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3.
Lancet ; 398(10307): 1257-1268, 2021 10 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1447236

ABSTRACT

Cardiopulmonary resuscitation prioritises treatment for cardiac arrests from a primary cardiac cause, which make up the majority of treated cardiac arrests. Early chest compressions and, when indicated, a defibrillation shock from a bystander give the best chance of survival with a good neurological status. Cardiac arrest can also be caused by special circumstances, such as asphyxia, trauma, pulmonary embolism, accidental hypothermia, anaphylaxis, or COVID-19, and during pregnancy or perioperatively. Cardiac arrests in these circumstances represent an increasing proportion of all treated cardiac arrests, often have a preventable cause, and require additional interventions to correct a reversible cause during resuscitation. The evidence for treating these conditions is mostly of low or very low certainty and further studies are needed. Irrespective of the cause, treatments for cardiac arrest are time sensitive and most effective when given early-every minute counts.


Subject(s)
Anaphylaxis/therapy , Asphyxia/therapy , Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation/methods , Heart Arrest/therapy , Hypothermia/therapy , Pregnancy Complications, Cardiovascular/therapy , Pulmonary Embolism/therapy , Wounds and Injuries/therapy , Anaphylaxis/complications , Asphyxia/complications , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/therapy , Electric Countershock , Female , Heart Arrest/etiology , Humans , Hypothermia/complications , Intraoperative Complications/therapy , Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest/etiology , Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest/therapy , Personal Protective Equipment , Postoperative Complications/therapy , Practice Guidelines as Topic , Pregnancy , Pulmonary Embolism/complications , Return of Spontaneous Circulation , SARS-CoV-2 , Wounds and Injuries/complications
4.
Rev Esp Anestesiol Reanim (Engl Ed) ; 68(8): 437-442, 2021 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1428377

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: The disease COVID-19 produces serious complications that can lead to cardiorespiratory arrest. Quality cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) can improve patient prognosis. The objective of this study is to evaluate the performance of the specialty of Anesthesiology in the management of CPR during the pandemic. METHODS: A survey was carried out with Google Forms consisting of 19 questions. The access link to the questionnaire was sent by email by the Spanish Society of Anesthesia (SEDAR) to all its members. RESULTS: 225 responses were obtained. The regions with the highest participation were: Madrid, Catalonia, Valencia and Andalusia. 68.6%% of the participants work in public hospitals. 32% of the participants habitually work in intensive care units (ICU), however, 62.1% have attended critical COVID-19 in the ICU and 72.6% have anesthetized them in the operating room. 26,3% have attended some cardiac arrest, 16,8% of the participants admitted to lead the manoeuvres, 16,8% detailed that it had been another department, and 66,2% was part of the team, but did not lead the assistance. Most of the CPR was performed in supine, only 5% was done in prone position. 54.6% of participants had not taken any course of Advance Life Support (ALS) in the last 2 years. 97.7% of respondents think that Anesthesia should lead the in-hospital CPR. CONCLUSION: The specialty of Anesthesiology has actively participated in the care of the critically ill patient and in the management of CPR during the COVID-19 pandemic. However, training and/or updating in ALS is required.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation , Heart Arrest , Heart Arrest/therapy , Humans , Pandemics , Prognosis , SARS-CoV-2 , Spain/epidemiology
8.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 10(16): e021204, 2021 08 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1352600

