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1.
Birth Defects Res ; 114(12): 652-661, 2022 07 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1885379

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: We sought to describe patient characteristics in adults with and without congenital heart defects (CHDs) during hospitalization for COVID-19. METHODS: We analyzed data collected by Optum®, a nationally representative database of electronic medical records, for 369 adults with CHDs and 41,578 without CHDs hospitalized for COVID-19 between January 1, 2020, and December 10, 2020. We used Poisson regression to describe and compare epidemiologic characteristics, heart-related conditions, and severe outcomes between these two groups. RESULTS: The distributions of many epidemiologic characteristics were similar between the two groups, but patients with CHDs were significantly more likely to be current or former smokers compared to patients without CHDs (risk ratio [RR]: 1.5, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.2, 1.8). Patients with CHDs were also significantly more likely to have heart failure, stroke, acute arrhythmia, myocardial injury, acute pulmonary hypertension, venous thromboembolism, and obesity documented at the time of the COVID-19 hospitalization (RR range: 1.5-4.7) but not respiratory failure. Patients with CHDs (7 days) had a significantly longer median length of stay than those without CHDs (5 days; p < .001) and were significantly more likely to have an intensive care unit (ICU) admission (RR: 1.6, 95 CI: 1.2-1.9). CONCLUSIONS: Our description of patients among a large population improves our understanding of the clinical course of COVID-19 among adults with CHDs. Adults with CHD appear to be at greater risk for more severe CHD, including greater risk of ICU admission and longer length of hospital stays.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Heart Defects, Congenital , Adult , Databases, Factual , Heart Defects, Congenital/complications , Heart Defects, Congenital/epidemiology , Hospitalization , Humans , Length of Stay
3.
Methodist Debakey Cardiovasc J ; 18(2): 106-107, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1766194

ABSTRACT

A 52-year-old female was admitted to our hospital in April 2021 with dyspnea. She was discharged from the hospital 3 weeks ago due to the diagnosis of pneumonia caused by coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Physical examination revealed an oxygen desaturation of 82%. The patient underwent computed tomography angiography (CTA) that showed a ground-glass pattern and a giant left atrial appendage ( Figure 1A ). Film array respiratory panel was negative, and pulmonary aspergillosis was diagnosed after bronchoscopy. Cardiac magnetic resonance corroborated the huge left atrial appendage ( Figure 1B ). No other structural or functional heart abnormalities were diagnosed. A giant left atrial appendage is a rare cardiac anomaly that can be congenital or acquired. In the literature, it is called a left atrial appendage aneurysm. The dilatation can be generalized or focused. Although it can occur in all age groups, it is predominant in patients in their 30s to 50s and most common in females.1 Patients can be asymptomatic or present with symptoms such as palpitations, chest pain, or dyspnea. A number of recent cases in the literature have highlighted the diagnostic utility of CTA.2 While there is no standard treatment for this condition, surgical resection is the most frequent therapy. Another option reported in the literature is anticoagulant treatment for select cases.3 Closure of the left atrial appendage is a more recent and emerging intervention that can be considered. In our patient, we initiated anticoagulant therapy to reduce the risk of thromboembolic events; however, we recommended left atrial appendage occlusion or surgical resection after completing the treatment for pulmonary aspergillosis.


Subject(s)
Atrial Appendage , COVID-19 , Heart Aneurysm , Heart Defects, Congenital , Pulmonary Aspergillosis , Anticoagulants , Atrial Appendage/diagnostic imaging , Dyspnea/etiology , Female , Heart Aneurysm/surgery , Heart Defects, Congenital/complications , Heart Defects, Congenital/diagnostic imaging , Heart Defects, Congenital/surgery , Humans , Middle Aged , Pulmonary Aspergillosis/pathology
6.
Kardiol Pol ; 80(2): 151-155, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1560764

