), and promptly investigate potential underlying causes.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Drug-Related Side Effects and Adverse Reactions , Heart Arrest , Vaccines , Adolescent , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Heart Arrest/chemically induced , Heart Arrest/epidemiology , Humans , Israel/epidemiology , Vaccines/adverse effects , Young Adult
3.
Resuscitation ; 173: 4-11, 2022 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1676901

ABSTRACT

AIMS: To compare in-hospital cardiac arrest (IHCA) rates and patient outcomes during the first COVID-19 wave in the United Kingdom (UK) in 2020 with the same period in previous years. METHODS: A retrospective, multicentre cohort study of 154 UK hospitals that participate in the National Cardiac Arrest Audit and have intensive care units participating in the Case Mix Programme national audit of intensive care. Hospital burden of COVID-19 was defined by the number of patients with confirmed SARS-CoV2 infection admitted to critical care per 10,000 hospital admissions. RESULTS: 16,474 patients with IHCA where a resuscitation team attended were included. Patients admitted to hospital during 2020 were younger, more often male, and of non-white ethnicity compared with 2016-2019. A decreasing trend in IHCA rates between 2016 and 2019 was reversed in 2020. Hospitals with higher burden of COVID-19 had the greatest difference in IHCA rates (21.8 per 10,000 admissions in April 2020 vs 14.9 per 10,000 in April 2019). The proportions of patients achieving ROSC ≥ 20 min and surviving to hospital discharge were lower in 2020 compared with 2016-19 (46.2% vs 51.2%; and 21.9% vs 22.9%, respectively). Among patients with IHCA, higher hospital burden of COVID-19 was associated with reduced survival to hospital discharge (OR = 0.95; 95% CI 0.93 to 0.98; p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: In comparison with 2016-2019, the first COVID-19 wave in 2020 was associated with a higher rate of IHCA and decreased survival among patients attended by resuscitation teams. These changes were greatest in hospitals with the highest COVID-19 burden.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation , Heart Arrest , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cohort Studies , Heart Arrest/epidemiology , Heart Arrest/therapy , Hospitals , Humans , Male , Pandemics , RNA, Viral , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , United Kingdom/epidemiology
4.
Circ Cardiovasc Qual Outcomes ; 15(2): e008420, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1662367

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Recent reports on challenges in resuscitation care at hospitals severely affected by the novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic raise questions about how the pandemic affected outcomes for in-hospital cardiac arrest throughout the United States. METHODS: Within Get With The Guidelines-Resuscitation, we conducted a retrospective cohort study to compare in-hospital cardiac arrest survival during the presurge (January 1-February 29), surge (March 1-May 15) and immediate postsurge (May 16-June 30) periods in 2020 compared to 2015 to 2019. Monthly COVID-19 mortality rates for each hospital's county were categorized, per 1 000 000 residents, as low (0-10), moderate (11-50), high (51-100), or very high (>100). Using hierarchical regression models, we compared rates of survival to discharge in 2020 versus 2015 to 2019 for each period. RESULTS: Of 61 586 in-hospital cardiac arrests, 21 208 (4309 in 2020), 26 459 (5949 in 2020), and 13 919 (2686 in 2020) occurred in the presurge, surge, and postsurge periods, respectively. During the presurge period, 24.2% survived to discharge in 2020 versus 24.7% in 2015 to 2019 (adjusted odds ratio, 1.12 [95% CI, 1.02-1.22]). In contrast, during the surge period, 19.6% survived to discharge in 2020 versus 26.0% in 2015 to 2019 (adjusted odds ratio, 0.81 [0.75-0.88]). Lower survival was most pronounced in communities with high (28% lower survival) and very high (42% lower survival) monthly COVID-19 mortality rates (interaction P<0.001). Resuscitation times were shorter (median: 22 versus 25 minutes; P<0.001), and delayed epinephrine treatment was more prevalent (11.3% versus 9.9%; P=0.004) during the surge period. Survival was lower even when patients with confirmed/suspected COVID-19 infection were excluded from analyses. During the postsurge period, survival rates were similar in 2020 versus 2015 to 2019 (22.3% versus 25.8%; adjusted odds ratio, 0.93 [0.83-1.04]), including communities with high COVID-19 mortality (interaction P=0.16). CONCLUSIONS: Early during the pandemic, rates of survival to discharge for IHCA decreased, even among patients without COVID-19 infection, highlighting the early impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on in-hospital resuscitation.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation , Heart Arrest , Heart Arrest/diagnosis , Heart Arrest/epidemiology , Heart Arrest/therapy , Hospitals , Humans , Pandemics , Registries , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Survival Rate , United States/epidemiology
6.
BMJ Open ; 11(11): e054943, 2021 11 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1546529