ABSTRACT

Background Limited information is available regarding in-hospital cardiac arrest (IHCA) in patients with COVID-19. Methods and Results We leveraged the American Heart Association COVID-19 Cardiovascular Disease (AHA COVID-19 CVD) Registry to conduct a cohort study of adults hospitalized for COVID-19. IHCA was defined as those with documentation of cardiac arrest requiring medication or electrical shock for resuscitation. Mixed effects models with random intercepts were used to identify independent predictors of IHCA and mortality while accounting for clustering at the hospital level. The study cohort included 8518 patients (6080 not in the intensive care unit [ICU]) with mean age of 61.5 years (SD 17.5). IHCA occurred in 509 (5.9%) patients overall with 375 (73.7%) in the ICU and 134 (26.3%) patients not in the ICU. The majority of patients at the time of ICHA were not in a shockable rhythm (76.5%). Independent predictors of IHCA included older age, Hispanic ethnicity (odds ratio [OR], 1.9; CI, 1.4-2.4; P<0.001), and non-Hispanic Black race (OR, 1.5; CI, 1.1-1.9; P=0.004). Other predictors included oxygen use on admission, quick Sequential Organ Failure Assessment score on admission, and hypertension. Overall, 35 (6.9%) patients with IHCA survived to discharge, with 9.1% for ICU and 0.7% for non-ICU patients. Conclusions Older age, Black race, and Hispanic ethnicity are independent predictors of IHCA in patients with COVID-19. Although the incidence is much lower than in ICU patients, approximately one-quarter of IHCA events in patients with COVID-19 occur in non-ICU settings, with the latter having a substantially lower survival to discharge rate.


Subject(s)
African Americans , COVID-19 , Heart Arrest/ethnology , Inpatients , Intensive Care Units , Patient Admission , Age Factors , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Death, Sudden, Cardiac/ethnology , Death, Sudden, Cardiac/prevention & control , Female , Heart Arrest/diagnosis , Heart Arrest/mortality , Heart Arrest/therapy , Hospital Mortality/ethnology , Humans , Incidence , Male , Middle Aged , Prognosis , Race Factors , Registries , Risk Assessment , Risk Factors , Time Factors , United States/epidemiology
9.
Emerg Med Clin North Am ; 39(3): 493-508, 2021 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1262904

ABSTRACT

Anatomically, the airway is ever changing in size, anteroposterior alignment, and point of most narrow dimension. Special considerations regarding obesity, chronic and acute illness, underlying developmental abnormalities, and age can all affect preparation and intervention toward securing a definitive airway. Mechanical ventilation strategies should focus on limiting peak inspiratory pressures and optimizing lung protective tidal volumes. Emergency physicians should work toward minimizing risk of peri-intubation hypoxemia and arrest. With review of anatomic and physiologic principles in the setting of a practical approach toward evaluating and managing distress and failure, emergency physicians can successfully manage critical pediatric airway encounters.


Subject(s)
Respiratory Distress Syndrome/therapy , Respiratory Insufficiency/therapy , Airway Management , COVID-19/therapy , Child , Craniofacial Abnormalities/complications , Critical Care , Equipment Design , Functional Residual Capacity , Heart Arrest/therapy , Humans , Hypnotics and Sedatives/therapeutic use , Intubation, Intratracheal/methods , Laryngoscopes , Laryngoscopy/methods , Larynx/anatomy & histology , Neuromuscular Diseases/therapy , Noninvasive Ventilation , Oxygen Inhalation Therapy , Pediatric Emergency Medicine , Pediatric Obesity/complications , Positive-Pressure Respiration , Video Recording
10.
Resuscitation ; 161: 1-60, 2021 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1284503

ABSTRACT

Informed by a series of systematic reviews, scoping reviews and evidence updates from the International Liaison Committee on Resuscitation, the 2021 European Resuscitation Council Guidelines present the most up to date evidence-based guidelines for the practice of resuscitation across Europe. The guidelines cover the epidemiology of cardiac arrest; the role that systems play in saving lives, adult basic life support, adult advanced life support, resuscitation in special circumstances, post resuscitation care, first aid, neonatal life support, paediatric life support, ethics and education.


