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2.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 10(16): e021204, 2021 08 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1352600

ABSTRACT

Background Limited information is available regarding in-hospital cardiac arrest (IHCA) in patients with COVID-19. Methods and Results We leveraged the American Heart Association COVID-19 Cardiovascular Disease (AHA COVID-19 CVD) Registry to conduct a cohort study of adults hospitalized for COVID-19. IHCA was defined as those with documentation of cardiac arrest requiring medication or electrical shock for resuscitation. Mixed effects models with random intercepts were used to identify independent predictors of IHCA and mortality while accounting for clustering at the hospital level. The study cohort included 8518 patients (6080 not in the intensive care unit [ICU]) with mean age of 61.5 years (SD 17.5). IHCA occurred in 509 (5.9%) patients overall with 375 (73.7%) in the ICU and 134 (26.3%) patients not in the ICU. The majority of patients at the time of ICHA were not in a shockable rhythm (76.5%). Independent predictors of IHCA included older age, Hispanic ethnicity (odds ratio [OR], 1.9; CI, 1.4-2.4; P<0.001), and non-Hispanic Black race (OR, 1.5; CI, 1.1-1.9; P=0.004). Other predictors included oxygen use on admission, quick Sequential Organ Failure Assessment score on admission, and hypertension. Overall, 35 (6.9%) patients with IHCA survived to discharge, with 9.1% for ICU and 0.7% for non-ICU patients. Conclusions Older age, Black race, and Hispanic ethnicity are independent predictors of IHCA in patients with COVID-19. Although the incidence is much lower than in ICU patients, approximately one-quarter of IHCA events in patients with COVID-19 occur in non-ICU settings, with the latter having a substantially lower survival to discharge rate.


Subject(s)
African Americans , COVID-19 , Heart Arrest/ethnology , Inpatients , Intensive Care Units , Patient Admission , Age Factors , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Death, Sudden, Cardiac/ethnology , Death, Sudden, Cardiac/prevention & control , Female , Heart Arrest/diagnosis , Heart Arrest/mortality , Heart Arrest/therapy , Hospital Mortality/ethnology , Humans , Incidence , Male , Middle Aged , Prognosis , Race Factors , Registries , Risk Assessment , Risk Factors , Time Factors , United States/epidemiology
3.
Crit Care Med ; 49(6): 901-911, 2021 06 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1266195

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To investigate the incidence, characteristics, and outcomes of in-hospital cardiac arrest in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 and to describe the characteristics and outcomes for patients with in-hospital cardiac arrest within the ICU, compared with non-ICU patients with in-hospital cardiac arrest. Finally, we evaluated outcomes stratified by age. DATA SOURCES: A systematic review of PubMed, EMBASE, and preprint websites was conducted between January 1, 2020, and December 10, 2020. Prospective Register of Systematic Reviews identification: CRD42020203369. STUDY SELECTION: Studies reporting on consecutive in-hospital cardiac arrest with a resuscitation attempt among patients with coronavirus disease 2019. DATA EXTRACTION: Two authors independently performed study selection and data extraction. Study quality was assessed with the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale. Data were synthesized according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews guidelines. Discrepancies were resolved by consensus or through an independent third reviewer. DATA SYNTHESIS: Eight studies reporting on 847 in-hospital cardiac arrest were included. In-hospital cardiac arrest incidence varied between 1.5% and 5.8% among hospitalized patients and 8.0-11.4% among patients in ICU. In-hospital cardiac arrest occurred more commonly in older male patients. Most initial rhythms were nonshockable (83.9%, [asystole = 36.4% and pulseless electrical activity = 47.6%]). Return of spontaneous circulation occurred in 33.3%, with a 91.7% in-hospital mortality. In-hospital cardiac arrest events in ICU had higher incidence of return of spontaneous circulation (36.6% vs 18.7%; p < 0.001) and relatively lower mortality (88.7% vs 98.1%; p < 0.001) compared with in-hospital cardiac arrest in non-ICU locations. Patients greater than or equal to 60 years old had significantly higher in-hospital mortality than those less than 60 years (93.1% vs 87.9%; p = 0.019). CONCLUSIONS: Approximately, one in 20 patients hospitalized with coronavirus disease 2019 received resuscitation for an in-hospital cardiac arrest. Hospital survival after in-hospital cardiac arrest within the ICU was higher than non-ICU locations and seems comparable with prepandemic survival for nonshockable rhythms. Although the data provide guidance surrounding prognosis after in-hospital cardiac arrest, it should be interpreted cautiously given the paucity of information surrounding treatment limitations and resource constraints during the pandemic. Further research is into actual causative mechanisms is needed.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/therapy , Heart Arrest/mortality , Heart Arrest/therapy , Hospital Mortality , Treatment Outcome , Cause of Death , Humans , Incidence
4.
Am J Emerg Med ; 47: 244-247, 2021 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1217508