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: We studied characteristics, survival, causes of cardiac arrest, conditions preceding cardiac arrest, predictors of survival and trends in the prevalence of COVID-19 among in-hospital cardiac arrest (IHCA) cases. DESIGN AND SETTING: Registry-based observational study. PARTICIPANTS: We studied all cases (≥18 years of age) of IHCA receiving cardiopulmonary resuscitation in the Swedish Registry for Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation during 15 March 2020 to 31 December 2020. A total of 1613 patients were included and divided into the following groups: ongoing infection (COVID-19+; n=182), no infection (COVID-19-; n=1062) and unknown/not assessed (n=369). MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES: We studied monthly trends in proportions of COVID-19 associated IHCAs, causes of IHCA in relation to COVID-19 status, clinical conditions preceding the cardiac arrest and predictors of survival. RESULTS: The rate of COVID-19+ patients suffering an IHCA increased to 23% during the first pandemic wave (April), then abated to 3% in July, and then increased to 19% during the second wave (December). Among COVID-19+ cases, 43% had respiratory insufficiency or infection as the underlying cause of the cardiac arrest, compared with 18% among COVID-19- cases. The most common clinical sign preceding cardiac arrest was hypoxia (57%) among COVID-19+ cases. OR for 30-day survival for COVID-19+ cases was 0.50 (95% CI 0.33 to 0.76), compared with COVID-19- cases. CONCLUSION: During pandemic peaks, up to one-fourth of all IHCAs are complicated by COVID-19, and these patients have halved chance of survival, with women displaying the worst outcomes.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation , Heart Arrest , Cohort Studies , Female , Heart Arrest/epidemiology , Hospitals , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
8.
Eur J Clin Invest ; 51(11): e13679, 2021 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1405172

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 has a wide spectrum of cardiovascular sequelae including myocarditis and pericarditis; however, the prevalence and clinical impact are unclear. We investigated the prevalence of new-onset myocarditis/pericarditis and associated adverse cardiovascular events in patients with COVID-19. METHODS AND RESULTS: A retrospective cohort study was conducted using electronic medical records from a global federated health research network. Patients were included based on a diagnosis of COVID-19 and new-onset myocarditis or pericarditis. Patients with COVID-19 and myocarditis/pericarditis were 1:1 propensity score matched for age, sex, race and comorbidities to patients with COVID-19 but without myocarditis/pericarditis. The outcomes of interest were 6-month all-cause mortality, hospitalisation, cardiac arrest, incident heart failure, incident atrial fibrillation and acute myocardial infarction, comparing patients with and without myocarditis/pericarditis. Of 718,365 patients with COVID-19, 35,820 (5.0%) developed new-onset myocarditis and 10,706 (1.5%) developed new-onset pericarditis. Six-month all-cause mortality was 3.9% (n = 702) in patients with myocarditis and 2.9% (n = 523) in matched controls (p < .0001), odds ratio 1.36 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.21-1.53). Six-month all-cause mortality was 15.5% (n = 816) for pericarditis and 6.7% (n = 356) in matched controls (p < .0001), odds ratio 2.55 (95% CI: 2.24-2.91). Receiving critical care was associated with significantly higher odds of mortality for patients with myocarditis and pericarditis. Patients with pericarditis seemed to associate with more new-onset cardiovascular sequelae than those with myocarditis. This finding was consistent when looking at pre-COVID-19 data with pneumonia patients. CONCLUSIONS: Patients with COVID-19 who present with myocarditis/pericarditis associate with increased odds of major adverse events and new-onset cardiovascular sequelae.