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: It is unclear whether patients with adult congenital heart disease (ACHD) should be considered as an increased risk population with poor outcomes when suffering from COVID-19. AIMS: This study aimed to collect clinical outcome data and to identify risk factors of a complicated course of COVID-19 among ACHD patients. METHODS: Among all outpatients who came to medical attention via telemedicine or direct physician contact at our institution between September 1, 2020 and March 31, 2021, we included all with a COVID-19 diagnosis. The incidence of COVID-19, a clinical course of the disease, and outcome were determined. RESULTS: One hundred and four (8.7%) out of 1 197 patients who were seen at our outpatient clinic for ACHD patients met the definition of COVID-19. Most of them reported a mild course of COVID-19 (99 [95.5%]). Five patients (4.5%) experienced severe symptoms and needed hospitalization. Two patients (1.9% of all with a confirmed diagnosis, 40% with severe infection) died. In the multivariable analysis, decreased systemic ventricular systolic function and any significant valve stenosis were predictors of a complicated disease course. CONCLUSIONS: Our study confirmed previous results showing that a physiology-based model, rather than an anatomy-based model, better predicted COVID-19 outcomes among ACHD patients, which is of importance for patients and healthcare providers during the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Heart Defects, Congenital , Adult , COVID-19 Testing , Heart Defects, Congenital/complications , Heart Defects, Congenital/epidemiology , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
7.
J Investig Med High Impact Case Rep ; 9: 23247096211043398, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1496109

ABSTRACT

A 60-year-old woman presented to the emergency department with worsening shortness of breath and non-productive cough for 1 week, which was preceding a recent COVID-19 infection. At the time the patient thought this was part of the constellation of symptoms of COVID-19, so she stayed home until her symptoms worsened to the point of needing hospitalization. The patient was found to have a rare and complex congenital heart disease that led her to develop acute heart failure precipitated by COVID-19 pneumonia. Medical management and surgical repair were essential in this patient given the late presentation.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Heart Defects, Congenital , Dyspnea , Emergency Service, Hospital , Female , Heart Defects, Congenital/complications , Humans , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2
8.
Pediatr Cardiol ; 43(3): 541-546, 2022 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1460299

ABSTRACT

The aim of the current study is to investigate hospitalization outcomes of COVID-19 positive children and adults with moderate or severe congenital heart disease to children and adults without congenital heart disease. Retrospective review using the Vizient Clinical Data Base for admissions of patients with an ICD-10 code for COVID-19 from April 2020 to March 2021. Admissions with COVID-19 and with and without moderate or severe congenital heart disease (CHD) were stratified into pediatric (< 18 years) and adult (≥ 18 years) and hospital outcomes were compared. There were 9478 pediatric COVID-19 admissions, 160 (1.7%) with CHD, and 658,230 adult COVID-19 admissions, 389 (0.06%) with CHD. Pediatric admissions with COVID-19 and CHD were younger (1 vs 11 years), had longer length of stay (22 vs 6 days), higher complication rates (6.9 vs 1.1%), higher mortality rates (3.8, 0.8%), and higher costs ($54,619 vs 10,731; p < 0.001 for all). Adult admissions with COVID-19 and CHD were younger (53 vs 64 years, p < 0.001), had longer length of stay (12 vs 9 days, p < 0.001), higher complication rates (8 vs 4.8%, p = 0.003), and higher costs ($23,551 vs 13,311, p < 0.001). This appears to be the first study to report the increased hospital morbidities and costs for patients with CHD affected by COVID-19. Our hope is that these findings will help counsel patients moving forward during the pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Heart Defects, Congenital , Adult , Child , Heart Defects, Congenital/complications , Heart Defects, Congenital/epidemiology , Hospitalization , Hospitals , Humans , Length of Stay
9.
J Cardiothorac Vasc Anesth ; 36(7): 1956-1961, 2022 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1364615

