Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is an ongoing global pandemic that has affected nearly 600 million people to date across the world. While COVID-19 is primarily a respiratory illness, cardiac injury is also known to occur. Cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) imaging is uniquely capable of characterizing myocardial tissue properties in-vivo, enabling insights into the pattern and degree of cardiac injury. The reported prevalence of myocardial involvement identified by CMR in the context of COVID-19 infection among previously hospitalized patients ranges from 26 to 60%. Variations in the reported prevalence of myocardial involvement may result from differing patient populations (e.g. differences in severity of illness) and the varying intervals between acute infection and CMR evaluation. Standardized methodologies in image acquisition, analysis, interpretation, and reporting of CMR abnormalities across would likely improve concordance between studies. This consensus document by the Society for Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance (SCMR) provides recommendations on CMR imaging and reporting metrics towards the goal of improved standardization and uniform data acquisition and analytic approaches when performing CMR in patients with COVID-19 infection.
Subject(s)COVID-19 , Heart Diseases , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Humans , COVID-19/complications , Heart/diagnostic imaging , Magnetic Resonance Imaging/methods , Magnetic Resonance Imaging/standards , Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy , Myocarditis/diagnostic imaging , Predictive Value of Tests , Heart Diseases/diagnostic imaging , Heart Diseases/etiology
BACKGROUND: In 2019, 600'000 people in Africa died of heart failure and heart diseases will increase on the continent. It is crucial to understand the regional etiologies and risk factors for heart failure and underlying heart diseases. However, echocardiography data from rural Africa are scarce and from Lesotho non-existent. This study aims to examine the occurrence, characteristics and etiology of heart failure and heart diseases using echocardiography data from a referral hospital in rural Lesotho. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective cohort study at Seboche Mission Hospital, the only referral hospital in Butha-Buthe district (Lesotho) with an echocardiography department. We included data from all individuals referred to the department between January 2020 and May 2021. From non-hospitalized patients echocardiographic diagnosis, sex and age were available, from hospitalized patients additional sociodemographic and clinical data could be extracted. RESULTS: In the study period, a total of 352 echocardiograms were conducted; 213 had abnormal findings (among them 3 children). The majority of adult participants (130/210; 64%) were female and most frequent heart diseases were hypertensive (62/210, 30%), valvular (39/210, 19%) and chronic pulmonary (37/210, 18%). Heart failure represented 11% of hospitalizations in the same period. Among the 126 hospitalized heart failure patients, the most common etiology was chronic pulmonary heart disease (32/126; 25%). Former mine workers and people with a history of tuberculosis were more likely to have a chronic pulmonary heart disease. CONCLUSIONS: The leading cause of heart disease in this setting is hypertension. However, in contrast to other African epidemiological studies, chronic pulmonary heart disease is unexpectedly common. There is an urgent need to improve awareness and knowledge about lung diseases, make diagnostic and therapeutic options available and increase prevention.