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: In-hospital cardiac arrest (IHCA) carries a high mortality and providing resuscitation to COVID-19 patients presents additional challenges for emergency physicians. Our objective was to describe outcomes of COVID-19 patients suffering IHCA at a rural hospital in Southern California. METHODS: Single-center retrospective observational study. A hospital registry of COVID-19 patients was queried for all patients who suffered IHCA and received cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) between May 1st and July 31st, 2020. A manual chart review was performed to obtain patient demographics, oxygen requirement prior to cardiac arrest (CA), details of the resuscitation including presence of an emergency physician, and final disposition. RESULTS: Twenty-one patients were identified, most of whom were Hispanic, male, and aged 50-70. The most common medical comorbidities were diabetes and hypertension. Most patients suffered respiratory arrest, with an initial rhythm of pulseless electrical activity or asystole. Return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC) was achieved in 3/9 patients already receiving mechanical ventilation, but all 3 expired within the following 24 h. ROSC was achieved in 10/12 patients not already intubated, though most also expired within a few days. The only 2 patients who survived to discharge suffered respiratory arrest after their oxygen delivery device dislodged. CONCLUSION: At a small rural hospital with limited resources and a predominantly Hispanic population, cardiac arrest in a COVID-19 patient portends an extremely poor prognosis. A better appreciation of these outcomes should help inform emergency providers and patients when discussing code status and attempts at resuscitation, particularly in resource limited settings.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation/methods , Heart Arrest/mortality , Hospital Mortality , SARS-CoV-2 , Aged , California , Comorbidity , Female , Heart Arrest/etiology , Heart Arrest/therapy , Hospitals, Rural , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies , Return of Spontaneous Circulation
5.
Crit Care Med ; 49(6): 901-911, 2021 06 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1132594