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Venovenous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) support may be considered in experienced centers for patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) due to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection refractory to conventional treatment. In ECMO patients, echocardiography has emerged as a clinical tool for implantation and clinical management; but to date, little data are available on COVID-related ARDS patients requiring ECMO. The authors assessed the incidence of right ventricular dilatation and dysfunction (RvDys) in patients with COVID-related ARDS requiring ECMO. DESIGN: Single-center investigation. SETTING: Intensive care unit (ICU). PARTICIPANTS: A total of 35 patients with COVID-related ARDS requiring ECMO, consecutively admitted to the ICU (March 1, 2020, to February 28, 2021). INTERVENTIONS: Serial echocardiographic examinations. RvDys was defined as RV end-diastolic area/LV end-diastolic area >0.6 and tricuspid annular plane excursion <15 mm. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: The incidence of RvDys was 15/35 (42%). RvDys patients underwent ECMO support after a longer period of mechanical ventilation (p = 0.006) and exhibited a higher mortality rate (p = 0.024) than those without RvDys. In nonsurvivors, RvDys was observed in all patients (n = nine) who died with unfavorable progression of COVID-related ARDS. In survivors, weaned from ECMO, a significant reduction in systolic pulmonary arterial pressures was detectable. CONCLUSIONS: According to the authors' data, in COVID-related ARDS requiring ECMO support, RvDys is common, associated with increased ICU mortality. Overall, the data underscored the clinical role of echocardiography in COVID-related ARDS supported by venovenous ECMO, because serial echocardiographic assessments (especially focused on RV changes) are able to reflect pulmonary COVID disease severity.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation , Heart Defects, Congenital , Respiratory Distress Syndrome , Ventricular Dysfunction, Right , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , COVID-19/therapy , Dilatation , Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation/adverse effects , Heart Defects, Congenital/complications , Heart Ventricles , Humans , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/diagnostic imaging , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/etiology , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/therapy , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Ventricular Dysfunction, Right/diagnostic imaging , Ventricular Dysfunction, Right/etiology , Ventricular Dysfunction, Right/therapy
10.
Curr Probl Cardiol ; 47(1): 100905, 2022 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1252631

ABSTRACT

Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Corona Virus 2 (SARS-COV2) infection is a rapid evolving pandemic with multiple peaks of outbreak and substantial mortality worldwide. It has been proposed that infants are more vulnerable to SARS-COV-2 infection. On the other hand, children with COVID-19 have generally milder disease compared to infected adults and more often presented with gastrointestinal symptoms compared to respiratory ones. Multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-c) is an ominous demonstration of COVID-19 with cardiac involvement and mortality rate <2%. From cardiovascular point of view, wide spectrum of manifestations including subclinical myocardial injury, myocarditis, stress cardiomyopathies, cardiac arrhythmias, pulmonary thromboembolism and thrombus formation in cardiac chambers and vascular bed has been reported in COVID-19 disease. Congenital heart disease (CHD), assumed as the most prevalent form of congenital disease. Advances in medical and surgical treatments for CHD have led to more alive patients with underlying heart disease secondary to congenital defects. These group of pediatric patients are prone to heart failure, arrhythmia and embolic events. In this narrative review, we intended to evaluate the cardiovascular and pediatric presentations of COVID-19 as well as the manifestation and outcomes of SARS-CoV-2 infection on pediatric patients with CHD.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Heart Defects, Congenital , Adult , COVID-19/complications , Child , Heart Defects, Congenital/complications , Heart Defects, Congenital/epidemiology , Humans , Infant , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome
11.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 8449, 2021 04 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1193601

