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1.
Lancet ; 398(10301): 685-697, 2021 08 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1815297

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Associations between high and low temperatures and increases in mortality and morbidity have been previously reported, yet no comprehensive assessment of disease burden has been done. Therefore, we aimed to estimate the global and regional burden due to non-optimal temperature exposure. METHODS: In part 1 of this study, we linked deaths to daily temperature estimates from the ERA5 reanalysis dataset. We modelled the cause-specific relative risks for 176 individual causes of death along daily temperature and 23 mean temperature zones using a two-dimensional spline within a Bayesian meta-regression framework. We then calculated the cause-specific and total temperature-attributable burden for the countries for which daily mortality data were available. In part 2, we applied cause-specific relative risks from part 1 to all locations globally. We combined exposure-response curves with daily gridded temperature and calculated the cause-specific burden based on the underlying burden of disease from the Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study, for the years 1990-2019. Uncertainty from all components of the modelling chain, including risks, temperature exposure, and theoretical minimum risk exposure levels, defined as the temperature of minimum mortality across all included causes, was propagated using posterior simulation of 1000 draws. FINDINGS: We included 64·9 million individual International Classification of Diseases-coded deaths from nine different countries, occurring between Jan 1, 1980, and Dec 31, 2016. 17 causes of death met the inclusion criteria. Ischaemic heart disease, stroke, cardiomyopathy and myocarditis, hypertensive heart disease, diabetes, chronic kidney disease, lower respiratory infection, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease showed J-shaped relationships with daily temperature, whereas the risk of external causes (eg, homicide, suicide, drowning, and related to disasters, mechanical, transport, and other unintentional injuries) increased monotonically with temperature. The theoretical minimum risk exposure levels varied by location and year as a function of the underlying cause of death composition. Estimates for non-optimal temperature ranged from 7·98 deaths (95% uncertainty interval 7·10-8·85) per 100 000 and a population attributable fraction (PAF) of 1·2% (1·1-1·4) in Brazil to 35·1 deaths (29·9-40·3) per 100 000 and a PAF of 4·7% (4·3-5·1) in China. In 2019, the average cold-attributable mortality exceeded heat-attributable mortality in all countries for which data were available. Cold effects were most pronounced in China with PAFs of 4·3% (3·9-4·7) and attributable rates of 32·0 deaths (27·2-36·8) per 100 000 and in New Zealand with 3·4% (2·9-3·9) and 26·4 deaths (22·1-30·2). Heat effects were most pronounced in China with PAFs of 0·4% (0·3-0·6) and attributable rates of 3·25 deaths (2·39-4·24) per 100 000 and in Brazil with 0·4% (0·3-0·5) and 2·71 deaths (2·15-3·37). When applying our framework to all countries globally, we estimated that 1·69 million (1·52-1·83) deaths were attributable to non-optimal temperature globally in 2019. The highest heat-attributable burdens were observed in south and southeast Asia, sub-Saharan Africa, and North Africa and the Middle East, and the highest cold-attributable burdens in eastern and central Europe, and central Asia. INTERPRETATION: Acute heat and cold exposure can increase or decrease the risk of mortality for a diverse set of causes of death. Although in most regions cold effects dominate, locations with high prevailing temperatures can exhibit substantial heat effects far exceeding cold-attributable burden. Particularly, a high burden of external causes of death contributed to strong heat impacts, but cardiorespiratory diseases and metabolic diseases could also be substantial contributors. Changes in both exposures and the composition of causes of death drove changes in risk over time. Steady increases in exposure to the risk of high temperature are of increasing concern for health. FUNDING: Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation.


Subject(s)
Cause of Death/trends , Cold Temperature/adverse effects , Global Burden of Disease/statistics & numerical data , Global Health/statistics & numerical data , Hot Temperature/adverse effects , Mortality/trends , Bayes Theorem , Heart Diseases/epidemiology , Humans , Metabolic Diseases/epidemiology
2.
Cardiol Rev ; 30(3): 145-157, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1778952