Subject(s)
Atrial Fibrillation/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Heart Arrest/epidemiology , Heart Failure/epidemiology , Mortality , Myocardial Infarction/epidemiology , Myocarditis/epidemiology , Pericarditis/epidemiology , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/complications , Case-Control Studies , Cause of Death , Cohort Studies , Critical Care , Female , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Incidence , Male , Middle Aged , Myocarditis/complications , Pericarditis/complications , Propensity Score , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index , United States/epidemiology
11.
Dtsch Med Wochenschr ; 146(11): 733-737, 2021 06.
Article in German | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1249222

ABSTRACT

Cardiac arrest is one of the most dramatic medical emergencies. The occurence of cardiac arrest in hospitalized patients, the so called in-hospital cardiac arrest, is common and associated with high mortality. However, in-hospital cardiac arrest has received quite little attention compared to cardiac arrest occuring outside the hospital. The present article reviews the recent literature of in-hospital cardiac arrest and outlines differences in characteristics and outcome compared to out of hospital cardiac arrest. Moreover, current literature regarding occurence and outcome of in-hospital cardiac arrest in hospitalized patients with COVID-19 is concisely summarized.


Subject(s)
Heart Arrest , Aged , COVID-19/complications , Female , Heart Arrest/complications , Heart Arrest/diagnosis , Heart Arrest/epidemiology , Heart Arrest/therapy , Hospitalization , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest , Prognosis
12.
JAMA Psychiatry ; 78(8): 886-895, 2021 08 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1242697

ABSTRACT

Importance: Provisional records from the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) through July 2020 indicate that overdose deaths spiked during the early months of the COVID-19 pandemic, yet more recent trends are not available, and the data are not disaggregated by month of occurrence, race/ethnicity, or other social categories. In contrast, data from emergency medical services (EMS) provide a source of information nearly in real time that may be useful for rapid and more granular surveillance of overdose mortality. Objective: To describe racial/ethnic, social, and geographic trends in EMS-observed overdose-associated cardiac arrests during the COVID-19 pandemic through December 2020 and assess the concordance with CDC-reported provisional total overdose mortality through May 2020. Design, Setting, and Participants: This cohort study included more than 11 000 EMS agencies in 49 US states that participate in the National EMS Information System and 83.7 million EMS activations in which patient contact was made. Exposures: Year and month of occurrence of overdose-associated cardiac arrest; patient race/ethnicity; census region and division; county-level urbanicity; and zip code-level racial/ethnic composition, poverty, and educational attainment. Main Outcomes and Measures: Overdose-associated cardiac arrests per 100 000 EMS activations with patient contact in 2020 were compared with a baseline of values from 2018 and 2019. Aggregate numbers of overdose-associated cardiac arrests and percentage increases were compared with provisional total mortality in CDC records from rolling 12-month windows with end months spanning January 2018 through July 2020. Results: Among 33.4 million EMS activations in 2020, 16.8 million (50.2%) involved female patients and 16.3 million (48.8%) involved non-Hispanic White individuals. Overdose-associated cardiac arrests were elevated by 42.1% nationally in 2020 (42.3 per 100 000 EMS activations at baseline vs 60.1 per 100 000 EMS activations in 2020). The highest percentage increases were seen among Latinx individuals (49.7%; 38.8 per 100 000 activations at baseline vs 58.1 per 100 000 activations in 2020) and Black or African American individuals (50.3%; 21.5 per 100 000 activations at baseline vs 32.3 per 100 000 activations in 2020), people living in more impoverished neighborhoods (46.4%; 42.0 per 100 000 activations at baseline vs 61.5 per 100 000 activations in 2020), and the Pacific states (63.8%; 33.1 per 100 000 activations at baseline vs 54.2 per 100 000 activations in 2020), despite lower rates at baseline for these groups. The EMS records were available 6 to 12 months ahead of CDC mortality figures and showed a high concordance (r = 0.98) for months in which both data sets were available. If the historical association between EMS-observed and total overdose mortality holds true, an expected total of approximately 90 632 (95% CI, 85 737-95 525) overdose deaths may eventually be reported by the CDC for 2020. Conclusions and Relevance: In this cohort study, records from EMS agencies provided an effective manner to rapidly surveil shifts in US overdose mortality. Unprecedented overdose deaths during the pandemic necessitate investments in overdose prevention as an essential aspect of the COVID-19 response and postpandemic recovery. This is particularly urgent for more socioeconomically disadvantaged and racial/ethnic minority communities subjected to the compounded burden of disproportionate COVID-19 mortality and rising overdose deaths.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Drug Overdose/epidemiology , Emergency Medical Services/statistics & numerical data , Heart Arrest/epidemiology , African Americans/statistics & numerical data , Cohort Studies , Drug Overdose/ethnology , Female , Heart Arrest/ethnology , Humans , Male , Pandemics , Poverty/statistics & numerical data , SARS-CoV-2 , United States/epidemiology , /statistics & numerical data
13.
Cardiol J ; 28(4): 503-508, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1215655

