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1.
J Cardiovasc Med (Hagerstown) ; 22(9): 706-710, 2021 09 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1197501

ABSTRACT

AIM: To summarize our experience on the implementation of a telemedicine service dedicated to adult congenital heart disease (ACHD) patients during the lockdown for the first wave of Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). METHODS: This is a prospective study enrolling all ACHD patients who answered a questionnaire dedicated telematic cardiovascular examination. RESULTS: A total of 289 patients were enrolled, 133 (47%) were male, 25 (9%) were affected by a genetic syndrome. The median age was 38 (29-51) years, whereas the median time interval between the last visit and the telematic follow-up was 9.5 (7.5-11.5) months. Overall, 35 patients (12%) reported a worsening of fatigue in daily life activity, 17 (6%) experienced chest pain, 42 (15%) had presyncope and 2 (1%) syncope; in addition, 28 patients (10%) presented peripheral edema and 14 (5%) were orthopneic. A total of 116 (40%) patients reported palpitations and 12 had at least one episode of atrial fibrillation and underwent successful electrical (8) or pharmacological (4) cardioversion. One patient was admitted to the emergency department for uncontrolled arterial hypertension, five for chest pain, and one for heart failure. Two patients presented fever but both had negative COVID-19 nasal swab. CONCLUSION: During the COVID-19 pandemic, the use of telemedicine dramatically increased and here we report a positive experience in ACHD patients. The postpandemic role of telemedicine will depend on permanent regulatory solutions and this early study might encourage a more systematic telematic approach for ACHD patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Heart Defects, Congenital , Infection Control , Patient Care Management , Patient Preference/statistics & numerical data , Telemedicine , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Female , Heart Defects, Congenital/epidemiology , Heart Defects, Congenital/physiopathology , Heart Defects, Congenital/therapy , Humans , Infection Control/methods , Infection Control/organization & administration , Italy/epidemiology , Male , Outcome and Process Assessment, Health Care , Patient Care Management/methods , Patient Care Management/statistics & numerical data , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Surveys and Questionnaires , Symptom Assessment/methods , Telemedicine/methods , Telemedicine/organization & administration
2.
J Am Coll Cardiol ; 77(13): 1644-1655, 2021 04 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1147716

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Adults with congenital heart disease (CHD) have been considered potentially high risk for novel coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19) mortality or other complications. OBJECTIVES: This study sought to define the impact of COVID-19 in adults with CHD and to identify risk factors associated with adverse outcomes. METHODS: Adults (age 18 years or older) with CHD and with confirmed or clinically suspected COVID-19 were included from CHD centers worldwide. Data collection included anatomic diagnosis and subsequent interventions, comorbidities, medications, echocardiographic findings, presenting symptoms, course of illness, and outcomes. Predictors of death or severe infection were determined. RESULTS: From 58 adult CHD centers, the study included 1,044 infected patients (age: 35.1 ± 13.0 years; range 18 to 86 years; 51% women), 87% of whom had laboratory-confirmed coronavirus infection. The cohort included 118 (11%) patients with single ventricle and/or Fontan physiology, 87 (8%) patients with cyanosis, and 73 (7%) patients with pulmonary hypertension. There were 24 COVID-related deaths (case/fatality: 2.3%; 95% confidence interval: 1.4% to 3.2%). Factors associated with death included male sex, diabetes, cyanosis, pulmonary hypertension, renal insufficiency, and previous hospital admission for heart failure. Worse physiological stage was associated with mortality (p = 0.001), whereas anatomic complexity or defect group were not. CONCLUSIONS: COVID-19 mortality in adults with CHD is commensurate with the general population. The most vulnerable patients are those with worse physiological stage, such as cyanosis and pulmonary hypertension, whereas anatomic complexity does not appear to predict infection severity.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cardiac Surgical Procedures , Cyanosis , Heart Defects, Congenital , Hypertension, Pulmonary , Adult , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/therapy , COVID-19 Testing/methods , Cardiac Surgical Procedures/methods , Cardiac Surgical Procedures/statistics & numerical data , Causality , Comorbidity , Cyanosis/diagnosis , Cyanosis/etiology , Cyanosis/mortality , Female , Global Health/statistics & numerical data , Heart Defects, Congenital/classification , Heart Defects, Congenital/epidemiology , Heart Defects, Congenital/physiopathology , Heart Defects, Congenital/therapy , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Hypertension, Pulmonary/diagnosis , Hypertension, Pulmonary/etiology , Hypertension, Pulmonary/mortality , Male , Mortality , Patient Acuity , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Symptom Assessment
3.
Cardiol Young ; 31(3): 344-351, 2021 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1101608

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has had a huge influence in almost all areas of life, affecting societies, economics, and health care systems worldwide. The paediatric cardiology community is no exception. As the challenging battle with COVID-19 continues, professionals from the Association for the European Paediatric and Congenital Cardiology receive many questions regarding COVID-19 in a Paediatric and Congenital Cardiology setting. The aim of this paper is to present the AEPC position on frequently asked questions based on the most recent scientific data, as well as to frame a discussion on how to take care of our patients during this unprecedented crisis. As the times are changing quickly and information regarding COVID-19 is very dynamic, continuous collection of evidence will help guide constructive decision-making.