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To investigate the incidence, characteristics, and outcomes of in-hospital cardiac arrest in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 and to describe the characteristics and outcomes for patients with in-hospital cardiac arrest within the ICU, compared with non-ICU patients with in-hospital cardiac arrest. Finally, we evaluated outcomes stratified by age. DATA SOURCES: A systematic review of PubMed, EMBASE, and preprint websites was conducted between January 1, 2020, and December 10, 2020. Prospective Register of Systematic Reviews identification: CRD42020203369. STUDY SELECTION: Studies reporting on consecutive in-hospital cardiac arrest with a resuscitation attempt among patients with coronavirus disease 2019. DATA EXTRACTION: Two authors independently performed study selection and data extraction. Study quality was assessed with the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale. Data were synthesized according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews guidelines. Discrepancies were resolved by consensus or through an independent third reviewer. DATA SYNTHESIS: Eight studies reporting on 847 in-hospital cardiac arrest were included. In-hospital cardiac arrest incidence varied between 1.5% and 5.8% among hospitalized patients and 8.0-11.4% among patients in ICU. In-hospital cardiac arrest occurred more commonly in older male patients. Most initial rhythms were nonshockable (83.9%, [asystole = 36.4% and pulseless electrical activity = 47.6%]). Return of spontaneous circulation occurred in 33.3%, with a 91.7% in-hospital mortality. In-hospital cardiac arrest events in ICU had higher incidence of return of spontaneous circulation (36.6% vs 18.7%; p < 0.001) and relatively lower mortality (88.7% vs 98.1%; p < 0.001) compared with in-hospital cardiac arrest in non-ICU locations. Patients greater than or equal to 60 years old had significantly higher in-hospital mortality than those less than 60 years (93.1% vs 87.9%; p = 0.019). CONCLUSIONS: Approximately, one in 20 patients hospitalized with coronavirus disease 2019 received resuscitation for an in-hospital cardiac arrest. Hospital survival after in-hospital cardiac arrest within the ICU was higher than non-ICU locations and seems comparable with prepandemic survival for nonshockable rhythms. Although the data provide guidance surrounding prognosis after in-hospital cardiac arrest, it should be interpreted cautiously given the paucity of information surrounding treatment limitations and resource constraints during the pandemic. Further research is into actual causative mechanisms is needed.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/therapy , Heart Arrest/mortality , Heart Arrest/therapy , Hospital Mortality , Treatment Outcome , Cause of Death , Humans , Incidence
7.
Eur Heart J ; 42(11): 1094-1106, 2021 03 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1066308

ABSTRACT

AIM: To study the characteristics and outcome among cardiac arrest cases with COVID-19 and differences between the pre-pandemic and the pandemic period in out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) and in-hospital cardiac arrest (IHCA). METHOD AND RESULTS: We included all patients reported to the Swedish Registry for Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation from 1 January to 20 July 2020. We defined 16 March 2020 as the start of the pandemic. We assessed overall and 30-day mortality using Cox regression and logistic regression, respectively. We studied 1946 cases of OHCA and 1080 cases of IHCA during the entire period. During the pandemic, 88 (10.0%) of OHCAs and 72 (16.1%) of IHCAs had ongoing COVID-19. With regards to OHCA during the pandemic, the odds ratio for 30-day mortality in COVID-19-positive cases, compared with COVID-19-negative cases, was 3.40 [95% confidence interval (CI) 1.31-11.64]; the corresponding hazard ratio was 1.45 (95% CI 1.13-1.85). Adjusted 30-day survival was 4.7% for patients with COVID-19, 9.8% for patients without COVID-19, and 7.6% in the pre-pandemic period. With regards to IHCA during the pandemic, the odds ratio for COVID-19-positive cases, compared with COVID-19-negative cases, was 2.27 (95% CI 1.27-4.24); the corresponding hazard ratio was 1.48 (95% CI 1.09-2.01). Adjusted 30-day survival was 23.1% in COVID-19-positive cases, 39.5% in patients without COVID-19, and 36.4% in the pre-pandemic period. CONCLUSION: During the pandemic phase, COVID-19 was involved in at least 10% of all OHCAs and 16% of IHCAs, and, among COVID-19 cases, 30-day mortality was increased 3.4-fold in OHCA and 2.3-fold in IHCA.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/mortality , Heart Arrest/mortality , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/complications , Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation , Female , Heart Arrest/etiology , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest/etiology , Registries , Survival Rate , Sweden
8.
Resuscitation ; 160: 72-78, 2021 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1051928