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 and was first reported in December 2019 in Wuhan, China. Since then, it caused a global pandemic with 212,324,054 confirmed cases and 4,440,840 deaths worldwide as of August 22, 2021. The disease spectrum of COVID-19 ranges from asymptomatic subclinical infection to clinical manifestations predominantly affecting the respiratory system. However, it is now evident that COVID-19 is a multiorgan disease with a broad spectrum of manifestations leading to multiple organ injuries including the cardiovascular system. We review studies that have shown that the relationship between cardiovascular diseases and COVID-19 is indeed bidirectional, implicating that preexisting cardiovascular comorbidities increase the morbidity and mortality of COVID-19, and newly emerging cardiac injuries occur in the settings of acute COVID-19 in patients with no preexisting cardiovascular disease. We present the most up-to-date literature summary to explore the incidence of new-onset cardiac complications of coronavirus and their role in predicting the severity of COVID-19. We review the association of elevated troponin with the severity of COVID-19 disease, which includes mild compared to severe disease, in nonintensive care unit compared to intensive care unit patients and in those discharged from the hospital compared to those who die. The role of serum troponin levels in predicting prognosis are compared in survivors and non-survivors. The association between COVID-19 disease and myocarditis, heart failure and coagulopathy are reviewed. Finally, an update on beneficial treatments is discussed.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cardiovascular Diseases , Heart Diseases , Myocarditis , COVID-19/complications , Cardiovascular Diseases/epidemiology , Cardiovascular Diseases/etiology , Heart Diseases/epidemiology , Humans , Pandemics , Troponin
3.
Front Public Health ; 10: 833345, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1776035

ABSTRACT

To the best of our knowledge, no comprehensive estimates of the descriptive epidemiology of and trends in hypertensive heart disease (HHD) in China have been reported. In this study, the temporal trends in the prevalence of HHD in China from 1990 to 2019 were estimated using an age-period-cohort model. Data related to HHD burden were collected from the Global Burden of Disease Study 2019. From 1990 to 2019, HHD prevalence in China showed decreasing trends in both sexes combined (average annual percentage change [AAPC]: -0.2%, 95% confidence interval (CI: -0.3% to -0.2%) and in males (AAPC: -0.5%, 95% CI: -0.5% to -0.4%), but significant increases in the age groups of 15-19, 20-24, …, and 60-64 years. The age effect analysis showed an increase in HHD prevalence from 50 to 94 years in both males and females, the period effect analysis showed a slight increase in HHD prevalence from 2009 to 2019 in females, and the cohort effect analysis showed a consistent decline in HHD prevalence from earlier to later birth cohorts in both males and females.


Subject(s)
Heart Diseases , Hypertension , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , China/epidemiology , Cohort Studies , Female , Heart Diseases/epidemiology , Humans , Hypertension/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Prevalence , Young Adult
4.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(6)2022 03 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1732050

ABSTRACT

This study aims to assess the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on hospital cardiac care, as assessed by performance indicators. Scoping review methodology: performance indicators were extracted to inform on changes in care during January-June 2020. Database searches yielded 6277 articles, of which 838 met the inclusion criteria. After full-text screening, 94 articles were included and 1637 indicators were retrieved. Most of the indicators that provided information on changes in the number of admissions (n = 118, 88%) signaled a decrease in admissions; 88% (n = 15) of the indicators showed patients' delayed presentation and 40% (n = 54) showed patients in a worse clinical condition. A reduction in diagnostic and treatment procedures was signaled by 95% (n = 18) and 81% (n = 64) of the indicators, respectively. Length of stay decreased in 58% (n = 21) of the indicators, acute coronary syndromes treatment times increased in 61% (n = 65) of the indicators, and outpatient activity decreased in 94% (n = 17) of the indicators related to outpatient care. Telehealth utilization increased in 100% (n = 6). Outcomes worsened in 40% (n = 35) of the indicators, and mortality rates increased in 52% (n = 31). All phases of the pathway were affected. This information could support the planning of care during the ongoing pandemic and in future events.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Heart Diseases , COVID-19/epidemiology , Heart Diseases/epidemiology , Heart Diseases/therapy , Hospitalization , Hospitals , Humans , Pandemics
5.
Science ; 375(6582): 706-707, 2022 Feb 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1691442

ABSTRACT

Giant study shows even mild cases can take a long-term toll on heart and blood vessels.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Heart Diseases/epidemiology , Female , Heart Disease Risk Factors , Heart Diseases/etiology , Humans , Male , Risk Assessment , Severity of Illness Index , Veterans
6.
Cardiovasc Diabetol ; 21(1): 24, 2022 02 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1686015