ABSTRACT

Although most patients recover from COVID-19, it has been linked to cardiac, pulmonary, and neurologic complications. Despite not having formal criteria for its diagnosis, COVID-19 associated cardiomyopathy has been observed in several studies through biomarkers and imaging. This study aims to estimate the proportion of COVID-19 patients with cardiac abnormalities and to determine the association between the cardiac abnormalities in COVID-19 patients and disease severity and mortality. Observational studies published from December 1, 2019 to September 30, 2020 were obtained from electronic databases (PubMed, Embase, Cochrane Library, CNKI) and preprint servers (medRxiv, bioRxiv, ChinaXiv). Studies that have data on prevalence were included in the calculation of the pooled prevalence, while studies with comparison group were included in the calculation of the odds ratio. If multiple tests were done in the same study yielding different prevalence values, the largest one was used as the measure of prevalence of that particular study. Metafor using R software package version 4.0.2 was used for the meta-analysis. A total of 400 records were retrieved from database search, with 24 articles included in the final analysis. Pooled prevalence of cardiac abnormalities in 20 studies was calculated to be 0.31 [95% Confidence Intervals (CI) of (0.23; 0.41)], with statistically significant heterogeneity (percentage of variation or I-squared statistic I2 = 97%, p < 0.01). Pooled analysis of 19 studies showed an overall odds ratio (OR) of 6.87 [95%-CI (3.92; 12.05)] for cardiac abnormalities associated with disease severity and mortality, with statistically significant heterogeneity (I2 = 85%, between-study variance or tau-squared statistic τ2 = 1.1485, p < 0.01). Due to the high uncertainty in the pooled prevalence of cardiac abnormalities and the unquantifiable magnitude of risk (although an increased risk is certain) for severity or mortality among COVID-19 patients, much more long-term prognostic studies are needed to check for the long-term complications of COVID-19 and formalize definitive criteria of "COVID-19 associated cardiomyopathy".


Subject(s)
COVID-19/pathology , Heart Defects, Congenital/pathology , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/virology , Heart Defects, Congenital/complications , Heart Defects, Congenital/epidemiology , Hospitalization , Humans , Odds Ratio , Prevalence , Prognosis , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Severity of Illness Index
13.
Acta Paediatr ; 110(4): 1281-1288, 2021 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1041842

ABSTRACT

AIM: To examine how the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic impacts child well-being and family functioning, particularly among children at risk for neurodevelopmental impairments. METHODS: Families of 73 typically developing children, 54 children born very preterm (VPT) and 73 children with congenital heart disease (CHD) from two prospective cohort studies were assessed prior to (mean age: 10.4 [SD: 1.2] years) and during (mean age: 12.8 [SD: 2.0] years) the pandemic, more specifically, in April/May 2020. Child well-being and family functioning were assessed with validated, parent-reported questionnaires and tested with linear mixed models. Group comparison of child distress and parental concerns related to medical implications of COVID-19 and homeschooling, assessed with 5-point Likert scales, was done with Mann-Whitney U tests. RESULTS: Children's psychological well-being and family functioning (both, p < 0.001) decreased significantly during the pandemic, irrespective of group. Children with CHD were reported to be more concerned about becoming infected with SARS-CoV-2 than were others. Child distress due to homeschooling and parents' concerns about children's academic achievements were significantly higher in VPT and CHD children than in typically developing peers (all p < 0.001). CONCLUSION: The COVID-19 pandemic substantially impacts the whole family and leads to additional distress in families with children at risk for neurodevelopmental impairments. These families should receive individualised counselling and assistance from healthcare providers and schools during the pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Heart Defects, Congenital/complications , Infant, Premature, Diseases/etiology , Neurodevelopmental Disorders/etiology , Adolescent , Attitude to Health , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/psychology , Case-Control Studies , Child , Child Health , Cross-Sectional Studies , Family Relations/psychology , Female , Health Surveys , Heart Defects, Congenital/psychology , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Infant, Premature , Infant, Premature, Diseases/diagnosis , Infant, Premature, Diseases/psychology , Longitudinal Studies , Male , Mental Health , Neurodevelopmental Disorders/diagnosis , Neurodevelopmental Disorders/epidemiology , Neurodevelopmental Disorders/psychology , Neuropsychological Tests , Pandemics , Physical Distancing , Prospective Studies , Quality of Life , Risk Factors , Stress, Psychological/diagnosis , Stress, Psychological/epidemiology , Stress, Psychological/etiology , Stress, Psychological/psychology , Switzerland/epidemiology
14.
World J Pediatr ; 17(1): 71-78, 2021 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1002179