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The purpose herein, was to perform a systematic review of interventional outcome studies in patients with in-hospital cardiac arrest before and during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic period. METHODS: A meta-analysis was performed of publications meeting the following PICOS criteria: (1) participants, patients > 18 years of age with cardiac arrest due to any causes; (2) intervention, cardiac arrest in COVID-19 period; (3) comparison, cardiac arrest in pre-COVID-19 period; (4) outcomes, detailed information for survival; (5) study design, randomized controlled trials, quasi-randomized or observational studies comparing cardiac arrest in COVID-19 and pre-COVID-19 period for their effects in patients with cardiac arrest. RESULTS: Survival to hospital discharge for the pre-pandemic and pandemic period was reported in 3 studies (n =1432 patients) and was similar in the pre-pandemic vs. the pandemic period, 35.6% vs. 32.1%, respectively (odds ratio [OR] 1.72; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.81-3.65; p = 0.16; I2 = 72%). Return of spontaneous circulation was reported by all 4 studies and were also similar in the pre and during COVID-19 periods, 51.9% vs. 48.7% (OR 1.27; 95% CI 0.78-2.07; p = 0.33; I2 = 71%), respectively. Pooled analysis of cardiac arrest recurrence was also similar, 24.9% and 17.9% (OR 1.60; 95% CI 0.99-2.57; p = 0.06; I2 = 32%) in the pre and during COVID-19 cohorts. Survival with Cerebral Performance Category 1 or 2 was higher in pre vs. during pandemic groups (27.3 vs. 9.1%; OR 3.75; 95% CI 1.26-11.20; p = 0.02). Finally, overall mortality was similar in the pre vs. pandemic groups, 65.9% and 67.2%, respectively (OR 0.67; 95% CI 0.33-1.34; p = 0.25; I2 = 76%). CONCLUSIONS: Compared to the pre-pandemic period, in hospital cardiac arrest in COVID-19 patients was numerically higher but had statistically similar outcomes.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation , Heart Arrest , Hospitals , Heart Arrest/diagnosis , Heart Arrest/epidemiology , Humans , Pandemics , Patient Discharge , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , Retrospective Studies
14.
Arq Bras Cardiol ; 116(2): 266-271, 2021 Feb.
Article in Portuguese, English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1159637