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Pre-existing cardiometabolic comorbidities place SARS-CoV-2 positive patients at a greater risk for poorer clinical course and mortality than those without it. We aimed to analyze real-world registry data focused primarily on participants with cardiometabolic diseases (CMD), which were remotely obtained via a digital platform. METHODS: Participants were divided into two groups: CMD or no cardiometabolic disease (non-CMD). They were evaluated based on their medical history, current medications/supplements, COVID-19 status, demographics, and baseline characteristics. The frequency of medications/supplements for CMD were compared using relative risks and 95% confidence intervals. The WHO (Five) Well-Being Index (WHO-5) were collected monthly for 6 months to assess psychological well-being which included cheerfulness, calmness, vigor, rest, and engagement with daily activities of interest. RESULTS: The 791 enrollees represented 49 U.S. states. The CMD group had significantly higher (p < 0.0001) BMI (mean + 3.04 kg/m2) and age (mean + 9.15 years) compared to non-CMD group. In the CMD group, participants who tested positive for COVID-19 had lower (p < 0.0001) well-being scores than those without COVID-19. For the 274 participants on CMD medications/supplements, there was no statistical difference in risk of COVID-19 contracture based on medication/supplement type; however, all six participants who were not being treated for CMD were COVID-19 positive (RR ~ 104). For 89 participants who were on treatment for diabetes or insulin resistance, there was a 90% reduced risk of COVID-19 incidence (p = 0.0187). CONCLUSION: The well-being score of the CMD group was dependent on whether they tested positive for COVID-19. Type of CMD treatment did not impact COVID-19 status, but absence of treatment significantly increased COVID-19 incidence. With respect to SARS-CoV-2, our analysis supports continued use of the statins, ACE-I, ARBs, and diabetes medications in CMD patients. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT04348942.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Heart Diseases/epidemiology , Metabolic Diseases/epidemiology , Adult , COVID-19/diagnosis , Cardiometabolic Risk Factors , Comorbidity , Female , Heart Diseases/diagnosis , Heart Diseases/therapy , Humans , Incidence , Longitudinal Studies , Male , Metabolic Diseases/diagnosis , Metabolic Diseases/therapy , Middle Aged , Prognosis , Prospective Studies , Registries , Risk Assessment , Time Factors , United States/epidemiology
7.
Endocr Metab Immune Disord Drug Targets ; 21(6): 980-993, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1613453

ABSTRACT

Biomarkers are increasingly recognized to have significant clinical value in early identification and progression of various cardiovascular diseases. There are many heart conditions, such as congestive heart failure (CHF), ischemic heart diseases (IHD), and diabetic cardiomyopathy (DCM), and cardiac remodeling, in which the severity of the cardiac pathology can be mirrored through these cardiac biomarkers. From the emergency department (ED) evaluation of acute coronary syndromes (ACS) or suspected acute myocardial infarction (AMI) with cardiac marker Troponin to the diagnosis of chronic conditions like Heart Failure (HF) with natriuretic peptides, like B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP), N-terminal pro-B- type natriuretic peptide (Nt-proBNP) and mid regional pro-atrial natriuretic peptide (MR- proANP), their use is continuously increasing. Their clinical importance has led to the discovery of newer biomarkers, such as the soluble source of tumorigenicity 2 (sST2), galectin-3 (Gal-3), growth differentiation factor-15 (GDF-15), and various micro ribonucleic acids (miRNAs). Since cardiac pathophysiology involves a complex interplay between inflammatory, genetic, neurohormonal, and biochemical levels, these biomarkers could be enzymes, hormones, and biologic substances showing cardiac injury, stress, and malfunction. Therefore, multi-marker approaches with different combinations of novel cardiac biomarkers, and continual assessment of cardiac biomarkers are likely to improve cardiac risk prediction, stratification, and overall patient wellbeing. On the other hand, these biomarkers may reflect coexisting or isolated disease processes in different organ systems other than the cardiovascular system. Therefore, knowledge of cardiac biomarkers is imperative. In this article, we have reviewed the role of cardiac biomarkers and their use in the diagnosis and prognosis of various cardiovascular diseases from different investigations conducted in recent years.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/diagnosis , Heart Diseases/blood , Heart Diseases/diagnosis , Animals , Biomarkers/blood , COVID-19/epidemiology , Heart Diseases/epidemiology , Humans , Natriuretic Peptide, Brain/blood , Peptide Fragments/blood , Troponin T/blood
8.
Arch Argent Pediatr ; 120(1): 54-58, 2022 02.
Article in English, Spanish | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1580014