Subject(s)Heart Diseases , Heart Failure , Pulmonary Heart Disease , Adult , Child , Humans , Male , Female , Retrospective Studies , Lesotho/epidemiology , Cohort Studies , Pulmonary Heart Disease/diagnostic imaging , Pulmonary Heart Disease/epidemiology , Pulmonary Heart Disease/etiology , Heart Diseases/diagnostic imaging , Heart Diseases/epidemiology , Heart Diseases/etiology , Echocardiography , Heart Failure/diagnostic imaging , Heart Failure/epidemiology , Heart Failure/etiology
Cardiac symptoms are increasingly recognized as late complications of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection in previously well individuals with mild initial illness, but the underlying pathophysiology leading to long-term cardiac symptoms remains unclear. In this study, we conducted serial cardiac assessments in a selected population of individuals with Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) with no previous cardiac disease or notable comorbidities by measuring blood biomarkers of heart injury or dysfunction and by performing magnetic resonance imaging. Baseline measurements from 346 individuals with COVID-19 (52% females) were obtained at a median of 109 days (interquartile range (IQR), 77-177 days) after infection, when 73% of participants reported cardiac symptoms, such as exertional dyspnea (62%), palpitations (28%), atypical chest pain (27%) and syncope (3%). Symptomatic individuals had higher heart rates and higher imaging values or contrast agent accumulation, denoting inflammatory cardiac involvement, compared to asymptomatic individuals. Structural heart disease or high levels of biomarkers of cardiac injury or dysfunction were rare in symptomatic individuals. At follow-up (329 days (IQR, 274-383 days) after infection), 57% of participants had persistent cardiac symptoms. Diffuse myocardial edema was more pronounced in participants who remained symptomatic at follow-up as compared to those who improved. Female gender and diffuse myocardial involvement on baseline imaging independently predicted the presence of cardiac symptoms at follow-up. Ongoing inflammatory cardiac involvement may, at least in part, explain the lingering cardiac symptoms in previously well individuals with mild initial COVID-19 illness.
Subject(s)COVID-19 , Heart Diseases , COVID-19/complications , Contrast Media , Female , Heart/diagnostic imaging , Heart Diseases/diagnostic imaging , Humans , Male , Myocardium/pathology , SARS-CoV-2
BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has become a leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. One of the major complications of COVID-19 infection is the hypercoagulability state. Cardiac thrombi and venous thromboembolism (VTE) have been documented with severe COVID-19 infection. We present a case of large right atrial (RA) thrombus in transit incidentally diagnosed following a mild COVID-19 in a previously vaccinated patient. CASE SUMMARY: An 85-year-old male presented to the emergency department two weeks following resolution of a mild COVID-19 infection due to an incidentally discovered large RA thrombus. Computed tomography with angiography of the chest was positive for acute pulmonary thromboembolic disease with large clot burden and findings consistent with right heart strain. The patient remained hemodynamically stable and was successfully managed with anticoagulation. CONCLUSION: RA thrombi and VTE can occur in patients with mild COVID-19 infection and in the setting of full COVID-19 vaccination. Echocardiography is a useful imaging modality in this patient population.
Subject(s)COVID-19 , Heart Diseases , Thrombosis , Venous Thromboembolism , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19 Vaccines , Heart Diseases/diagnostic imaging , Heart Diseases/etiology , Humans , Male , Thrombosis/diagnostic imaging , Thrombosis/etiology
The incidence of left ventricular thrombus is relatively low. Ventricular thrombi typically manifest in patients with reduced ejection fraction and post myocardial infarction . The impact of COVID-19's hypercoagulability state is presented here. A 44 year old male who contracted COVID-19, progressed to moderate disease requiring inpatient treatment with supplemental oxygen. During the course of the hospital stay, while receiving National Institutes of Health guideline directed thromboembolism prophylaxis for COVID-19 infected patients , the patient developed a left ventricular thrombus which consequently embolized and occluded the left anterior descending and left circumflex coronary arteries requiring rheolytic thrombectomy.