Subject(s)
Anti-Arrhythmia Agents/therapeutic use , Anticoagulants/therapeutic use , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Arrhythmias, Cardiac/drug therapy , COVID-19/drug therapy , Heart Defects, Congenital/therapy , Immunologic Factors/therapeutic use , Adenosine Monophosphate/analogs & derivatives , Adenosine Monophosphate/therapeutic use , Alanine/analogs & derivatives , Alanine/therapeutic use , Arrhythmias, Cardiac/epidemiology , Arrhythmias, Cardiac/physiopathology , Brugada Syndrome/drug therapy , Brugada Syndrome/epidemiology , Brugada Syndrome/physiopathology , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/physiopathology , Cardiac Surgical Procedures , Cardiology , Heart Defects, Congenital/epidemiology , Heart Defects, Congenital/physiopathology , Heart Transplantation , Humans , Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical , Long QT Syndrome/drug therapy , Long QT Syndrome/epidemiology , Long QT Syndrome/physiopathology , Myocarditis/epidemiology , Myocarditis/physiopathology , Myocardium , Pediatrics , Risk Assessment , SARS-CoV-2 , Societies, Medical , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/drug therapy , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/epidemiology , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/physiopathology , Tachycardia, Ventricular/drug therapy , Tachycardia, Ventricular/epidemiology , Tachycardia, Ventricular/physiopathology
4.
Cardiol Young ; 31(2): 233-240, 2021 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-919404

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: We aimed to examine the literature to determine if both paediatric and adult patients diagnosed with congenital heart disease (CHD) are at a higher risk of poor outcomes if they have the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), compared to those without CHD. METHODS: A systematic review was executed using the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analysis (PRISMA) guidelines. To identify articles related to COVID-19 and CHD, an extensive literature search was performed on EMBASE, Medline, Scopus, and Global Health databases using keywords and MeSH terms. RESULTS: A total of 12 articles met the inclusion criteria and were included for analysis in this systematic review. Two themes were identified for data extraction: evidence supporting higher risks in CHD patients and evidence against higher risks in CHD patients. After combining the data, there were 99 patients with CHDs out of which 12 required admissions to ICU. CONCLUSION: This systematic review suggests that CHD may increase the risk of poor outcomes for those with COVID-19, but also highlights the necessity for more research with larger sample sizes in order to make a more justified conclusion, as the majority of papers that were analysed were case series and case reports. Future research should aim to quantify the risks if possible whilst accounting for various confounding factors such as age and treatment history.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/physiopathology , Heart Defects, Congenital/complications , Heart Defects, Congenital/physiopathology , Adult , COVID-19/mortality , Child , Heart Defects, Congenital/mortality , Humans
5.
Anesth Analg ; 131(2): 403-409, 2020 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-663546
7.
Int J Cardiol ; 320: 178-182, 2020 12 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-611605

ABSTRACT

With the recent emergence of SARS-CoV-2 and COVID-19, healthcare facilities and personnel are expected to rapidly triage and care for patients with even the most complex medical conditions. Adults with congenital heart disease (ACHD) represent an often-intimidating group of complex cardiovascular disorders. Given that general internists and general cardiologists will often be asked to evaluate this group during the pandemic, we propose here an abbreviated triage algorithm that will assist in identifying the patient's overarching ACHD phenotype and baseline cardiac status. The strategy outlined allows for rapid triage and groups various anatomic CHD variants into overarching phenotypes, permitting care teams to quickly review key points in the management of moderate to severely complex ACHD patients.


Subject(s)
Cardiovascular Diseases , Coronavirus Infections , Heart Defects, Congenital , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , Triage , Adult , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Cardiovascular Diseases/diagnosis , Cardiovascular Diseases/etiology , Cardiovascular Diseases/physiopathology , Clinical Decision Rules , Clinical Decision-Making , Communicable Disease Control , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Delivery of Health Care/methods , Delivery of Health Care/organization & administration , Delivery of Health Care/trends , Heart Defects, Congenital/classification , Heart Defects, Congenital/complications , Heart Defects, Congenital/physiopathology , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control , Patient Selection , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index , Symptom Assessment/methods , Triage/organization & administration , Triage/standards
8.
Heart ; 106(17): 1302-1309, 2020 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-596878

ABSTRACT

Adults with congenital heart disease (ACHD) may be at high risk in the case of COVID-19. Due to the heterogeneity of ACHD and secondary complications, risk profiles are, however, not uniform. This document aims to give an overview of relevant data and outline our pragmatic approach to disease prevention and management. Based on anatomy and additional physiological factors including symptoms, exercise capacity, heart failure, pulmonary hypertension and cyanosis, we propose a pragmatic approach to categorising patients into low-risk, intermediate-risk and high-risk groups. We regard especially patients with complex cyanotic conditions, those with palliated univentricular hearts, heart failure, severe valvular disease or pulmonary hypertension as high-risk patients. To avoid infection, we recommend self-isolation and exemption from work for these cohorts. Infected ACHD patients with low or moderate risk and without signs of deterioration may be remotely followed and cared for at home while in self isolation. High-risk patients or those with signs of respiratory or cardiovascular impairment require admission ideally at a tertiary ACHD centre. Especially patients with complex, cyanotic disease, heart failure and arrhythmias require particular attention. Treatment in patients with cyanotic heart disease should be guided by the relative degree of desaturation compared with baseline and lactate levels rather than absolute oxygen saturation levels. Patients with right heart dilatation or dysfunction are potentially at increased risk of right heart failure as mechanical ventilation and acute respiratory distress syndrome can lead to increase in pulmonary arterial pressures.


Subject(s)
Communicable Disease Control/methods , Coronavirus Infections , Heart Defects, Congenital , Pandemics , Patient Care Management/methods , Pneumonia, Viral , Adult , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Heart Defects, Congenital/classification , Heart Defects, Congenital/physiopathology , Heart Defects, Congenital/therapy , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Risk Assessment , SARS-CoV-2
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