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) has caused over 1 200 000 deaths worldwide as of November 2020. However, little is known about the clinical outcomes among hospitalized patients with active COVID-19 after in-hospital cardiac arrest (IHCA). AIM: We aimed to characterize outcomes from IHCA in patients with COVID-19 and to identify patient- and hospital-level variables associated with 30-day survival. METHODS: We conducted a multicentre retrospective cohort study across 11 academic medical centres in the U.S. Adult patients who received cardiopulmonary resuscitation and/or defibrillation for IHCA between March 1, 2020 and May 31, 2020 who had a documented positive test for Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 were included. The primary outcome was 30-day survival after IHCA. RESULTS: There were 260 IHCAs among COVID-19 patients during the study period. The median age was 69 years (interquartile range 60-77), 71.5% were male, 49.6% were White, 16.9% were Black, and 16.2% were Hispanic. The most common presenting rhythms were pulseless electrical activity (45.0%) and asystole (44.6%). ROSC occurred in 58 patients (22.3%), 31 (11.9%) survived to hospital discharge, and 32 (12.3%) survived to 30 days. Rates of ROSC and 30-day survival in the two hospitals with the highest volume of IHCA over the study period compared to the remaining hospitals were considerably lower (10.8% vs. 64.3% and 5.9% vs. 35.7% respectively, p < 0.001 for both). CONCLUSIONS: We found rates of ROSC and 30-day survival of 22.3% and 12.3% respectively. There were large variations in centre-level outcomes, which may explain the poor survival in prior studies.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/mortality , Heart Arrest/mortality , Heart Arrest/virology , Hospitalization , Aged , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , Survival Rate , United States
9.
Am J Emerg Med ; 43: 83-87, 2021 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1032962

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The endpoint of resuscitative interventions after traumatic injury resulting in cardiopulmonary arrest varies across institutions and even among providers. The purpose of this study was to examine survival characteristics in patients suffering torso trauma with no recorded vital signs (VS) in the emergency department (ED). METHODS: The National Trauma Data Bank was analyzed from 2007 to 2015. Inclusion criteria were patients with blunt and penetrating torso trauma without VS in the ED. Patients with head injuries, transfers from other hospitals, or those with missing values were excluded. The characteristics of survivors were evaluated, and statistical analyses performed. RESULTS: A total of 24,191 torso trauma patients without VS were evaluated in the ED and 96.6% were declared dead upon arrival. There were 246 survivors (1%), and 73 (0.3%) were eventually discharged home. Of patients who responded to resuscitation (812), the survival rate was 30.3%. Injury severity score (ISS), penetrating mechanism (odds ratio [OR] 1.99), definitive chest (OR 1.59) and abdominal surgery (OR 1.49) were associated with improved survival. Discharge to home (or police custody) was associated with lower ISS (OR 0.975) and shorter ED time (OR 0.99). CONCLUSION: Over a recent nine-year period in the United States, nearly 25,000 trauma patients were treated at trauma centers despite lack of VS. Of these patients, only 73 were discharged home. A trauma center would have to attempt over one hundred resuscitations of traumatic arrests to save one patient, confirming previous reports that highlight a grave prognosis. This creates a dilemma in treatment for front line workers and physicians with resource utilization and consideration of safety of exposure, particularly in the face of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation/methods , Emergency Service, Hospital/statistics & numerical data , Heart Arrest/mortality , Torso/injuries , Wounds and Injuries/complications , Adult , Female , Heart Arrest/etiology , Heart Arrest/therapy , Humans , Incidence , Injury Severity Score , Male , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies , Survival Rate/trends , United States/epidemiology , Wounds and Injuries/epidemiology , Wounds and Injuries/therapy
10.
Crit Care Med ; 49(2): 201-208, 2021 02 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-889604