Subject(s)COVID-19 , Heart Diseases , Myocardial Infarction , Thrombosis , Adult , COVID-19/complications , Heart Diseases/diagnostic imaging , Heart Diseases/etiology , Heart Diseases/therapy , Humans , Male , Thrombectomy/adverse effects , Thrombosis/diagnostic imaging , Thrombosis/etiology , Thrombosis/therapy
BACKGROUND: Strict isolation precautions limit formal echocardiography use in the setting of COVID-19 infection. Information on the importance of handheld focused ultrasound for cardiac evaluation in these patients is scarce. This study investigated the utility of a handheld echocardiography device in hospitalised patients with COVID-19 in diagnosing cardiac pathologies and predicting the composite end point of in-hospital death, mechanical ventilation, shock, and acute decompensated heart failure. METHODS: From April 28 through July 27, 2020, consecutive patients diagnosed with COVID-19 underwent evaluation with the use of handheld ultrasound (Vscan Extend with Dual Probe; GE Healthcare) within 48 hours of admission. The patients were divided into 2 groups: "normal" and "abnormal" echocardiogram, as defined by biventricular systolic dysfunction/enlargement or moderate/severe valvular regurgitation/stenosis. RESULTS: Among 102 patients, 26 (25.5%) had abnormal echocardiograms. They were older with more comorbidities and more severe presenting symptoms compared with the group with normal echocardiograms. The prevalences of the composite outcome among low- and high-risk patients (oxygen saturation < 94%) were 3.1% and 27.1%, respectively. Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that an abnormal echocardiogram at presentation was independently associated with the composite end point (odds ratio 6.19, 95% confidence interval 1.50-25.57; P = 0.012). CONCLUSIONS: An abnormal echocardiogram in COVID-19 infection settings is associated with a higher burden of medical comorbidities and independently predicts major adverse end points. Handheld focused echocardiography can be used as an important "rule-out" tool among high-risk patients with COVID-19 and should be integrated into their routine admission evaluation. However, its routine use among low-risk patients is not recommended.
Subject(s)COVID-19/complications , Echocardiography/instrumentation , Heart Diseases/diagnostic imaging , Lung Diseases/diagnostic imaging , Ultrasonography/instrumentation , Aged , Echocardiography/standards , Female , Heart Diseases/etiology , Hospitalization , Humans , Lung Diseases/etiology , Male , Middle Aged , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Ultrasonography/standards
Subject(s)Aortic Diseases/etiology , COVID-19/complications , Heart Diseases/etiology , Pulmonary Embolism/etiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Thrombosis/etiology , Anticoagulants/therapeutic use , Aorta, Thoracic , Aortic Diseases/diagnostic imaging , Aortic Diseases/drug therapy , COVID-19/blood , Computed Tomography Angiography , Convalescence , Heart Diseases/diagnostic imaging , Heart Diseases/drug therapy , Heparin/therapeutic use , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Obesity/complications , Pulmonary Embolism/diagnostic imaging , Pulmonary Embolism/drug therapy , Thrombosis/diagnostic imaging , Thrombosis/drug therapy , Warfarin/therapeutic use
Other than respiratory disease, patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) commonly have cardiovascular manifestations, which are recognized as significant risk factors for increased mortality. COVID-19 patients may present with a wide spectrum of clinical presentations ranging from asymptomatic heart disease detected incidentally by cardiac investigations (troponin, BNP, and imaging) to cardiogenic shock and sudden cardiac death. In this broad clinical course, advanced imaging plays an important role in the diagnosis of different patterns of myocardial injury, risk stratification of COVID-19 patients, and in detecting potential cardiac side effects of the current treatments and vaccines against the severe acute respiratory syndrome.
Subject(s)COVID-19 , Heart Diseases , COVID-19/complications , Heart , Heart Diseases/diagnostic imaging , Heart Diseases/virology , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Troponin
Subject(s)COVID-19/complications , Echocardiography/methods , Heart Diseases/complications , Heart Diseases/diagnostic imaging , Heart/diagnostic imaging , Hospitalization , Point-of-Care Systems , Aged , COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , COVID-19/mortality , Female , Heart Diseases/mortality , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Point-of-Care Systems/statistics & numerical data , Prognosis , Risk Assessment , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index , Tertiary Care Centers
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Poor cardiovascular outcomes are linked to COVID-19 in patients with or without prior cardiovascular disease or risk factors. Echocardiography, as a portable, versatile, and comprehensive imaging technique, has been on the frontlines. Yet sonographers and physician imagers are at increased risk of contracting or transmitting COVID-19. RECENT FINDINGS: Recent scientific statements incorporate triaging approaches to identify the appropriateness of imaging exam indications, coupled with triaging of indications. Additionally, focused protocols, procedures to reduce exposure, and point-of-care ultrasound play significant roles. Lessons learned during COVID-19 will apply to future pandemics. Echocardiography is a key diagnostic modality during pandemics in patients with or without prior cardiac diseases and risk factors. Attention to clinical questions, focused protocols, novel procedures, and future developments in imaging will contribute to safe and effective practice of echocardiography.
