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1.
Open Heart ; 8(2)2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1518151

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence of cardiac abnormalities and their relationship to markers of myocardial injury and mortality in patients admitted to hospital with COVID-19. METHODS: A retrospective and prospective observational study of inpatients referred for transthoracic echocardiography for suspected cardiac pathology due to COVID-19 within a London NHS Trust. Echocardiograms were performed to assess left ventricular (LV), right ventricular (RV) and pulmonary variables along with collection of patient demographics, comorbid conditions, blood biomarkers and outcomes. RESULT: In the predominant non-white (72%) population, RV dysfunction was the primary cardiac abnormality noted in 50% of patients, with RV fractional area change <35% being the most common marker of this RV dysfunction. By comparison, LV systolic dysfunction occurred in 18% of patients. RV dysfunction was associated with LV systolic dysfunction and the presence of a D-shaped LV throughout the cardiac cycle (marker of significant pulmonary artery hypertension). LV systolic dysfunction (p=0.002, HR 3.82, 95% CI 1.624 to 8.982), pulmonary valve acceleration time (p=0.024, HR 0.98, 95% CI 0.964 to 0.997)-marker of increased pulmonary vascular resistance, age (p=0.047, HR 1.027, 95% CI 1.000 to 1.055) and an episode of tachycardia measured from admission to time of echo (p=0.004, HR 6.183, 95% CI 1.772 to 21.575) were independently associated with mortality. CONCLUSIONS: In this predominantly non-white population hospitalised with COVID-19, the most common cardiac pathology was RV dysfunction which is associated with both LV systolic dysfunction and elevated pulmonary artery pressure. The latter two, not RV dysfunction, were associated with mortality.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/ethnology , Heart Diseases/ethnology , Heart Ventricles/diagnostic imaging , Population Surveillance , Comorbidity , Cross-Sectional Studies , Echocardiography, Doppler , Heart Diseases/diagnosis , Hospitalization/trends , Humans , Pandemics , Prevalence , Quebec/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , Survival Rate/trends
2.
Pan Afr Med J ; 39: 173, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1468745

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19), first appearing in Wuhan, China, and later declared as a pandemic, has caused serious morbidity and mortality worldwide. Severe cases usually present with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), pneumonia, acute kidney injury (AKI), liver damage, or septic shock. However, with recent advances in severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) research, the virus´s effect on cardiac tissues has become evident. Reportedly, an increased number of COVID-19 patients manifested serious cardiac complications such as heart failure, increased troponin, and N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide levels (NT-proBNP), cardiomyopathies, and myocarditis. These cardiac complications initially present as chest tightness, chest pain, and heart palpitations. Diagnostic investigations such as telemetry, electrocardiogram (ECG), cardiac biomarkers (troponin, NT-proBNP), and inflammatory markers (D-dimer, fibrinogen, PT, PTT), must be performed according to the patient´s condition. The best available options for treatment are the provision of supportive care, anti-viral therapy, hemodynamic monitoring, IL-6 blockers, statins, thrombolytic, and anti-hypertensive drugs. Cardiovascular disease (CVD) healthcare workers should be well-informed about the evolving research regarding COVID-19 and approach as a multi-disciplinary team to devise effective strategies for challenging situations to reduce cardiac complications.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Heart Diseases/virology , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Biomarkers/metabolism , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19 Testing , Heart Diseases/diagnosis , Heart Diseases/physiopathology , Humans , Patient Care Team/organization & administration
3.
Viruses ; 13(9)2021 09 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1430982