Subject(s)
Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation , Heart Arrest , Adult , Child , Europe , First Aid , Heart Arrest/therapy , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Resuscitation , Systematic Reviews as Topic
11.
Crit Care Med ; 49(6): 901-911, 2021 06 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1266195

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To investigate the incidence, characteristics, and outcomes of in-hospital cardiac arrest in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 and to describe the characteristics and outcomes for patients with in-hospital cardiac arrest within the ICU, compared with non-ICU patients with in-hospital cardiac arrest. Finally, we evaluated outcomes stratified by age. DATA SOURCES: A systematic review of PubMed, EMBASE, and preprint websites was conducted between January 1, 2020, and December 10, 2020. Prospective Register of Systematic Reviews identification: CRD42020203369. STUDY SELECTION: Studies reporting on consecutive in-hospital cardiac arrest with a resuscitation attempt among patients with coronavirus disease 2019. DATA EXTRACTION: Two authors independently performed study selection and data extraction. Study quality was assessed with the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale. Data were synthesized according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews guidelines. Discrepancies were resolved by consensus or through an independent third reviewer. DATA SYNTHESIS: Eight studies reporting on 847 in-hospital cardiac arrest were included. In-hospital cardiac arrest incidence varied between 1.5% and 5.8% among hospitalized patients and 8.0-11.4% among patients in ICU. In-hospital cardiac arrest occurred more commonly in older male patients. Most initial rhythms were nonshockable (83.9%, [asystole = 36.4% and pulseless electrical activity = 47.6%]). Return of spontaneous circulation occurred in 33.3%, with a 91.7% in-hospital mortality. In-hospital cardiac arrest events in ICU had higher incidence of return of spontaneous circulation (36.6% vs 18.7%; p < 0.001) and relatively lower mortality (88.7% vs 98.1%; p < 0.001) compared with in-hospital cardiac arrest in non-ICU locations. Patients greater than or equal to 60 years old had significantly higher in-hospital mortality than those less than 60 years (93.1% vs 87.9%; p = 0.019). CONCLUSIONS: Approximately, one in 20 patients hospitalized with coronavirus disease 2019 received resuscitation for an in-hospital cardiac arrest. Hospital survival after in-hospital cardiac arrest within the ICU was higher than non-ICU locations and seems comparable with prepandemic survival for nonshockable rhythms. Although the data provide guidance surrounding prognosis after in-hospital cardiac arrest, it should be interpreted cautiously given the paucity of information surrounding treatment limitations and resource constraints during the pandemic. Further research is into actual causative mechanisms is needed.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/therapy , Heart Arrest/mortality , Heart Arrest/therapy , Hospital Mortality , Treatment Outcome , Cause of Death , Humans , Incidence
12.
Dtsch Med Wochenschr ; 146(11): 733-737, 2021 06.
Article in German | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1249222

ABSTRACT

Cardiac arrest is one of the most dramatic medical emergencies. The occurence of cardiac arrest in hospitalized patients, the so called in-hospital cardiac arrest, is common and associated with high mortality. However, in-hospital cardiac arrest has received quite little attention compared to cardiac arrest occuring outside the hospital. The present article reviews the recent literature of in-hospital cardiac arrest and outlines differences in characteristics and outcome compared to out of hospital cardiac arrest. Moreover, current literature regarding occurence and outcome of in-hospital cardiac arrest in hospitalized patients with COVID-19 is concisely summarized.


Subject(s)
Heart Arrest , Aged , COVID-19/complications , Female , Heart Arrest/complications , Heart Arrest/diagnosis , Heart Arrest/epidemiology , Heart Arrest/therapy , Hospitalization , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest , Prognosis
13.
BMJ Open ; 10(10): e039323, 2020 10 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1228876