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: There is limited data regarding outcomes after in-hospital cardiac arrest among coronavirus disease 2019 patients. None of the studies have reported the outcomes of in-hospital cardiac arrest in coronavirus disease 2019 patients in the United States. We describe the characteristics and outcomes of in-hospital cardiac arrest in coronavirus disease 2019 patients in rural Southwest Georgia. DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study. SETTING: Single-center, multihospital. PATIENTS: Consecutive coronavirus disease 2019 patients who experienced in-hospital cardiac arrest with attempted resuscitation. INTERVENTIONS: Attempted resuscitation with advanced cardiac life support. MEASUREMENT AND MAIN RESULTS: Out of 1,094 patients hospitalized for coronavirus disease 2019 during the study period, 63 patients suffered from in-hospital cardiac arrest with attempted resuscitation and were included in this study. The median age was 66 years, and 49.2% were males. The majority of patients were African Americans (90.5%). The most common comorbidities were hypertension (88.9%), obesity (69.8%), diabetes (60.3%), and chronic kidney disease (33.3%). Eighteen patients (28.9%) had a Charlson Comorbidity Index of 0-2. The most common presenting symptoms were shortness of breath (63.5%), fever (52.4%), and cough (46%). The median duration of symptoms prior to admission was 14 days. During hospital course, 66.7% patients developed septic shock, and 84.1% had acute respiratory distress syndrome. Prior to in-hospital cardiac arrest, 81% were on ventilator, 60.3% were on vasopressors, and 39.7% were on dialysis. The majority of in-hospital cardiac arrest (84.1%) occurred in the ICU. Time to initiation of advanced cardiac life support protocol was less than 1 minute for all in-hospital cardiac arrest in the ICU and less than 2 minutes for the remaining patients. The most common initial rhythms were pulseless electrical activity (58.7%) and asystole (33.3%). Although return of spontaneous circulation was achieved in 29% patients, it was brief in all of them. The in-hospital mortality was 100%. CONCLUSIONS: In our study, coronavirus disease 2019 patients suffering from in-hospital cardiac arrest had 100% in-hospital mortality regardless of the baseline comorbidities, presenting illness severity, and location of arrest.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/mortality , Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation/mortality , Heart Arrest/mortality , Aged , COVID-19/complications , Female , Georgia , Heart Arrest/etiology , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Risk Assessment , United States
11.
BMJ ; 371: m3513, 2020 09 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-808184

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To estimate the incidence, risk factors, and outcomes associated with in-hospital cardiac arrest and cardiopulmonary resuscitation in critically ill adults with coronavirus disease 2019 (covid-19). DESIGN: Multicenter cohort study. SETTING: Intensive care units at 68 geographically diverse hospitals across the United States. PARTICIPANTS: Critically ill adults (age ≥18 years) with laboratory confirmed covid-19. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: In-hospital cardiac arrest within 14 days of admission to an intensive care unit and in-hospital mortality. RESULTS: Among 5019 critically ill patients with covid-19, 14.0% (701/5019) had in-hospital cardiac arrest, 57.1% (400/701) of whom received cardiopulmonary resuscitation. Patients who had in-hospital cardiac arrest were older (mean age 63 (standard deviation 14) v 60 (15) years), had more comorbidities, and were more likely to be admitted to a hospital with a smaller number of intensive care unit beds compared with those who did not have in-hospital cardiac arrest. Patients who received cardiopulmonary resuscitation were younger than those who did not (mean age 61 (standard deviation 14) v 67 (14) years). The most common rhythms at the time of cardiopulmonary resuscitation were pulseless electrical activity (49.8%, 199/400) and asystole (23.8%, 95/400). 48 of the 400 patients (12.0%) who received cardiopulmonary resuscitation survived to hospital discharge, and only 7.0% (28/400) survived to hospital discharge with normal or mildly impaired neurological status. Survival to hospital discharge differed by age, with 21.2% (11/52) of patients younger than 45 years surviving compared with 2.9% (1/34) of those aged 80 or older. CONCLUSIONS: Cardiac arrest is common in critically ill patients with covid-19 and is associated with poor survival, particularly among older patients.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/mortality , Heart Arrest/mortality , Hospital Mortality , Pneumonia, Viral/mortality , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19 , Cohort Studies , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Female , Heart Arrest/virology , Humans , Intensive Care Units/statistics & numerical data , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , SARS-CoV-2 , United States/epidemiology
12.
J Med Internet Res ; 22(9): e23565, 2020 09 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-801719