ABSTRACT

Evidence is emerging that severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) can infect various organs of the body, including cardiomyocytes and cardiac endothelial cells in the heart. This review focuses on the effects of SARS-CoV-2 in the heart after direct infection that can lead to myocarditis and an outline of potential treatment options. The main points are: (1) Viral entry: SARS-CoV-2 uses specific receptors and proteases for docking and priming in cardiac cells. Thus, different receptors or protease inhibitors might be effective in SARS-CoV-2-infected cardiac cells. (2) Viral replication: SARS-CoV-2 uses RNA-dependent RNA polymerase for replication. Drugs acting against ssRNA(+) viral replication for cardiac cells can be effective. (3) Autophagy and double-membrane vesicles: SARS-CoV-2 manipulates autophagy to inhibit viral clearance and promote SARS-CoV-2 replication by creating double-membrane vesicles as replication sites. (4) Immune response: Host immune response is manipulated to evade host cell attacks against SARS-CoV-2 and increased inflammation by dysregulating immune cells. Efficiency of immunosuppressive therapy must be elucidated. (5) Programmed cell death: SARS-CoV-2 inhibits programmed cell death in early stages and induces apoptosis, necroptosis, and pyroptosis in later stages. (6) Energy metabolism: SARS-CoV-2 infection leads to disturbed energy metabolism that in turn leads to a decrease in ATP production and ROS production. (7) Viroporins: SARS-CoV-2 creates viroporins that lead to an imbalance of ion homeostasis. This causes apoptosis, altered action potential, and arrhythmia.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/virology , Heart Diseases/etiology , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Apoptosis , Autophagy , Disease Management , Disease Susceptibility , Endothelial Cells/ultrastructure , Endothelial Cells/virology , Heart Diseases/diagnosis , Heart Diseases/therapy , Host-Pathogen Interactions/immunology , Humans , Myocarditis/diagnosis , Myocarditis/etiology , Myocarditis/therapy , Viroporin Proteins , Virus Replication
4.
Am Heart J ; 241: 83-86, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1384824

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 infection has been associated with cardiovascular disease in children, but which children need cardiac evaluation is unclear. We describe our experience evaluating 206 children for cardiac disease following SARS-CoV-2 infection (one of whom had ventricular ectopy) and propose a new guideline for management of these children. Routine cardiac screening after SARS-CoV-2 infection in children without any cardiac signs or symptoms does not appear to be high yield.


Subject(s)
Aftercare , COVID-19/physiopathology , Heart Diseases/diagnosis , Referral and Consultation , Adolescent , Ambulatory Care , Atrioventricular Block/diagnosis , Atrioventricular Block/etiology , Atrioventricular Block/physiopathology , Bradycardia/diagnosis , Bradycardia/etiology , Bradycardia/physiopathology , COVID-19/complications , Cardiology , Chest Pain/physiopathology , Child , Child, Preschool , Dyspnea/physiopathology , Echocardiography , Electrocardiography , Fatigue/physiopathology , Female , Heart Diseases/etiology , Heart Diseases/physiopathology , Humans , Hypertrophy, Left Ventricular/diagnosis , Hypertrophy, Left Ventricular/etiology , Hypertrophy, Left Ventricular/physiopathology , Hypertrophy, Right Ventricular/diagnosis , Hypertrophy, Right Ventricular/etiology , Hypertrophy, Right Ventricular/physiopathology , Implementation Science , Male , Pediatrics , Practice Guidelines as Topic , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index , Syncope/physiopathology , Ventricular Premature Complexes/diagnosis , Ventricular Premature Complexes/etiology , Ventricular Premature Complexes/physiopathology , Young Adult
5.
Cardiovasc Diabetol ; 20(1): 176, 2021 09 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1388767