ABSTRACT

The burden of clinically-apparent cardiac injury secondary to coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in school-age children is unclear. Over 12 months at a large academic pediatric hospital in the Midwestern portion of the United States, there were 1481 COVID-19 positive non-hospitalized otherwise healthy schoolaged children with 195 having cardiac testing performed. While incidental findings occurred, no definitive COVID-19 related cardiac pathology was discovered. Additionally, only ~3% of children had acute cardiac symptoms necessitating evaluation by pediatric cardiology. School-age children who were not hospitalized for COVID-19 have a very low risk of having clinically significant cardiac damage and are more likely to discover incidental findings.


No es clara la carga de morbimortalidad de la lesión cardíaca clínicamente evidente secundaria a la enfermedad por coronavirus de 2019 (COVID-19) en los niños en edad escolar. A lo largo de 12 meses, en un importante hospital pediátrico académico en la región del medio oeste de Estados Unidos, hubo 1481 casos de COVID-19 sin hospitalización en niños en edad escolar por lo demás sanos, en quienes se hicieron 195 pruebas cardíacas. Si bien aparecieron hallazgos fortuitos, no se descubrió ninguna patología cardíaca relacionada con la COVID-19. Además, ~3 % de los niños solamente tuvieron síntomas cardíacos agudos que requirieron una evaluación por el área de cardiología pediátrica. Los niños que no fueron hospitalizados por COVID-19 tienen un riesgo muy bajo de desarrollar daño cardíaco clínicamente significativo y son más propensos a presentar hallazgos fortuitos.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Heart Diseases , Child , Heart Diseases/epidemiology , Humans , Incidence , SARS-CoV-2 , Schools , United States
9.
PLoS One ; 16(12): e0261315, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1571991

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: We investigated the prevalence of ECG abnormalities and their association with mortality, organ dysfunction and cardiac biomarkers in a cohort of COVID-19 patients admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU). METHODS: This cohort study included patients with COVID-19 admitted to the ICU of a tertiary hospital in Sweden. ECG, clinical data and laboratory findings during ICU stay were extracted from medical records and ECGs obtained near ICU admission were reviewed by two independent physicians. RESULTS: Eighty patients had an acceptable ECG near ICU-admission. In the entire cohort 30-day mortality was 28%. Compared to patients with normal ECG, among whom 30-day mortality was 16%, patients with ECG fulfilling criteria for prior myocardial infarction had higher mortality, 63%, odds ratio (OR) 9.61 (95% confidence interval (CI) 2.02-55.6) adjusted for Simplified Acute Physiology Score 3 and patients with ST-T abnormalities had 50% mortality and OR 6.05 (95% CI 1.82-21.3) in univariable analysis. Both prior myocardial infarction pattern and ST-T pathology were associated with need for vasoactive treatment and higher peak plasma levels of troponin-I, NT-pro-BNP (N-terminal pro-Brain Natriuretic Peptide), and lactate during ICU stay compared to patients with normal ECG. CONCLUSION: ECG with prior myocardial infarction pattern or acute ST-T pathology at ICU admission is associated with death, need for vasoactive treatment and higher levels of biomarkers of cardiac damage and strain in severely ill COVID-19 patients, and should alert clinicians to a poor prognosis.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/mortality , Heart Diseases/epidemiology , Lactic Acid/metabolism , Natriuretic Peptide, C-Type/blood , Troponin I/blood , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/metabolism , COVID-19/physiopathology , Cohort Studies , Electrocardiography , Female , Heart Diseases/mortality , Heart Diseases/virology , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Male , Middle Aged , Odds Ratio , Prevalence
10.
Biomed Pharmacother ; 146: 112518, 2022 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1562447