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Cardiovascular diseases constitute an important group of causes of death in the country. Ischemic heart diseases that are the main causes of cardiopulmonary arrest, leading to an impact on the mortality of the cardiovascular diseases in the health system. OBJECTIVE: Assess the number of home deaths by cardiopulmonary arrest notified by the Mobile Emergency Medical Service (SAMU) in March 2018, 2019 and 2020. METHODS: Observational study carried out from the analysis of cardiopulmonary arrest mortality data of citizens assisted by SAMU in Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brazil. Social and clinical characteristics and occurrence information of the patients were analyzed. The mortality rate due to cardiopulmonary arrest in relation to the total number of attendances was assessed. A significance level of 95% was considered. RESULTS: There was increase of home deaths due to cardiopulmonary arrest in March 2020 compared to March 2018 (p<0.001) and March 2019 (p=0.050). Of the deaths reported in 2020, 63.8% of the patients were aged 60 years or older, 63.7% of the occurrences were performed in the afternoon and approximately 87% of the cardiopulmonary arrest notified had associated clinical comorbidities, with systemic arterial hypertension and heart failure represented by 22.87% and 13.03% of the reported cases, respectively. The majority of the evaluated sample of this study did not have any medical care follow-up (88.7%). CONCLUSION: Considering the increase in the number of the deaths, we suggest reflections and readjustments regarding the monitoring of chronic non-transmissible diseases during a pandemic, as well as improvements in death surveillance. (Arq Bras Cardiol. 2021; 116(2):266-271).


FUNDAMENTO: As doenças cardiovasculares constituem um grupo importante de causas de morte no Brasil. As doenças isquêmicas do coração são as principais causas de parada cardiorrespiratória, levando a um impacto na mortalidade devido às doenças cardiovasculares no sistema de saúde. OBJETIVO: Avaliar o número de óbitos domiciliares por parada cardiorrespiratória notificados pelo Serviço de Atendimento Móvel de Urgência (SAMU) em março de 2018, 2019 e 2020. MÉTODOS: Trata-se de um estudo observacional realizado a partir da análise de dados de mortalidade por parada cardiorrespiratória de cidadãos atendidos pelo SAMU em Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brasil. Foram analisadas as características sociais e clínicas e as informações de ocorrência. Foi avaliada a taxa de mortalidade por parada cardiorrespiratória em relação ao número total de atendimentos. Foi considerado um nível de significância de 95%. RESULTADOS: Houve um aumento nos óbitos domiciliares por parada cardiorrespiratória em março de 2020, em comparação com março de 2018 (p < 0,001) e março de 2019 (p = 0,050). Dos óbitos relatados em 2020, 63,8% dos pacientes tinham 60 anos ou mais; 63,7% das ocorrências foram à tarde e aproximadamente 87% dos casos de parada cardiorrespiratória notificados apresentavam comorbidades clínicas, com hipertensão arterial sistêmicas e parada cardíaca correspondendo a 22,87% e 13,03% dos casos relatados, respectivamente. A maioria da amostra avaliada deste estudo não teve acompanhamento médico (88,7%). CONCLUSÃO: Considerando o aumento do número de óbitos, sugerimos reflexões e reajustes quanto ao monitoramento das doenças crônicas não transmissíveis durante a pandemia, bem como melhorias na vigilância dos óbitos. (Arq Bras Cardiol. 2021; 116(2):266-271).