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: It remains uncertain if prior use of oral anticoagulants (OACs) in COVID-19 outpatients with multimorbidity impacts prognosis, especially if cardiometabolic diseases are present. Clinical outcomes 30-days after COVID-19 diagnosis were compared between outpatients with cardiometabolic disease receiving vitamin K antagonist (VKA) or direct-acting OAC (DOAC) therapy at time of COVID-19 diagnosis. METHODS: A study was conducted using TriNetX, a global federated health research network. Adult outpatients with cardiometabolic disease (i.e. diabetes mellitus and any disease of the circulatory system) treated with VKAs or DOACs at time of COVID-19 diagnosis between 20-Jan-2020 and 15-Feb-2021 were included. Propensity score matching (PSM) was used to balance cohorts receiving VKAs and DOACs. The primary outcomes were all-cause mortality, intensive care unit (ICU) admission/mechanical ventilation (MV) necessity, intracranial haemorrhage (ICH)/gastrointestinal bleeding, and the composite of any arterial or venous thrombotic event(s) at 30-days after COVID-19 diagnosis. RESULTS: 2275 patients were included. After PSM, 1270 patients remained in the study (635 on VKAs; 635 on DOACs). VKA-treated patients had similar risks and 30-day event-free survival than patients on DOACs regarding all-cause mortality, ICU admission/MV necessity, and ICH/gastrointestinal bleeding. The risk of any arterial or venous thrombotic event was 43% higher in the VKA cohort (hazard ratio 1.43, 95% confidence interval 1.03-1.98; Log-Rank test p = 0.029). CONCLUSION: In COVID-19 outpatients with cardiometabolic diseases, prior use of DOAC therapy compared to VKA therapy at the time of COVID-19 diagnosis demonstrated lower risk of arterial or venous thrombotic outcomes, without increasing the risk of bleeding.


Subject(s)
Ambulatory Care/methods , Anticoagulants/administration & dosage , COVID-19/drug therapy , Heart Diseases/drug therapy , Metabolic Diseases/drug therapy , Vitamin K/antagonists & inhibitors , Administration, Oral , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Anticoagulants/adverse effects , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/mortality , Factor Xa Inhibitors/administration & dosage , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Heart Diseases/diagnosis , Heart Diseases/mortality , Hemorrhage/chemically induced , Hemorrhage/mortality , Humans , Intensive Care Units/trends , Male , Metabolic Diseases/diagnosis , Metabolic Diseases/mortality , Middle Aged , Mortality/trends , Treatment Outcome
6.
Europace ; 23(1): 123-129, 2021 01 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1387869

ABSTRACT

AIMS: The main severe complications of SARS-CoV-2 infection are pneumonia and respiratory distress syndrome. Recent studies, however, reported that cardiac injury, as assessed by troponin levels, is associated with a worse outcome in these patients. No study hitherto assessed whether the simple standard electrocardiogram (ECG) may be helpful for risk stratification in these patients. METHODS AND RESULTS: We studied 324 consecutive patients admitted to our Emergency Department with a confirmed diagnosis of SARS-CoV-2 infection. Standard 12-lead ECG recorded on admission was assessed for cardiac rhythm and rate, atrioventricular and intraventricular conduction, abnormal Q/QS wave, ST segment and T wave changes, corrected QT interval, and tachyarrhythmias. At a mean follow-up of 31 ± 11 days, 44 deaths occurred (13.6%). Most ECG variables were significantly associated with mortality, including atrial fibrillation (P = 0.002), increasing heart rate (P = 0.002), presence of left bundle branch block (LBBB; P < 0.001), QRS duration (P <0 .001), a QRS duration of ≥110 ms (P < 0.001), ST segment depression (P < 0.001), abnormal Q/QS wave (P = 0.034), premature ventricular complexes (PVCs; P = 0.051), and presence of any ECG abnormality [hazard ratio (HR) 4.58; 95% confidence interval (CI) 2.40-8.76; P < 0.001]. At multivariable analysis, QRS duration (P = 0.002), QRS duration ≥110 ms (P = 0.03), LBBB (P = 0.014) and presence of any ECG abnormality (P = 0.04) maintained a significant independent association with mortality. CONCLUSION: Our data show that standard ECG can be helpful for an initial risk stratification of patients admitted for SARS-CoV-2 infectious disease.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Electrocardiography , Heart Conduction System/physiopathology , Heart Diseases/diagnosis , Heart Rate , Action Potentials , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/mortality , Female , Heart Diseases/etiology , Heart Diseases/mortality , Heart Diseases/physiopathology , Hospital Mortality , Hospitalization , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Predictive Value of Tests , Prognosis , Risk Assessment , Risk Factors , Time Factors
8.
Physiol Rep ; 9(17): e14998, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1374672