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Northwell Health, an integrated health system in New York, has treated more than 15,000 inpatients with COVID-19 at the US epicenter of the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic. OBJECTIVE: We describe the demographic characteristics of patients who died of COVID-19, observation of frequent rapid response team/cardiac arrest (RRT/CA) calls for non-intensive care unit (ICU) patients, and factors that contributed to RRT/CA calls. METHODS: A team of registered nurses reviewed the medical records of inpatients who tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 via polymerase chain reaction before or on admission and who died between March 13 (first Northwell Health inpatient expiration) and April 30, 2020, at 15 Northwell Health hospitals. The findings for these patients were abstracted into a database and statistically analyzed. RESULTS: Of 2634 patients who died of COVID-19, 1478 (56.1%) had oxygen saturation levels ≥90% on presentation and required no respiratory support. At least one RRT/CA was called on 1112/2634 patients (42.2%) at a non-ICU level of care. Before the RRT/CA call, the most recent oxygen saturation levels for 852/1112 (76.6%) of these non-ICU patients were at least 90%. At the time the RRT/CA was called, 479/1112 patients (43.1%) had an oxygen saturation of <80%. CONCLUSIONS: This study represents one of the largest reviewed cohorts of mortality that also captures data in nonstructured fields. Approximately 50% of deaths occurred at a non-ICU level of care despite admission to the appropriate care setting with normal staffing. The data imply a sudden, unexpected deterioration in respiratory status requiring RRT/CA in a large number of non-ICU patients. Patients admitted at a non-ICU level of care suffered rapid clinical deterioration, often with a sudden decrease in oxygen saturation. These patients could benefit from additional monitoring (eg, continuous central oxygenation saturation), although this approach warrants further study.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/mortality , Demography , Pneumonia, Viral/mortality , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Cohort Studies , Female , Heart Arrest/epidemiology , Heart Arrest/mortality , Hospital Mortality , Hospital Rapid Response Team , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Inpatients/statistics & numerical data , Intensive Care Units , Male , Medical Records , Middle Aged , New York/epidemiology , Oxygen/metabolism , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Young Adult
13.
Circ Cardiovasc Qual Outcomes ; 13(11): e007303, 2020 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-796493

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Patients hospitalized for severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) infection are at risk for in-hospital cardiac arrest (IHCA). It is unknown whether certain characteristics of cardiac arrest care and outcomes of IHCAs during the COVID-19 pandemic differed compared with a pre-COVID-19 period. METHODS: All patients who experienced an IHCA at our hospital from March 1, 2020 through May 15, 2020, during the peak of the COVID-19 pandemic, and those who had an IHCA from January 1, 2019 to December 31, 2019 were identified. All patient data were extracted from our hospital's Get With The Guidelines-Resuscitation registry, a prospective hospital-based archive of IHCA data. Baseline characteristics of patients, interventions, and overall outcomes of IHCAs during the COVID-19 pandemic were compared with IHCAs in 2019, before the COVID-19 pandemic. RESULTS: There were 125 IHCAs during a 2.5-month period at our hospital during the peak of the COVID-19 pandemic compared with 117 IHCAs in all of 2019. IHCAs during the COVID-19 pandemic occurred more often on general medicine wards than in intensive care units (46% versus 33%; 19% versus 60% in 2019; P<0.001), were overall shorter in duration (median time of 11 minutes [8.5-26.5] versus 15 minutes [7.0-20.0], P=0.001), led to fewer endotracheal intubations (52% versus 85%, P<0.001), and had overall worse survival rates (3% versus 13%; P=0.007) compared with IHCAs before the COVID-19 pandemic. CONCLUSIONS: Patients who experienced an IHCA during the COVID-19 pandemic had overall worse survival compared with those who had an IHCA before the COVID-19 pandemic. Our findings highlight important differences between these 2 time periods. Further study is needed on cardiac arrest care in patients with COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Cardiology Service, Hospital , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Heart Arrest/therapy , Hospitalization , Hospitals, Public , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Aged , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/mortality , Female , Heart Arrest/diagnosis , Heart Arrest/mortality , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , New York City , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/mortality , Retrospective Studies , Severity of Illness Index , Time Factors , Treatment Outcome
15.
Resuscitation ; 155: 103-111, 2020 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-663439