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation , Heart Arrest , Brazil/epidemiology , Heart Arrest/epidemiology , Humans , Middle Aged , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
15.
Arq Bras Cardiol ; 116(2): 266-271, 2021 Feb.
Article in Portuguese, English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1115696

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Cardiovascular diseases constitute an important group of causes of death in the country. Ischemic heart diseases that are the main causes of cardiopulmonary arrest, leading to an impact on the mortality of the cardiovascular diseases in the health system. OBJECTIVE: Assess the number of home deaths by cardiopulmonary arrest notified by the Mobile Emergency Medical Service (SAMU) in March 2018, 2019 and 2020. METHODS: Observational study carried out from the analysis of cardiopulmonary arrest mortality data of citizens assisted by SAMU in Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brazil. Social and clinical characteristics and occurrence information of the patients were analyzed. The mortality rate due to cardiopulmonary arrest in relation to the total number of attendances was assessed. A significance level of 95% was considered. RESULTS: There was increase of home deaths due to cardiopulmonary arrest in March 2020 compared to March 2018 (p<0.001) and March 2019 (p=0.050). Of the deaths reported in 2020, 63.8% of the patients were aged 60 years or older, 63.7% of the occurrences were performed in the afternoon and approximately 87% of the cardiopulmonary arrest notified had associated clinical comorbidities, with systemic arterial hypertension and heart failure represented by 22.87% and 13.03% of the reported cases, respectively. The majority of the evaluated sample of this study did not have any medical care follow-up (88.7%). CONCLUSION: Considering the increase in the number of the deaths, we suggest reflections and readjustments regarding the monitoring of chronic non-transmissible diseases during a pandemic, as well as improvements in death surveillance. (Arq Bras Cardiol. 2021; 116(2):266-271).


FUNDAMENTO: As doenças cardiovasculares constituem um grupo importante de causas de morte no Brasil. As doenças isquêmicas do coração são as principais causas de parada cardiorrespiratória, levando a um impacto na mortalidade devido às doenças cardiovasculares no sistema de saúde. OBJETIVO: Avaliar o número de óbitos domiciliares por parada cardiorrespiratória notificados pelo Serviço de Atendimento Móvel de Urgência (SAMU) em março de 2018, 2019 e 2020. MÉTODOS: Trata-se de um estudo observacional realizado a partir da análise de dados de mortalidade por parada cardiorrespiratória de cidadãos atendidos pelo SAMU em Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brasil. Foram analisadas as características sociais e clínicas e as informações de ocorrência. Foi avaliada a taxa de mortalidade por parada cardiorrespiratória em relação ao número total de atendimentos. Foi considerado um nível de significância de 95%. RESULTADOS: Houve um aumento nos óbitos domiciliares por parada cardiorrespiratória em março de 2020, em comparação com março de 2018 (p < 0,001) e março de 2019 (p = 0,050). Dos óbitos relatados em 2020, 63,8% dos pacientes tinham 60 anos ou mais; 63,7% das ocorrências foram à tarde e aproximadamente 87% dos casos de parada cardiorrespiratória notificados apresentavam comorbidades clínicas, com hipertensão arterial sistêmicas e parada cardíaca correspondendo a 22,87% e 13,03% dos casos relatados, respectivamente. A maioria da amostra avaliada deste estudo não teve acompanhamento médico (88,7%). CONCLUSÃO: Considerando o aumento do número de óbitos, sugerimos reflexões e reajustes quanto ao monitoramento das doenças crônicas não transmissíveis durante a pandemia, bem como melhorias na vigilância dos óbitos. (Arq Bras Cardiol. 2021; 116(2):266-271).


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation , Heart Arrest , Brazil/epidemiology , Heart Arrest/epidemiology , Humans , Middle Aged , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
18.
Scand J Trauma Resusc Emerg Med ; 29(1): 30, 2021 Feb 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1069576