ABSTRACT

The spread of the novel coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19) has caused a global pandemic. The disease has spread rapidly, and research shows that COVID-19 can induce long-lasting cardiac damage. COVID-19 can result in elevated cardiac biomarkers indicative of acute cardiac injury, and research utilizing echocardiography has shown that there is mechanical dysfunction in these patients as well, especially when observing the isovolumic, systolic, and diastolic portions of the cardiac cycle. The purpose of this study was to present two case studies on COVID-19 positive patients who had their cardiac mechanical function assessed every day during the acute period to show that cardiac function in these patients was altered, and the damage occurring can change from day-to-day. Participant 1 showed compromised cardiac function in the systolic time, diastolic time, isovolumic time, and the calculated heart performance index (HPI), and these impairments were sustained even 23 days post-symptom onset. Furthermore, Participant 1 showed prolonged systolic periods that lasted longer than the diastolic periods, indicative of elevated pulmonary artery pressure. Participant 2 showed decreases in systole and consequently, increases in HPI during the 3 days post-symptom onset, and these changes returned to normal after day 4. These results showed that daily observation of cardiac function can provide detailed information about the overall mechanism by which cardiac dysfunction is occurring and that COVID-19 can induce cardiac damage in unique patterns and thus can be studied on a case-by-case basis, day-to-day during infection. This could allow us to move toward more personalized cardiovascular medical treatment.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/physiopathology , Heart Diseases/physiopathology , Heart/physiopathology , Hemodynamics , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Ventricular Function , Adult , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/virology , Diagnostic Techniques, Cardiovascular/instrumentation , Heart/virology , Heart Diseases/diagnosis , Heart Diseases/virology , Host-Pathogen Interactions , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Predictive Value of Tests , Time Factors , Transducers
9.
Ann Noninvasive Electrocardiol ; 26(6): e12872, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1319236

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Interval duration measurements (IDMs) were compared between standard 12-lead electrocardiograms (ECGs) and 6-lead ECGs recorded with AliveCor's KardiaMobile 6L, a hand-held mobile device designed for use by patients at home. METHODS: Electrocardiograms were recorded within, on average, 15 min from 705 patients in Mayo Clinic's Windland Smith Rice Genetic Heart Rhythm Clinic. Interpretable 12-lead and 6-lead recordings were available for 685 out of 705 (97%) eligible patients. The most common diagnosis was congenital long QT syndrome (LQTS, 343/685 [50%]), followed by unaffected relatives and patients (146/685 [21%]), and patients with other genetic heart diseases, including hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (36 [5.2%]), arrhythmogenic cardiomyopathy (23 [3.4%]), and idiopathic ventricular fibrillation (14 [2.0%]). IDMs were performed by a central ECG laboratory using lead II with a semi-automated technique. RESULTS: Despite differences in patient position (supine for 12-lead ECGs and sitting for 6-lead ECGs), mean IDMs were comparable, with mean values for the 12-lead and 6-lead ECGs for QTcF, heart rate, PR, and QRS differing by 2.6 ms, -5.5 beats per minute, 1.0 and 1.2 ms, respectively. Despite a modest difference in heart rate, intervals were close enough to allow a detection of clinically meaningful abnormalities. CONCLUSIONS: The 6-lead hand-held device is potentially useful for a clinical follow-up of remote patients, and for a safety follow-up of patients participating in clinical trials who cannot visit the investigational site. This technology may extend the use of 12-lead ECG recordings during the current COVID-19 pandemic as remote patient monitoring becomes more common in virtual or hybrid-design clinical studies.