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 causes respiratory illness with a spectrum of systemic complications. However, the mechanism for cardiac infection and cardiomyocyte injury in COVID-19 patients remains unclear. The current literature supports the notion that SARS-CoV-2 particles access the heart either by the circulating blood cells or by extracellular vesicles, originating from the inflamed lungs, and encapsulating the virus along with its receptor (ACE2). Both cardiomyocytes and pericytes (coronary arteries) express the necessary accessory proteins for access of SARS-CoV-2 particles (i.e. ACE2, NRP-1, TMPRSS2, CD147, integrin α5ß1, and CTSB/L). These proteins facilitate the SARS-CoV-2 interaction and entry into the pericytes and cardiomyocytes thus leading to cardiac manifestations. Subsequently, various signaling pathways are altered in the infected cardiomyocytes (i.e. increased ROS production, reduced contraction, impaired calcium homeostasis), causing cardiac dysfunction. The currently adopted pharmacotherapy in severe COVID-19 subjects exhibited side effects on the heart, often manifested by electrical abnormalities. Nonetheless, cardiovascular adverse repercussions have been associated with the advent of some of the SARS-CoV-2 vaccines with no clear mechanisms underlining these complications. We provide herein an overview of the pathways involved with cardiomyocyte in COVID-19 subjects to help promoting pharmacotherapies that can protect against SARS-CoV-2-induced cardiac injuries.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/metabolism , Heart Diseases/metabolism , Myocardium/metabolism , Myocytes, Cardiac/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Animals , Antiviral Agents/administration & dosage , Antiviral Agents/metabolism , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , COVID-19 Vaccines/metabolism , Heart Diseases/drug therapy , Heart Diseases/epidemiology , Humans , Myocytes, Cardiac/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects
11.
Pediatr Rheumatol Online J ; 19(1): 162, 2021 Nov 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1538079

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: This study aimed to assess the baseline characteristics and clinical outcomes of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in pediatric patients with rheumatic and musculoskeletal diseases (RMD) and identify the risk factors associated with symptomatic or severe disease defined as hospital admission, intensive care admission or death. METHODS: An observational longitudinal study was conducted during the first year of the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic (March 2020-March 2021). All pediatric patients attended at the rheumatology outpatient clinics of six tertiary referral hospitals in Madrid, Spain, with a diagnosis of RMD and COVID-19 were included. Main outcomes were symptomatic disease and hospital admission. The covariates were sociodemographic and clinical characteristics and treatment regimens. We ran a multivariable logistic regression model to assess associated factors for outcomes. RESULTS: The study population included 77 pediatric patients. Mean age was 11.88 (4.04) years Of these, 30 patients (38.96%) were asymptomatic, 41 (53.25%) had a mild-moderate COVID-19 and 6 patients (7.79%) required hospital admission. The median length of hospital admission was 5 (2-20) days, one patient required intensive care and there were no deaths. Previous comorbidities increased the risk for symptomatic disease and hospital admission. Compared with outpatients, the factor independently associated with hospital admission was previous use of glucocorticoids (OR 3.51; p = 0.00). No statistically significant risk factors for symptomatic COVID-19 were found in the final model. CONCLUSION: No differences in COVID-19 outcomes according to childhood-onset rheumatic disease types were found. Results suggest that associated comorbidities and treatment with glucocorticoids increase the risk of hospital admission.


Subject(s)
Antirheumatic Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/physiopathology , Glucocorticoids/therapeutic use , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Rheumatic Diseases/drug therapy , Adolescent , Arthritis, Juvenile/drug therapy , Arthritis, Juvenile/epidemiology , Asthma/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Carrier State/epidemiology , Child , Cohort Studies , Comorbidity , Female , Heart Diseases/epidemiology , Hereditary Autoinflammatory Diseases/drug therapy , Hereditary Autoinflammatory Diseases/epidemiology , Humans , Intensive Care Units, Pediatric , Length of Stay , Logistic Models , Longitudinal Studies , Lupus Erythematosus, Systemic/drug therapy , Lupus Erythematosus, Systemic/epidemiology , Male , Multivariate Analysis , Obesity/epidemiology , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/epidemiology , Rheumatic Diseases/epidemiology , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index , Spain/epidemiology
12.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 22389, 2021 11 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1521768