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Blood and imaging biomarkers show promise in prognosticating outcomes after paediatric cardiac arrest in pilot studies. We describe the methods and early recruitment challenges and solutions for an ongoing multicentre (n=14) observational trial, Personalising Outcomes following Child Cardiac Arrest to validate clinical, blood and imaging biomarkers individually and together in a clinically relevant panel. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: Children (n=164) between 48 hours and 17 years of age who receive chest compressions irrespective of provider, duration, or event location and are admitted to an intensive care unit are eligible. Blood samples will be taken on days 1-3 for the measurement of brain-focused biomarkers analysed to predict the outcome. Clinically indicated and timed brain MRI and spectroscopy biomarkers will be analysed to predict the outcome. The primary outcome for the trial is survival with favourable (Vineland Adaptive Behavioural Scale score >70) outcome at 1 year. Secondary outcomes include mortality and pre-event and postdischarge measures of emotional, cognitive, physical and family functioning and health-related quality of life. Early enrollment targets were not met due to prolonged regulatory and subcontract processes. Multiple, simultaneous interventions including modification to inclusion criteria, additional sites and site visits were implemented with successful improvement in recruitment. Study procedures including outcomes and biomarker analysis are ongoing. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: Twelve of 14 sites will use the centralised Institutional Review Board (IRB) at the University of Pittsburgh (PRO14030712). Two sites will use individual IRBs: Children's Healthcare of Atlanta Institutional Review Board and Children's Hospital of Wisconsin IRB. Parents and/or guardians are consented and children assented (when possible) by the site Primary investigator (PI) or research coordinator for enrollment. Study findings will be disseminated through scientific conferences, peer-reviewed journal publications, public study website materials and invited lectures. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: NCT02769026.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Heart Arrest , Aftercare , Child , Heart Arrest/therapy , Humans , Patient Discharge , Quality of Life , SARS-CoV-2 , Wisconsin
14.
Resuscitation ; 164: 122-129, 2021 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1219386

ABSTRACT

AIM: To estimate the mortality rate, the rate of return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC) and survival with favorable neurological outcome in patients with COVID-19 after in-hospital cardiac arrest (IHCA) and attempted cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR). METHODS: PubMed, EMBASE, Web of Science, bioRxiv and medRxiv were surveyed up to 8th February 2021 for studies reporting data on mortality of patients with COVID-19 after IHCA. The primary outcome sought was mortality (in-hospital or at 30 days) after IHCA with attempted CPR. Additional outcomes were the overall rate of IHCA, the rate of non-shockable presenting rhythms, the rate of ROSC and the rate of survival with favorable neurological status. RESULTS: Ten articles were included in the systematic review and meta-analysis, for a total of 1179 COVID-19 patients after IHCA with attempted CPR. The estimated overall mortality rate (in-hospital or at 30 days) was 89.9% (95% Predicted Interval [P.I.] 83.1%-94.2%; 1060/1179 patients; I2 = 82%). The estimated rate of non-shockable presenting rhythms was 89% (95% P.I. 82.8%-93.1%; 1022/1205 patients; I2 = 85%), and the estimated rate of ROSC was 32.9% (95% P.I. 26%-40.6%; 365/1205 patients; I2 = 82%). The estimated overall rate of survival with favorable neurological status at 30 days was 6.3% (95% P.I. 4%-9.7%; 50/851 patients; I2 = 48%). Sensitivity analysis showed that COVID-19 patients had higher risk of death after IHCA than non COVID-19 patients (OR 2.34; 95% C.I. 1.37-3.99; number of studies = 3; 1215 patients). CONCLUSIONS: Although one of three COVID-19 patients undergoing IHCA may achieve ROSC, almost 90% may not survive at 30 days or to hospital discharge.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation , Heart Arrest , Heart Arrest/therapy , Hospitals , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
15.
Am J Emerg Med ; 47: 244-247, 2021 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1217508

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: In-hospital cardiac arrest (IHCA) carries a high mortality and providing resuscitation to COVID-19 patients presents additional challenges for emergency physicians. Our objective was to describe outcomes of COVID-19 patients suffering IHCA at a rural hospital in Southern California. METHODS: Single-center retrospective observational study. A hospital registry of COVID-19 patients was queried for all patients who suffered IHCA and received cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) between May 1st and July 31st, 2020. A manual chart review was performed to obtain patient demographics, oxygen requirement prior to cardiac arrest (CA), details of the resuscitation including presence of an emergency physician, and final disposition. RESULTS: Twenty-one patients were identified, most of whom were Hispanic, male, and aged 50-70. The most common medical comorbidities were diabetes and hypertension. Most patients suffered respiratory arrest, with an initial rhythm of pulseless electrical activity or asystole. Return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC) was achieved in 3/9 patients already receiving mechanical ventilation, but all 3 expired within the following 24 h. ROSC was achieved in 10/12 patients not already intubated, though most also expired within a few days. The only 2 patients who survived to discharge suffered respiratory arrest after their oxygen delivery device dislodged. CONCLUSION: At a small rural hospital with limited resources and a predominantly Hispanic population, cardiac arrest in a COVID-19 patient portends an extremely poor prognosis. A better appreciation of these outcomes should help inform emergency providers and patients when discussing code status and attempts at resuscitation, particularly in resource limited settings.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation/methods , Heart Arrest/mortality , Hospital Mortality , SARS-CoV-2 , Aged , California , Comorbidity , Female , Heart Arrest/etiology , Heart Arrest/therapy , Hospitals, Rural , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies , Return of Spontaneous Circulation
16.
Am J Emerg Med ; 39: 190-196, 2021 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-809403