Subject(s)
Electrocardiography/methods , Heart Diseases/diagnosis , Adult , Electrocardiography, Ambulatory/methods , Female , Humans , Male , Posture , Prospective Studies , Time
10.
Turk J Med Sci ; 51(3): 981-990, 2021 06 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1289066

ABSTRACT

Background/aim: Approximately 40 million individuals worldwide have been infected with SARS-CoV-2, the virus responsible for the novel coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19). Despite the current literature about the cardiac effects of COVID-19 in children, more information is required. We aimed to determine both cardiovascular and arrhythmia assessment via electrocardiographic and echocardiographic parameters. Materials and methods: We evaluated seventy children who were hospitalized with COVID-19 infections and seventy children as normal control group through laboratory findings, electrocardiography (ECG), and transthoracic echocardiography (TTE). Results: We observed significantly increased levels of Tp-Te, Tp-Te/QT, and Tp-Te/QTc compared with the control group. Twenty-five of 70 (35.7%) patients had fragmented QRS (fQRS) without increased troponin levels. On the other hand, none of the patients had pathologic corrected QT(QTc) prolongation during the illness or its treatment. On TTE, 20 patients had mild mitral insufficiency, among whom only five had systolic dysfunction (ejection fraction < 55%). There was no significant difference between the patient and control groups, except for isovolumic relaxation time (IVRT) in terms of mean systolic and diastolic function parameters. IVRT of COVID patients was significantly lower than that of control group. Conclusion: Despite all the adult studies, the effects of COVID­19 on myocardial function are not well established in children. The thought that children are less affected by the illness may be a misconception.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Echocardiography , Electrocardiography , Heart Diseases/epidemiology , Risk Assessment/methods , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/diagnosis , Child , Comorbidity , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Heart Diseases/diagnosis , Humans , Male , Pandemics , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Turkey/epidemiology
12.
J Am Soc Echocardiogr ; 34(8): 819-830, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1237682

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The novel severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 virus, which has led to the global coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) pandemic is known to adversely affect the cardiovascular system through multiple mechanisms. In this international, multicenter study conducted by the World Alliance Societies of Echocardiography, we aim to determine the clinical and echocardiographic phenotype of acute cardiac disease in COVID-19 patients, to explore phenotypic differences in different geographic regions across the world, and to identify parameters associated with in-hospital mortality. METHODS: We studied 870 patients with acute COVID-19 infection from 13 medical centers in four world regions (Asia, Europe, United States, Latin America) who had undergone transthoracic echocardiograms. Clinical and laboratory data were collected, including patient outcomes. Anonymized echocardiograms were analyzed with automated, machine learning-derived algorithms to calculate left ventricular (LV) volumes, ejection fraction, and LV longitudinal strain (LS). Right-sided echocardiographic parameters that were measured included right ventricular (RV) LS, RV free-wall strain (FWS), and RV basal diameter. Multivariate regression analysis was performed to identify clinical and echocardiographic parameters associated with in-hospital mortality. RESULTS: Significant regional differences were noted in terms of patient comorbidities, severity of illness, clinical biomarkers, and LV and RV echocardiographic metrics. Overall in-hospital mortality was 21.6%. Parameters associated with mortality in a multivariate analysis were age (odds ratio [OR] = 1.12 [1.05, 1.22], P = .003), previous lung disease (OR = 7.32 [1.56, 42.2], P = .015), LVLS (OR = 1.18 [1.05, 1.36], P = .012), lactic dehydrogenase (OR = 6.17 [1.74, 28.7], P = .009), and RVFWS (OR = 1.14 [1.04, 1.26], P = .007). CONCLUSIONS: Left ventricular dysfunction is noted in approximately 20% and RV dysfunction in approximately 30% of patients with acute COVID-19 illness and portend a poor prognosis. Age at presentation, previous lung disease, lactic dehydrogenase, LVLS, and RVFWS were independently associated with in-hospital mortality. Regional differences in cardiac phenotype highlight the significant differences in patient acuity as well as echocardiographic utilization in different parts of the world.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Echocardiography/methods , Heart Diseases/diagnosis , Heart Diseases/mortality , Heart Ventricles/diagnostic imaging , Pandemics , Aged , COVID-19/diagnosis , Comorbidity , Europe/epidemiology , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Hospital Mortality/trends , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Prospective Studies , Survival Rate/trends
13.
Circ J ; 85(6): 944-947, 2021 05 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1231251