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2), an emerging virus, has caused a global pandemic. Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by SARS-CoV-2, has led to high hospitalization rates worldwide. Little is known about the occurrence of in-hospital cardiac arrest (IHCA) and high mortality rates have been proposed. The aim of this study was to investigate the incidence, characteristics and outcome of IHCA during the pandemic in comparison to an earlier period. METHODS: This was a retrospective analysis of data prospectively recorded during 3-month-periods 2019 and 2020 at the University Medical Centre Hamburg-Eppendorf (Germany). All consecutive adult patients with IHCA were included. Clinical parameters, neurological outcomes and organ failure/support were assessed. RESULTS: During the study period hospital admissions declined from 18,262 (2019) to 13,994 (2020) (- 23%). The IHCA incidence increased from 4.6 (2019: 84 IHCA cases) to 6.6 (2020: 93 IHCA cases)/1000 hospital admissions. Median stay before IHCA was 4 (1-9) days. Demographic characteristics were comparable in both periods. IHCA location shifted towards the ICU (56% vs 37%, p < 0.01); shockable rhythm (VT/VF) (18% vs 29%, p = 0.05) and defibrillation were more frequent in the pandemic period (20% vs 35%, p < 0.05). Resuscitation times, rates of ROSC and post-CA characteristics were comparable in both periods. The severity of illness (SAPS II/SOFA), frequency of mechanical ventilation and frequency of vasopressor therapy after IHCA were higher during the 2020 period. Overall, 43 patients (12 with & 31 without COVID-19), presented with respiratory failure at the time of IHCA. The Horowitz index and resuscitation time were significantly lower in patients with COVID-19 (each p < 0.01). Favourable outcomes were observed in 42 and 10% of patients with and without COVID-19-related respiratory failure, respectively. CONCLUSION: Hospital admissions declined during the pandemic, but a higher incidence of IHCA was observed. IHCA in patients with COVID-19 was a common finding. Compared to patients with non-COVID-19-related respiratory failure, the outcome was improved.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Heart Arrest/epidemiology , Aged , Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation/statistics & numerical data , Cohort Studies , Drug Utilization/trends , Electric Countershock/trends , Female , Germany/epidemiology , Heart Arrest/therapy , Humans , Incidence , Male , Middle Aged , Organ Dysfunction Scores , Pandemics , Patient Admission/trends , Respiration, Artificial/trends , Respiratory Insufficiency/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , Vasoconstrictor Agents/therapeutic use
19.
Catheter Cardiovasc Interv ; 99(1): 1-8, 2022 01 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1064331

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Limited epidemiological data are available on the outcomes of in-hospital cardiac arrest (CA) in COVID-19 patients. METHODS: We performed literature search of PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane, and Ovid to identify research articles that studied outcomes of in-hospital cardiac arrest in COVID-19 patients. The primary outcome was survival at discharge. Secondary outcomes included return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC) and types of cardiac arrest. Pooled percentages with a 95% confidence interval (CI) were calculated for the prevalence of outcomes. RESULTS: A total of 7,891 COVID patients were included in the study. There were 621 (pooled prevalence 8%, 95% CI 4-13%) cardiac arrest patients. There were 52 (pooled prevalence 3.0%; 95% CI 0.0-10.0%) patients that survived at the time of discharge. ROSC was achieved in 202 (pooled prevalence 39%;95% CI 21.0-59.0%) patients. Mean time to ROSC was 7.74 (95% CI 7.51-7.98) min. The commonest rhythm at the time of cardiac arrest was pulseless electrical activity (pooled prevalence 46%; 95% 13-80%), followed by asystole (pooled prevalence 40%; 95% CI 6-80%). Unstable ventricular arrhythmia occurred in a minority of patients (pooled prevalence 8%; 95% CI 4-13%). CONCLUSION: This pooled analysis of studies showed that the survival post in-hospital cardiac arrest in COVID patients is dismal despite adequate ROSC obtained at the time of resuscitation. Nonshockable rhythm cardiac arrest is commoner suggesting a non-cardiac cause while cardiac related etiology is uncommon. Future studies are needed to improve the survival in these patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation , Heart Arrest , Heart Arrest/diagnosis , Heart Arrest/epidemiology , Hospitals , Humans , Prevalence , SARS-CoV-2 , Treatment Outcome
20.
JACC Clin Electrophysiol ; 7(1): 12-15, 2021 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1065248
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