Subject(s)COVID-19 , Heart Diseases , Echocardiography , Heart Diseases/diagnostic imaging , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Ultrasonography
Recent reports linked acute COVID-19 infection in hospitalized patients to cardiac abnormalities. Studies have not evaluated presence of abnormal cardiac structure and function before scanning in setting of COVD-19 infection. We sought to examine cardiac abnormalities in consecutive group of patients with acute COVID-19 infection according to the presence or absence of cardiac disease based on review of health records and cardiovascular imaging studies. We looked at independent contribution of imaging findings to clinical outcomes. After excluding patients with previous left ventricular (LV) systolic dysfunction (global and/or segmental), 724 patients were included. Machine learning identified predictors of in-hospital mortality and in-hospital mortality + ECMO. In patients without previous cardiovascular disease, LV EF < 50% occurred in 3.4%, abnormal LV global longitudinal strain (< 16%) in 24%, and diastolic dysfunction in 20%. Right ventricular systolic dysfunction (RV free wall strain < 20%) was noted in 18%. Moderate and large pericardial effusion were uncommon with an incidence of 0.4% for each category. Forty patients received ECMO support, and 79 died (10.9%). A stepwise increase in AUC was observed with addition of vital signs and laboratory measurements to baseline clinical characteristics, and a further significant increase (AUC 0.91) was observed when echocardiographic measurements were added. The performance of an optimized prediction model was similar to the model including baseline characteristics + vital signs and laboratory results + echocardiographic measurements.
Subject(s)COVID-19/complications , Heart Diseases/etiology , Heart Diseases/mortality , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/therapy , Clinical Decision Rules , Echocardiography , Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation , Female , Heart Diseases/diagnostic imaging , Hospital Mortality/trends , Humans , Machine Learning , Male , Middle Aged , Models, Theoretical , Prognosis , ROC Curve , Retrospective Studies , Young Adult
BACKGROUND: Infections with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) most frequently affect the lungs but may also result in cardiovascular involvement and cardiovascular complications. The heart can either be involved as part of a systemic infection or directly involved due to myocarditis or pericarditis as well as in hypoxia, volume overload, fever or thromboembolic complications. Moreover, pre-existing underlying cardiovascular diseases have a substantial influence on the prognosis of patients with COVID-19 infections. METHOD: This review article is based on a comprehensive literature search in the PubMed database on cardiac involvement and cardiac complications of COVID 19 infections, enriched by experiences in dealing with this disorder. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: Depending on the severity of the infection, cardiac involvement in a COVID 19 infection is observed in up to 50% of the patients. Besides echocardiography as the first-line examination method, cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for assessment of the myocardial structure and cardiac computed tomography (CT) for assessment of coronary arteries and to rule out intracardiac thrombus formation represent important imaging modalities. The most important cardiac manifestations in COVID 19 infections are ischemic and inflammatory diseases. The imaging diagnostics play an important role in the acute as well as in the postinfectious phases.