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Several studies have reported elevated troponin levels in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients, so we investigated myocardial damage by measuring high-sensitivity troponin T (hsTnT) levels and analyzed the relationship with comorbidities.Methods and Results:Of 209 patients who recently recovered from COVID-19, 65% had an elevated hsTnT level that was higher than levels in patients with acute phase infection despite most patients (79%) having a mild illness. The hsTnT levels correlated with disease severity, sex, comorbidities, and ACEi and ARB use. CONCLUSIONS: Myocardial damage occurs in the recovery phase of COVID-19, and its evaluation, regardless of patient age, should be considered.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/therapy , Heart Diseases/blood , Troponin T/blood , Adult , Aged , Biomarkers/blood , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , Comorbidity , Female , Heart Diseases/diagnosis , Heart Diseases/epidemiology , Humans , Japan/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Registries , Remission Induction , Retrospective Studies , Risk Assessment , Risk Factors , Sex Factors , Time Factors , Treatment Outcome , Up-Regulation , Young Adult
15.
Pediatr Ann ; 50(3): e96-e97, 2021 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1211969
16.
J Am Soc Echocardiogr ; 34(8): 831-838, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1210910

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Patients hospitalized with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) often have abnormal findings on transthoracic echocardiography (TTE). However, although not all abnormalities on TTE result in changes in clinical management, performing TTE in recently infected patients increases disease transmission risks. It remains unknown whether common biomarker tests, such as troponin and B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP), can help distinguish in which patients with COVID-19 TTE may be safely delayed until infection risks subside. METHODS: Using electronic health records data and chart review, the authors retrospectively studied all patients hospitalized with COVID-19 in a multisite health care system from March 1, 2020, to January 15, 2021, who underwent TTE within 14 days of their first positive COVID-19 result and had BNP and troponin measured before or within 7 days of TTE. The primary outcome was the presence of one or more urgent echocardiographic findings, defined as left ventricular ejection fraction ≤ 35%, wall motion score index ≥ 1.5, moderate or greater right ventricular dysfunction, moderate or greater pericardial effusion, intracardiac thrombus, pulmonary artery systolic pressure > 50 mm Hg, or at least moderate to severe valvular disease. Stepwise logistic regression was conducted to determine biomarkers and comorbidities associated with the outcome. The performance of a rule for classifying TTE using troponin and BNP was evaluated. RESULTS: Four hundred thirty-four hospitalized and 151 intensive care unit patients with COVID-19 were included. Urgent findings on TTE were present in 105 patients (24.2%). Troponin and BNP were abnormal in 311 (71.7%). Heart failure (odds ratio, 5.41; 95% CI, 2.61-11.68), troponin > 0.04 ng/mL (odds ratio, 4.40; 95% CI, 2.05-10.05), and BNP > 100 pg/mL (odds ratio, 5.85; 95% CI, 2.35-16.09) remained significant predictors of urgent findings on TTE after stepwise selection. No urgent findings on TTE were seen in 95.1% of all patients and in 91.3% of intensive care unit patients with normal troponin and BNP. CONCLUSIONS: Troponin and BNP were highly associated with urgent echocardiographic findings and may be used in triaging algorithms for determining in which patients TTE can be safely delayed until after their peak infectious window has passed.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Critical Care/methods , Echocardiography/methods , Emergencies , Heart Diseases/diagnosis , Inpatients , Aged , Comorbidity , Female , Heart Diseases/epidemiology , Heart Diseases/physiopathology , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Stroke Volume/physiology , Ventricular Function, Left/physiology
18.
Pediatr Ann ; 50(3): e128-e135, 2021 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1196056