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: To assess the impact of personal protective equipment (PPE) on different aspects of chest compression (CC) during cardiopulmonary resuscitation, we conducted this study. METHODS: This systematic review was performed according to the PRISMA. We searched PubMed, EMBASE and Web of Science from inception to June-6, 2020, limiting to the studies that reported the comparison of the effectiveness of CC in terms of CC rate, CC depth, the proportion of adequate CC rate, the proportion of adequate CC depth or proportion of adequate recoil; in study arms with or without PPE. Risk of bias was assessed by the ROB-2 and ROBINS-I tool. Quantitative data synthesis was done using the generic inverse variance method and the fixed-effects model. RESULTS: Five simulation-based studies were finally included. A Significant decrease in CC rate (SMD: -0.28, 95%CI: -0.47 to -0.10) and CC depth (SMD: -0.26, 95%CI: -0.44 to -0.07) were observed in the PPE arm as compared to the no-PPE arm. The difference in CC rate was more prominently seen in adult CPR than in paediatric CPR. Without PPE, the proportion of adequate CC rate delivered was 0.74, which reduced significantly to 0.60 after use of PPE (p - 0.035). Similarly, the proportion of adequate CC depth was significantly lesser (p - 0.001) in PPE arm (0.55), as compared to that of the no-PPE arm (0.78). CONCLUSION: The use of PPE compromises the quality of CC during CPR significantly, and newer ways to deliver chest compression has to be investigated. This study was prospectively registered in PROSPERO (CRD42020192031).


Subject(s)
Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation/instrumentation , Heart Arrest/therapy , Heart Massage/instrumentation , Personal Protective Equipment , Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation/methods , Humans , Treatment Outcome
18.
Can J Cardiol ; 37(8): 1267-1270, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1155438

ABSTRACT

Cardiac arrest is common in critically ill patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and is associated with poor survival. Simulation is frequently used to evaluate and train code teams with the goal of improving outcomes. All participants engaged in training on donning and doffing of personal protective equipment for suspected or confirmed COVID-19 cases. Thereafter, simulations of in-hospital cardiac arrest of patients with COVID-19, so-called protected code blue, were conducted at a quaternary academic centre. The primary endpoint was the mean time-to-defibrillation. A total of 114 patients participated in 33 "protected code blue" simulations over 8 weeks: 10 were senior residents, 17 were attending physicians, 86 were nurses, and 5 were respiratory therapists. Mean time-to-defibrillation was 4.38 minutes. Mean time-to-room entry, time-to-intubation, time-to-first-chest compression and time-to-epinephrine were 2.77, 5.74, 6.31, and 6.20 minutes, respectively; 92.84% of the 16 criteria evaluating the proper management of patients with COVID-19 and cardiac arrest were met. Mean time-to-defibrillation was longer than guidelines-expected time during protected code blue simulations. Although adherence to the modified advanced cardiovascular life-support protocol was high, breaches that carry additional infectious risk and reduce the efficacy of the resuscitation team were observed.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation , Education, Medical , Heart Arrest , Infectious Disease Transmission, Patient-to-Professional/prevention & control , Simulation Training/methods , Time-to-Treatment/standards , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/transmission , Canada/epidemiology , Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation/education , Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation/methods , Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation/standards , Clinical Protocols , Education, Medical/methods , Education, Medical/trends , Guideline Adherence/statistics & numerical data , Heart Arrest/etiology , Heart Arrest/therapy , Humans , Infection Control/methods , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification
19.
Crit Care Med ; 49(6): 901-911, 2021 06 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1132594