Subject(s)COVID-19 , Heart Diseases , Myocarditis , Heart Diseases/diagnostic imaging , Humans , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Myocarditis/diagnostic imaging , SARS-CoV-2
Subject(s)COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , Heart Diseases/diagnostic imaging , Heart Diseases/virology , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/diagnostic imaging , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Humans , Immunoglobulins, Intravenous/therapeutic use , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Male , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/drug therapy , Treatment Outcome , COVID-19 Drug Treatment
BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) may cause myocardial injury and myocarditis, and reports of persistent cardiac pathology after COVID-19 have raised concerns of long-term cardiac consequences. We aimed to assess the presence of abnormal cardiovascular resonance imaging (CMR) findings in patients recovered from moderate-to-severe COVID-19, and its association with markers of disease severity in the acute phase. METHODS: Fifty-eight (49%) survivors from the prospective COVID MECH study, underwent CMR median 175 [IQR 105-217] days after COVID-19 hospitalization. Abnormal CMR was defined as left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) <50% or myocardial scar by late gadolinium enhancement. CMR indices were compared to healthy controls (n = 32), and to circulating biomarkers measured during the index hospitalization. RESULTS: Abnormal CMR was present in 12 (21%) patients, of whom 3 were classified with major pathology (scar and LVEF <50% or LVEF <40%). There was no difference in the need of mechanical ventilation, length of hospital stay, and vital signs between patients with vs without abnormal CMR after 6 months. Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 viremia and concentrations of inflammatory biomarkers during the index hospitalization were not associated with persistent CMR pathology. Cardiac troponin T and N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide concentrations on admission, were higher in patients with CMR pathology, but these associations were not significant after adjusting for demographics and established cardiovascular disease. CONCLUSIONS: CMR pathology 6 months after moderate-to-severe COVID-19 was present in 21% of patients and did not correlate with severity of the disease. Cardiovascular biomarkers during COVID-19 were higher in patients with CMR pathology, but with no significant association after adjusting for confounders. TRIAL REGISTRATION: COVID MECH Study ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT04314232.
Subject(s)COVID-19/complications , Cicatrix/diagnostic imaging , Heart Diseases/diagnostic imaging , Magnetic Resonance Imaging, Cine/methods , Ventricular Dysfunction, Left/diagnostic imaging , Adult , Aged , Biomarkers/blood , COVID-19/blood , Cicatrix/etiology , Female , Gadolinium , Heart Diseases/blood , Heart Diseases/etiology , Heart Diseases/physiopathology , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Natriuretic Peptide, Brain/blood , Peptide Fragments/blood , Prospective Studies , Severity of Illness Index , Stroke Volume , Survivors , Troponin T/blood , Ventricular Dysfunction, Left/etiology , Ventricular Dysfunction, Left/physiopathology
OBJECTIVES: To describe the use of echocardiography in patients hospitalised with suspected coronavirus infection and to assess its impact on clinical management. METHODS: We studied 79 adults from a prospective registry of inpatients with suspected coronavirus infection at a single academic centre. Echocardiographic indications included abnormal biomarkers, shock, cardiac symptoms, arrhythmia, worsening hypoxaemia or clinical deterioration. Study type (limited or complete) was assessed for each patient. The primary outcome measure was echocardiography-related change in clinical management, defined as intensive care transfer, medication changes, altered ventilation parameters or subsequent cardiac procedures within 24 hours of echocardiography. Coronavirus-positive versus coronavirus-negative patient groups were compared. The relationship between echocardiographic findings and coronavirus mortality was assessed. RESULTS: 56 patients were coronavirus-positive and 23 patients were coronavirus-negative with symptoms attributed to other diagnoses. Coronavirus-positive patients more often received limited echocardiograms (70% vs 26%, p=0.001). The echocardiographic indication for coronavirus-infected patients was frequently worsening hypoxaemia (43% vs 4%) versus chest pain, syncope or clinical heart failure (23% vs 44%). Echocardiography changed management less frequently in coronavirus-positive patients (18% vs 48%, p=0.01). Among coronavirus-positive patients, 14 of 56 (25.0%) died during hospitalisation. Those who died more often had echocardiography to evaluate clinical deterioration (71% vs 24%) and had elevated right ventricular systolic pressures (37 mm Hg vs 25 mm Hg), but other parameters were similar to survivors. CONCLUSIONS: Echocardiograms performed on hospitalised patients with coronavirus infection were often technically limited, and their findings altered patient management in a minority of patients.