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is the current pandemic disease without any vaccine or efficient treatment to rescue the patients. Underlying diseases predispose the patients to a more severe disease and to a higher mortality rate. However, little evidence exists about COVID-19 outcomes in the pediatric population with congenital heart disease (CHD). Here, we report nine children with COVID-19 and concomitant CHD. METHODS: Our study included nine children with COVID-19 and concomitant CHD who were admitted to Children Medical Center Hospital during March and April 2020. The patients were classified based on the final outcome (death), and their clinical sign and symptoms, type of CHD, and drugs administered were compared. RESULTS: Among the nine patients, two died and we compared different characteristics, laboratory results and clinical findings of these cases based on the mortality. The deceased patients had severe types of CHD, worse arterial blood gases, severe clinical symptoms, higher mean level of partial thromboplastin time and C-reactive protein, and required more medications. CONCLUSIONS: The present study showed that the general consideration of mild COVID-19 in children does not include patients with CHD and that it is necessary to pay greater attention to children with CHD to determine guidelines for treatment of COVID-19 in these children. Owing to the scarcity of CHD and COVID-19, we reported only nine cases. However, further studies are highly required in this regard.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Heart Defects, Congenital/complications , Adolescent , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/therapy , Child, Preschool , Female , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Male
15.
Eur Heart J ; 42(19): 1858-1865, 2021 05 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-975280

ABSTRACT

We are witnessing an unparalleled pandemic caused by the novel Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) associated with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Current data show that SARS-CoV-2 results in mild flu-like symptoms in the majority of healthy and young patients affected. Nevertheless, the severity of COVID-19 respiratory syndrome and the risk of adverse or catastrophic outcomes are increased in patients with pre-existing cardiovascular disease. Patients with adult congenital heart disease (ACHD)-by definition-have underlying cardiovascular disease. Many patients with ACHD are also afflicted with residual haemodynamic lesions such as valve dysfunction, diminished ventricular function, arrhythmias or cyanosis, have extracardiac comorbidities, and face additional challenges regarding pregnancy. Currently, there are emerging data of the effect of COVID-19 on ACHD patients, but many aspects, especially risk stratification and treatment considerations, remain unclear. In this article, we aim to discuss the broad impact of COVID-19 on ACHD patients, focusing specifically on pathophysiology, risk stratification for work, self-isolation, hospitalization, impact on pregnancy, psychosocial health, and longer-term implications for the provision of ACHD care.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cardiovascular Diseases , Heart Defects, Congenital , Adult , Heart Defects, Congenital/complications , Heart Defects, Congenital/epidemiology , Heart Defects, Congenital/therapy , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
16.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 9(23): e017580, 2020 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-945087

ABSTRACT

Background We sought to assess the impact and predictors of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) infection and severity in a cohort of patients with congenital heart disease (CHD) at a large CHD center in New York City. Methods and Results We performed a retrospective review of all individuals with CHD followed at Columbia University Irving Medical Center who were diagnosed with COVID-19 between March 1, 2020 and July 1, 2020. The primary end point was moderate/severe response to COVID-19 infection defined as (1) death during COVID-19 infection; or (2) need for hospitalization and/or respiratory support secondary to COVID-19 infection. Among 53 COVID-19-positive patients with CHD, 10 (19%) were <18 years of age (median age 34 years of age). Thirty-one (58%) had complex congenital anatomy including 10 (19%) with a Fontan repair. Eight (15%) had a genetic syndrome, 6 (11%) had pulmonary hypertension, and 9 (17%) were obese. Among adults, 18 (41%) were physiologic class C or D. For the entire cohort, 9 (17%) had a moderate/severe infection, including 3 deaths (6%). After correcting for multiple comparisons, the presence of a genetic syndrome (odds ratio [OR], 35.82; P=0.0002), and in adults, physiological Stage C or D (OR, 19.38; P=0.002) were significantly associated with moderate/severe infection. Conclusions At our CHD center, the number of symptomatic patients with COVID-19 was relatively low. Patients with CHD with a genetic syndrome and adults at advanced physiological stage were at highest risk for moderate/severe infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/therapy , Heart Defects, Congenital/complications , Academic Medical Centers , Adult , Aged , Azithromycin/therapeutic use , Cohort Studies , Female , Genetic Diseases, Inborn/complications , Heart Defects, Congenital/classification , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Hydroxychloroquine/therapeutic use , Intubation, Intratracheal/statistics & numerical data , Male , New York City , Oxygen Inhalation Therapy/statistics & numerical data , Retrospective Studies , Severity of Illness Index , Young Adult
17.
Cardiol Young ; 31(2): 233-240, 2021 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-919404