ABSTRACT

AIM: To identify and summarize the available science on prone resuscitation. To determine the value of undertaking a systematic review on this topic; and to identify knowledge gaps to aid future research, education and guidelines. METHODS: This review was guided by specific methodological framework and reporting items (PRISMA-ScR). We included studies, cases and grey literature regarding prone position and CPR/cardiac arrest. The databases searched were MEDLINE, Embase, CINAHL, Cochrane CENTRAL, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, Scopus and Google Scholar. Expanded grey literature searching included internet search engine, targeted websites and social media. RESULTS: Of 453 identified studies, 24 (5%) studies met our inclusion criteria. There were four prone resuscitation-relevant studies examining: blood and tidal volumes generated by prone compressions; prone compression quality metrics on a manikin; and chest computed tomography scans for compression landmarking. Twenty case reports/series described the resuscitation of 25 prone patients. Prone compression quality was assessed by invasive blood pressure monitoring, exhaled carbon dioxide and pulse palpation. Recommended compression location was zero-to-two vertebral segments below the scapulae. Twenty of 25 cases (80%) survived prone resuscitation, although few cases reported long term outcome (neurological status at hospital discharge). Seven cases described full neurological recovery. CONCLUSION: This scoping review did not identify sufficient evidence to justify a systematic review or modified resuscitation guidelines. It remains reasonable to initiate resuscitation in the prone position if turning the patient supine would lead to delays or risk to providers or patients. Prone resuscitation quality can be judged using end-tidal CO2, and arterial pressure tracing, with patients turned supine if insufficient.


Subject(s)
Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation/methods , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Heart Arrest/therapy , Pandemics/statistics & numerical data , Patient Positioning/methods , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Adult , Aged , COVID-19 , Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation/mortality , Cause of Death , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Female , Global Health , Gray Literature , Heart Arrest/etiology , Heart Arrest/mortality , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Prone Position , Risk Assessment , Survival Analysis , Treatment Outcome
18.
Resuscitation ; 151: 18-23, 2020 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-46293

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To describe the characteristics and outcomes of patients with severe COVID-19 and in-hospital cardiac arrest (IHCA) in Wuhan, China. METHODS: The outcomes of patients with severe COVID-19 pneumonia after IHCA over a 40-day period were retrospectively evaluated. Between January 15 and February 25, 2020, data for all cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) attempts for IHCA that occurred in a tertiary teaching hospital in Wuhan, China were collected according to the Utstein style. The primary outcome was restoration of spontaneous circulation (ROSC), and the secondary outcomes were 30-day survival, and neurological outcome. RESULTS: Data from 136 patients showed 119 (87.5%) patients had a respiratory cause for their cardiac arrest, and 113 (83.1%) were resuscitated in a general ward. The initial rhythm was asystole in 89.7%, pulseless electrical activity (PEA) in 4.4%, and shockable in 5.9%. Most patients with IHCA were monitored (93.4%) and in most resuscitation (89%) was initiated <1 min. The average length of hospital stay was 7 days and the time from illness onset to hospital admission was 10 days. The most frequent comorbidity was hypertension (30.2%), and the most frequent symptom was shortness of breath (75%). Of the patients receiving CPR, ROSC was achieved in 18 (13.2%) patients, 4 (2.9%) patients survived for at least 30 days, and one patient achieved a favourable neurological outcome at 30 days. Cardiac arrest location and initial rhythm were associated with better outcomes. CONCLUSION: Survival of patients with severe COVID-19 pneumonia who had an in-hospital cardiac arrest was poor in Wuhan.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation/methods , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Heart Arrest/mortality , Hospital Mortality , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19 , China , Cohort Studies , Female , Heart Arrest/etiology , Heart Arrest/therapy , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/etiology , Pneumonia, Viral/mortality , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies , Risk Assessment , SARS-CoV-2 , Survival Analysis , Treatment Outcome
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