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has a predilection to cardiac involvement. The early clinical phase, during viremia, may manifest as pericarditis, acute myocarditis, and sepsis-related cardiomyopathy. Delayed presentations, such as multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children, coronary artery dilation/aneurysms, and late myocarditis, may occur in the weeks after the acute infection. These delayed presentations commonly test negative for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 via polymerase chain reaction testing and are thought to be primarily postviral hyperinflammatory sequelae. The long-term consequences of cardiac involvement in COVID-19 are unknown. Most recommendations for cardiac management are based on known conditions that are similar. For example, coronary aneurysms can be managed under Kawasaki disease guidelines. Similarly, for patients with COVID-19 myocarditis, they can be cleared for sports under protocols for other types of myocarditis. There is concern for cardiac involvement as a subclinical entity even in more minor presentations. Several expert algorithms have been developed for clearing competition athletes to return to exercise. Sports clearance should be individualized considering the severity of disease, age of patient, and performance level of the sport. [Pediatr Ann. 2021;50(3):e128-e135.].


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Heart Diseases/diagnosis , Heart Diseases/etiology , Adolescent , Age Factors , COVID-19/pathology , Child , Heart Diseases/pathology , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Young Adult
19.
Circulation ; 143(13): 1274-1286, 2021 03 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1180993

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Heart rate-corrected QT interval (QTc) prolongation, whether secondary to drugs, genetics including congenital long QT syndrome, and/or systemic diseases including SARS-CoV-2-mediated coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), can predispose to ventricular arrhythmias and sudden cardiac death. Currently, QTc assessment and monitoring relies largely on 12-lead electrocardiography. As such, we sought to train and validate an artificial intelligence (AI)-enabled 12-lead ECG algorithm to determine the QTc, and then prospectively test this algorithm on tracings acquired from a mobile ECG (mECG) device in a population enriched for repolarization abnormalities. METHODS: Using >1.6 million 12-lead ECGs from 538 200 patients, a deep neural network (DNN) was derived (patients for training, n = 250 767; patients for testing, n = 107 920) and validated (n = 179 513 patients) to predict the QTc using cardiologist-overread QTc values as the "gold standard". The ability of this DNN to detect clinically-relevant QTc prolongation (eg, QTc ≥500 ms) was then tested prospectively on 686 patients with genetic heart disease (50% with long QT syndrome) with QTc values obtained from both a 12-lead ECG and a prototype mECG device equivalent to the commercially-available AliveCor KardiaMobile 6L. RESULTS: In the validation sample, strong agreement was observed between human over-read and DNN-predicted QTc values (-1.76±23.14 ms). Similarly, within the prospective, genetic heart disease-enriched dataset, the difference between DNN-predicted QTc values derived from mECG tracings and those annotated from 12-lead ECGs by a QT expert (-0.45±24.73 ms) and a commercial core ECG laboratory [10.52±25.64 ms] was nominal. When applied to mECG tracings, the DNN's ability to detect a QTc value ≥500 ms yielded an area under the curve, sensitivity, and specificity of 0.97, 80.0%, and 94.4%, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Using smartphone-enabled electrodes, an AI DNN can predict accurately the QTc of a standard 12-lead ECG. QTc estimation from an AI-enabled mECG device may provide a cost-effective means of screening for both acquired and congenital long QT syndrome in a variety of clinical settings where standard 12-lead electrocardiography is not accessible or cost-effective.


Subject(s)
Artificial Intelligence , Electrocardiography/methods , Heart Diseases/diagnosis , Heart Rate/physiology , Adult , Aged , Area Under Curve , COVID-19/physiopathology , COVID-19/virology , Electrocardiography/instrumentation , Female , Heart Diseases/physiopathology , Humans , Long QT Syndrome/diagnosis , Long QT Syndrome/physiopathology , Male , Middle Aged , Prospective Studies , ROC Curve , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Sensitivity and Specificity , Smartphone
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