ABSTRACT

Outbreak of global pandemic Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has so far caused countless morbidity and mortality. However, a detailed report on the impact of COVID-19 on hypertension (HTN) and ensuing cardiac injury is unknown. Herein, we have evaluated the association between HTN and cardiac injury in 388 COVID-19 (47.5 ± 15.2 years) including 75 HTN and 313 normotension. Demographic data, cardiac injury markers, other laboratory findings, and comorbidity details were collected and analyzed. Compared to patients without HTN, hypertensive-COVID-19 patients were older, exhibited higher C-reactive protein (CRP), erythrocyte sedimentation rate, and comorbidities such as diabetes, coronary heart disease, cerebrovascular disease and chronic kidney disease. Further, these hypertensive-COVID-19 patients presented more severe disease with longer hospitalization time, and a concomitant higher rate of bilateral pneumonia, electrolyte disorder, hypoproteinemia and acute respiratory distress syndrome. In addition, cardiac injury markers such as creatine kinase (CK), myoglobin, lactic dehydrogenase (LDH), and N-terminal pro brain natriuretic peptide were significantly increased in these patients. Correlation analysis revealed that systolic blood pressure correlated significantly with the levels of CK, and LDH. Further, HTN was associated with increased LDH and CK-MB in COVID- 19 after adjusting essential variables. We also noticed that patients with elevated either high sensitivity-CRP or CRP demonstrated a significant high level of LDH along with a moderate increase in CK (p = 0.07) and CK-MB (p = 0.09). Our investigation suggested that hypertensive patients presented higher risk of cardiac injury and severe disease phenotype in COVID-19, effectively control blood pressure in HTN patients might improve the prognosis of COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Heart Injuries/epidemiology , Hypertension/epidemiology , Adult , Biomarkers/blood , China/epidemiology , Comorbidity , Disease Outbreaks , Female , Heart Diseases/epidemiology , Hospitalization , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Prognosis , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity
13.
Infect Genet Evol ; 95: 105092, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1433676

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To compare the demographics, clinical characteristics and severity of patients infected with nine different SARS-CoV-2 variants, during three phases of the COVID-19 epidemic in Marseille. METHODS: A single centre retrospective cohort study was conducted in 1760 patients infected with SARS-CoV-2 of Nextstrain clades 20A, 20B, and 20C (first phase, February-May 2020), Pangolin lineages B.1.177 (we named Marseille-2) and B.1.160 (Marseille-4) variants (second phase, June-December 2020), and B.1.1.7 (alpha), B.1.351 (beta), P.1 (gamma) and A.27 (Marseille-501) variants (third phase, January 2021-today). Outcomes were the occurrence of clinical failures, including hospitalisation, transfer to the intensive-care unit, and death. RESULTS: During each phase, no major differences were observed with regards to age and gender distribution, the prevalence of chronic diseases, and clinical symptoms between variants circulating in a given phase. The B.1.177 and B.1.160 variants were associated with more severe outcomes. Infections occurring during the second phase were associated with a higher rate of death as compared to infections during the first and third phases. Patients in the second phase were more likely to be hospitalised than those in the third phase. Patients infected during the third phase were more frequently obese than others. CONCLUSION: A large cohort study is recommended to evaluate the transmissibility and to better characterise the clinical severity of emerging variants.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/pathology , Diabetes Mellitus/pathology , Genome, Viral , Hypertension/pathology , Obesity/pathology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/virology , Comorbidity , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiology , Diabetes Mellitus/mortality , Diabetes Mellitus/virology , Female , France/epidemiology , Genotype , Heart Diseases/epidemiology , Heart Diseases/mortality , Heart Diseases/pathology , Heart Diseases/virology , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Hospitals , Humans , Hypertension/epidemiology , Hypertension/mortality , Hypertension/virology , Intensive Care Units , Male , Middle Aged , Neoplasms/epidemiology , Neoplasms/mortality , Neoplasms/pathology , Neoplasms/virology , Obesity/epidemiology , Obesity/mortality , Obesity/virology , Phylogeny , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/classification , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Sequence Analysis, RNA , Severity of Illness Index , Survival Analysis
14.
Curr Cardiol Rev ; 17(3): 319-327, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1435701