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To investigate the incidence, characteristics, and outcomes of in-hospital cardiac arrest in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 and to describe the characteristics and outcomes for patients with in-hospital cardiac arrest within the ICU, compared with non-ICU patients with in-hospital cardiac arrest. Finally, we evaluated outcomes stratified by age. DATA SOURCES: A systematic review of PubMed, EMBASE, and preprint websites was conducted between January 1, 2020, and December 10, 2020. Prospective Register of Systematic Reviews identification: CRD42020203369. STUDY SELECTION: Studies reporting on consecutive in-hospital cardiac arrest with a resuscitation attempt among patients with coronavirus disease 2019. DATA EXTRACTION: Two authors independently performed study selection and data extraction. Study quality was assessed with the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale. Data were synthesized according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews guidelines. Discrepancies were resolved by consensus or through an independent third reviewer. DATA SYNTHESIS: Eight studies reporting on 847 in-hospital cardiac arrest were included. In-hospital cardiac arrest incidence varied between 1.5% and 5.8% among hospitalized patients and 8.0-11.4% among patients in ICU. In-hospital cardiac arrest occurred more commonly in older male patients. Most initial rhythms were nonshockable (83.9%, [asystole = 36.4% and pulseless electrical activity = 47.6%]). Return of spontaneous circulation occurred in 33.3%, with a 91.7% in-hospital mortality. In-hospital cardiac arrest events in ICU had higher incidence of return of spontaneous circulation (36.6% vs 18.7%; p < 0.001) and relatively lower mortality (88.7% vs 98.1%; p < 0.001) compared with in-hospital cardiac arrest in non-ICU locations. Patients greater than or equal to 60 years old had significantly higher in-hospital mortality than those less than 60 years (93.1% vs 87.9%; p = 0.019). CONCLUSIONS: Approximately, one in 20 patients hospitalized with coronavirus disease 2019 received resuscitation for an in-hospital cardiac arrest. Hospital survival after in-hospital cardiac arrest within the ICU was higher than non-ICU locations and seems comparable with prepandemic survival for nonshockable rhythms. Although the data provide guidance surrounding prognosis after in-hospital cardiac arrest, it should be interpreted cautiously given the paucity of information surrounding treatment limitations and resource constraints during the pandemic. Further research is into actual causative mechanisms is needed.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/therapy , Heart Arrest/mortality , Heart Arrest/therapy , Hospital Mortality , Treatment Outcome , Cause of Death , Humans , Incidence
20.
ASAIO J ; 67(3): 250-253, 2021 03 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1101912

ABSTRACT

Pediatric population have been affected by the Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) to a much smaller scale compared with the adult population. The severity of the disease is variable ranging from mild form of pneumonia to severe acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) that necessitates admission to the intensive care unit (ICU) requiring a maximal level of organ support. Failure of the maximum support through mechanical ventilation can lead to the consideration of a higher level of organ support through extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO). We present a case of an 8 years old girl, who presented with severe ARDS secondary to COVID-19 pneumonia for which a venovenous-ECMO (VV ECMO) was initiated. This was followed by the patient developing cardiac arrest, which was managed with extracorporeal cardiopulmonary resuscitation (ECPR). The patient was also given thrombolytic therapy during the ECPR because of high clinical suspicion for pulmonary embolism. Venovenous-arterial ECMO was then continued and the patient was successfully weaned off both VA and VV ECMO and discharged home with full neurologic recovery. This encouraging result will hopefully lead to more consideration of this lifesaving therapy for severe cardiac and respiratory failure secondary to COVID-19 in pediatric patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/therapy , Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation/methods , Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation/methods , COVID-19/complications , Child , Female , Heart Arrest/therapy , Heart Arrest/virology , Humans , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/therapy , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/virology , Respiratory Insufficiency/therapy , Respiratory Insufficiency/virology , SARS-CoV-2
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