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: We aimed to examine the literature to determine if both paediatric and adult patients diagnosed with congenital heart disease (CHD) are at a higher risk of poor outcomes if they have the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), compared to those without CHD. METHODS: A systematic review was executed using the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analysis (PRISMA) guidelines. To identify articles related to COVID-19 and CHD, an extensive literature search was performed on EMBASE, Medline, Scopus, and Global Health databases using keywords and MeSH terms. RESULTS: A total of 12 articles met the inclusion criteria and were included for analysis in this systematic review. Two themes were identified for data extraction: evidence supporting higher risks in CHD patients and evidence against higher risks in CHD patients. After combining the data, there were 99 patients with CHDs out of which 12 required admissions to ICU. CONCLUSION: This systematic review suggests that CHD may increase the risk of poor outcomes for those with COVID-19, but also highlights the necessity for more research with larger sample sizes in order to make a more justified conclusion, as the majority of papers that were analysed were case series and case reports. Future research should aim to quantify the risks if possible whilst accounting for various confounding factors such as age and treatment history.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/physiopathology , Heart Defects, Congenital/complications , Heart Defects, Congenital/physiopathology , Adult , COVID-19/mortality , Child , Heart Defects, Congenital/mortality , Humans
18.
J Pediatr ; 227: 302-307.e2, 2020 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-765220

ABSTRACT

We present 7 children with congenital heart disease and coronavirus disease 2019. Of these, 5 were younger than 1 year of age and 3 had atrioventricular canal defect and trisomy 21. All 7 developed acute decompensation, with 1 death in an 18-year-old with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy and other comorbidities.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , Heart Defects, Congenital/complications , Adolescent , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19 Testing , Fatal Outcome , Female , Humans , Infant , Male , Young Adult
19.
Int J Cardiol ; 323: 29-33, 2021 01 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-710666

ABSTRACT

The pandemic of Novel Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), has provoked hundreds of thousands of deaths, resulting in catastrophe for humans. Although some insights have been garnered in studies on women, children and young adults infected with COVID-19, these often remain fragmented in literature. Therefore, we discussed the impact of COVID-19 pandemic on women, children and young patients, particularly those with underlying cardiovascular comorbidities or congenital heart disease. Furthermore, we gathered and distilled the existing body of literature that describes their cardiovascular complications and the recommended actions in favour of those patients toward the post-peak pandemic period. Although many questions still require answers, this article is sought to help the practicing clinician in the understanding and management of the threatening disease in special populations.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/therapy , COVID-19/transmission , Women's Health , Antipyretics/therapeutic use , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Cardiomyopathies/virology , Child , Communicable Disease Control , Female , Heart Defects, Congenital/complications , Humans , Pandemics , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications, Cardiovascular/virology , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious , Sex Distribution , Takotsubo Cardiomyopathy/virology
20.
World J Pediatr Congenit Heart Surg ; 11(5): 548-556, 2020 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-646289

ABSTRACT

As recovery of congenital heart surgery programs begins during this COVID-19 pandemic, we review key considerations such as screening, protection of patients and health care workers (HCWs), case prioritization, barriers to reactivation, redesign of patient care teams, contribution of telemedicine, modification of trainees' experiences, preparation for potential resurgence, and strategies to maintain HCW wellness. COVID-19 has tested the resolve and grit of our specialty and we have an opportunity to emerge more refined.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Heart Defects, Congenital/surgery , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Recovery of Function , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Heart Defects, Congenital/complications , Humans , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2
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