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Hydroxychloroquine has been used for rheumatological diseases for many decades and is considered a safe medication. With the COVID-19 outbreak, there has been an increase in reports associating cardiotoxicity with hydroxychloroquine. It is unclear if the cardiotoxic profile of hydroxychloroquine is previously underreported in the literature or is it a manifestation of COVID-19 and therapeutic interventions. This manuscript evaluates the incidence of cardiotoxicity associated with hydroxychloroquine prior to the onset of COVID-19. METHODS: PubMED, EMBASE, and Cochrane databases were searched for keywords derived from MeSH terms prior to April 9, 2020. Inclusion eligibility was based on appropriate reporting of cardiac conditions and study design. RESULTS: A total of 69 articles were identified (58 case reports, 11 case series). The majority (84%) of patients were female, with a median age of 49.2 (range 16-92) years. 15 of 185 patients with cardiotoxic events were in the setting of acute intentional overdose. In acute overdose, the median ingestion was 17,857 ± 14,873 mg. 2 of 15 patients died after acute intoxication. In patients with long-term hydroxychloroquine use (10.5 ± 8.9 years), new onset systolic heart failure occurred in 54 of 155 patients (35%) with median cumulative ingestion of 1,493,800 ± 995,517 mg. The majority of patients improved with the withdrawal of hydroxychloroquine and standard therapy. CONCLUSION: Millions of hydroxychloroquine doses are prescribed annually. Prior to the COVID-19 pandemic, cardiac complications attributed to hydroxychloroquine were uncommon. Further studies are needed to understand the impact of COVID-19 on the cardiovascular system to understand the presence or absence of potential medication interactions with hydroxychloroquine in this new pathophysiological state.


Subject(s)
Cardiotoxins/adverse effects , Heart Diseases , Hydroxychloroquine/adverse effects , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19 , Female , Heart Diseases/chemically induced , Heart Diseases/epidemiology , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Young Adult
15.
Best Pract Res Clin Anaesthesiol ; 35(3): 269-292, 2021 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1401261

ABSTRACT

Coronaviruses belong to the family Coronaviridae order Nidovirales and are known causes of respiratory and intestinal disease in various mammalian and avian species. Species of coronaviruses known to infect humans are referred to as human coronaviruses (HCoVs). While traditionally, HCoVs have been a significant cause of the common cold, more recently, emergent viruses, including severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) has caused a global pandemic. Here, we discuss coronavirus disease (COVID-19) biology, pathology, epidemiology, signs and symptoms, diagnosis, treatment, and recent clinical trials involving promising treatments.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/administration & dosage , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/therapy , SARS-CoV-2 , Adenosine Monophosphate/administration & dosage , Adenosine Monophosphate/analogs & derivatives , Adrenal Cortex Hormones/administration & dosage , Alanine/administration & dosage , Alanine/analogs & derivatives , Animals , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/immunology , Coronavirus/drug effects , Coronavirus/immunology , Cough/epidemiology , Cough/therapy , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiology , Diabetes Mellitus/therapy , Fatigue/epidemiology , Fatigue/therapy , Fever , Heart Diseases/epidemiology , Heart Diseases/therapy , Humans , Positive-Pressure Respiration/methods , Prognosis , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/epidemiology , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/therapy , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Treatment Outcome
18.
PLoS One ; 16(7): e0254550, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1308181

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 pandemic has rapidly required a high demand of hospitalization and an increased number of intensive care units (ICUs) admission. Therefore, it became mandatory to develop prognostic models to evaluate critical COVID-19 patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We retrospectively evaluate a cohort of consecutive COVID-19 critically ill patients admitted to ICU with a confirmed diagnosis of SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia. A multivariable Cox regression model including demographic, clinical and laboratory findings was developed to assess the predictive value of these variables. Internal validation was performed using the bootstrap resampling technique. The model's discriminatory ability was assessed with Harrell's C-statistic and the goodness-of-fit was evaluated with calibration plot. RESULTS: 242 patients were included [median age, 64 years (56-71 IQR), 196 (81%) males]. Hypertension was the most common comorbidity (46.7%), followed by diabetes (15.3%) and heart disease (14.5%). Eighty-five patients (35.1%) died within 28 days after ICU admission and the median time from ICU admission to death was 11 days (IQR 6-18). In multivariable model after internal validation, age, obesity, procaltitonin, SOFA score and PaO2/FiO2 resulted as independent predictors of 28-day mortality. The C-statistic of the model showed a very good discriminatory capacity (0.82). CONCLUSIONS: We present the results of a multivariable prediction model for mortality of critically ill COVID-19 patients admitted to ICU. After adjustment for other factors, age, obesity, procalcitonin, SOFA and PaO2/FiO2 were independently associated with 28-day mortality in critically ill COVID-19 patients. The calibration plot revealed good agreements between the observed and expected probability of death.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/mortality , Mortality/trends , COVID-19/epidemiology , Comorbidity , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiology , Female , Heart Diseases/epidemiology , Humans , Hypertension/epidemiology , Intensive Care Units/statistics & numerical data , Male , Middle Aged , Models, Statistical , Obesity/epidemiology
19.
Cardiovasc Toxicol ; 21(10): 781-789, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1306730

ABSTRACT

Since the onset of the global COVID-19 pandemic, there has been much discussion about the advantages and disadvantages of ongoing chronic drug therapies in SARS-CoV-2-positive patients. These discussions include also statins treatment. The statins are among the most widely used drugs in the global population. Statins aim to lower cholesterol, which is essential for many biological processes but can lead to heart disease if levels are too high; however, also the pleiotropic effects of statins are well known. So could the anti-inflammatory or the potential antiviral effects of statins be helpful in avoiding extreme inflammation and severity in COVID-19? To date, there are conflicting opinions on the effects of statins in the course of COVID-19 infection. The aim of this article is to describe the molecular and pharmacological basis of the pleiotropic effects of statins that could be more involved in the fight against COVID-19 infection and to investigate the current epidemiological evidence in the literature on the current and important topic.


Subject(s)
Anti-Inflammatory Agents/therapeutic use , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Heart Diseases/drug therapy , Heart/drug effects , Hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA Reductase Inhibitors/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Animals , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/adverse effects , Antiviral Agents/adverse effects , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/physiopathology , COVID-19/virology , Heart/physiopathology , Heart/virology , Heart Diseases/epidemiology , Heart Diseases/physiopathology , Heart Diseases/virology , Host-Pathogen Interactions , Humans , Hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA Reductase Inhibitors/adverse effects , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Treatment Outcome
20.
Clin Microbiol Infect ; 27(9): 1250-1261, 2021 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1305226

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has been implicated in a wide spectrum of cardiac manifestations following the acute phase of the disease. OBJECTIVES: To assess the range of cardiac sequelae after COVID-19 recovery. DATA SOURCES: PubMed, Embase, Scopus (inception through 17 February 2021) and Google scholar (2019 through 17 February 2021). STUDY ELIGIBILITY CRITERIA: Prospective and retrospective studies, case reports and case series. PARTICIPANTS: Adult patients assessed for cardiac manifestations after COVID-19 recovery. EXPOSURE: Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 infection diagnosed by PCR. METHODS: Systematic review. RESULTS: Thirty-five studies (fifteen prospective cohort, seven case reports, five cross-sectional, four case series, three retrospective cohort and one ambidirectional cohort) evaluating cardiac sequelae in 52 609 patients were included. Twenty-nine studies used objective cardiac assessments, mostly cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (CMR) in 16 studies, echocardiography in 15, electrocardiography (ECG) in 16 and cardiac biomarkers in 18. Most studies had a fair risk of bias. The median time from diagnosis/recovery to cardiac assessment was 48 days (1-180 days). Common short-term cardiac abnormalities (<3 months) included increased T1 (proportion: 30%), T2 (16%), pericardial effusion (15%) and late gadolinium enhancement (11%) on CMR, with symptoms such as chest pain (25%) and dyspnoea (36%). In the medium term (3-6 months), common changes included reduced left ventricular global longitudinal strain (30%) and late gadolinium enhancement (10%) on CMR, diastolic dysfunction (40%) on echocardiography and elevated N-terminal proB-type natriuretic peptide (18%). In addition, COVID-19 survivors had higher risk (risk ratio 3; 95% CI 2.7-3.2) of developing heart failure, arrythmias and myocardial infarction. CONCLUSIONS: COVID-19 appears to be associated with persistent/de novo cardiac injury after recovery, particularly subclinical myocardial injury in the earlier phase and diastolic dysfunction later. Larger well-designed and controlled studies with baseline assessments are needed to better measure the extent of cardiac injury and its clinical impact.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , Heart Diseases/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Adult , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing , Echocardiography , Electrocardiography , Heart Diseases/etiology , Humans , Magnetic Resonance Imaging, Cine , SARS-CoV-2/genetics
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