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1.
J Electrocardiol ; 72: 44-48, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1734724

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study is to examine the probability of de-novo fQRS in patients with mild COVID-19 disease, as an indicator of cardiac injury. METHODS: Data of 256 patients with normal admission electrocardiography and no comorbidities between 1.12.2020-31.12.2021, were examined retrospectively 6-month after mild COVID-19 disease. Patients were divided into two groups: fQRS+ group (n = 102) and non-fQRS group (n = 154). Relation between fQRS and other electrocardiography, echocardiographic and laboratory findings were investigated. RESULTS: No significant difference was found between the groups among age and gender. Troponin-I and creatine kinase myocardial band values (retrospectively 9.10 ± 1.76 vs 0.74 ± 1.43, 34.05 ± 82.20 vs. 14.68 ± 4.42), COVID-19 IgG levels (45.78 ± 14.82 vs. 36.49 ± 17.68), diastolic dysfunction (39.21% vs. 15.07%), EF value (58.02 ± 1.95 vs. 64.27 ± 3.07), dyspnea (41.17% vs. 6.84%), post-COVID-19 tachycardia syndrome (19.6% vs. 2.74) were more frequent in fQRS+ group compared to non-fQRS group. The EF value was lower in the presence of fQRS in the high lateral leads (57.12 ± 1.99, 58.47 ± 1.79, p:0.018). There was a positive correlation between IgG value and endsystolic diameter, septum thickness and left atrium diameter. In multivariate analysis de-novo fQRS, dyspnea, high troponin and IgG values, diastolic dysfunction, low EF value and left atrial diameter were determined as independent risk factors for post-COVID-19 tachycardia syndrome in follow-up. CONCLUSION: In COVID-19 disease de-novo fQRS, dyspnea, high IgG and troponin value, left atrial diameter, lower EF value, diastolic dysfunction were associated with post-COVID-19 tachycardia syndrome. The de-novo fQRS in SARS-COV-2 may be a predictor of future more important adverse cardiovascular outcomes and this should alert clinicians.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Electrocardiography , Heart Diseases , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/physiopathology , Dyspnea/physiopathology , Dyspnea/virology , Follow-Up Studies , Heart Diseases/physiopathology , Heart Diseases/virology , Humans , Immunoglobulin G , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Troponin
3.
Pan Afr Med J ; 39: 173, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1468745

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19), first appearing in Wuhan, China, and later declared as a pandemic, has caused serious morbidity and mortality worldwide. Severe cases usually present with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), pneumonia, acute kidney injury (AKI), liver damage, or septic shock. However, with recent advances in severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) research, the virus´s effect on cardiac tissues has become evident. Reportedly, an increased number of COVID-19 patients manifested serious cardiac complications such as heart failure, increased troponin, and N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide levels (NT-proBNP), cardiomyopathies, and myocarditis. These cardiac complications initially present as chest tightness, chest pain, and heart palpitations. Diagnostic investigations such as telemetry, electrocardiogram (ECG), cardiac biomarkers (troponin, NT-proBNP), and inflammatory markers (D-dimer, fibrinogen, PT, PTT), must be performed according to the patient´s condition. The best available options for treatment are the provision of supportive care, anti-viral therapy, hemodynamic monitoring, IL-6 blockers, statins, thrombolytic, and anti-hypertensive drugs. Cardiovascular disease (CVD) healthcare workers should be well-informed about the evolving research regarding COVID-19 and approach as a multi-disciplinary team to devise effective strategies for challenging situations to reduce cardiac complications.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Heart Diseases/virology , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Biomarkers/metabolism , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19 Testing , Heart Diseases/diagnosis , Heart Diseases/physiopathology , Humans , Patient Care Team/organization & administration
4.
Am Heart J ; 241: 83-86, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1384824

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 infection has been associated with cardiovascular disease in children, but which children need cardiac evaluation is unclear. We describe our experience evaluating 206 children for cardiac disease following SARS-CoV-2 infection (one of whom had ventricular ectopy) and propose a new guideline for management of these children. Routine cardiac screening after SARS-CoV-2 infection in children without any cardiac signs or symptoms does not appear to be high yield.


Subject(s)
Aftercare , COVID-19/physiopathology , Heart Diseases/diagnosis , Referral and Consultation , Adolescent , Ambulatory Care , Atrioventricular Block/diagnosis , Atrioventricular Block/etiology , Atrioventricular Block/physiopathology , Bradycardia/diagnosis , Bradycardia/etiology , Bradycardia/physiopathology , COVID-19/complications , Cardiology , Chest Pain/physiopathology , Child , Child, Preschool , Dyspnea/physiopathology , Echocardiography , Electrocardiography , Fatigue/physiopathology , Female , Heart Diseases/etiology , Heart Diseases/physiopathology , Humans , Hypertrophy, Left Ventricular/diagnosis , Hypertrophy, Left Ventricular/etiology , Hypertrophy, Left Ventricular/physiopathology , Hypertrophy, Right Ventricular/diagnosis , Hypertrophy, Right Ventricular/etiology , Hypertrophy, Right Ventricular/physiopathology , Implementation Science , Male , Pediatrics , Practice Guidelines as Topic , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index , Syncope/physiopathology , Ventricular Premature Complexes/diagnosis , Ventricular Premature Complexes/etiology , Ventricular Premature Complexes/physiopathology , Young Adult
5.
Europace ; 23(1): 123-129, 2021 01 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1387869

ABSTRACT

AIMS: The main severe complications of SARS-CoV-2 infection are pneumonia and respiratory distress syndrome. Recent studies, however, reported that cardiac injury, as assessed by troponin levels, is associated with a worse outcome in these patients. No study hitherto assessed whether the simple standard electrocardiogram (ECG) may be helpful for risk stratification in these patients. METHODS AND RESULTS: We studied 324 consecutive patients admitted to our Emergency Department with a confirmed diagnosis of SARS-CoV-2 infection. Standard 12-lead ECG recorded on admission was assessed for cardiac rhythm and rate, atrioventricular and intraventricular conduction, abnormal Q/QS wave, ST segment and T wave changes, corrected QT interval, and tachyarrhythmias. At a mean follow-up of 31 ± 11 days, 44 deaths occurred (13.6%). Most ECG variables were significantly associated with mortality, including atrial fibrillation (P = 0.002), increasing heart rate (P = 0.002), presence of left bundle branch block (LBBB; P < 0.001), QRS duration (P <0 .001), a QRS duration of ≥110 ms (P < 0.001), ST segment depression (P < 0.001), abnormal Q/QS wave (P = 0.034), premature ventricular complexes (PVCs; P = 0.051), and presence of any ECG abnormality [hazard ratio (HR) 4.58; 95% confidence interval (CI) 2.40-8.76; P < 0.001]. At multivariable analysis, QRS duration (P = 0.002), QRS duration ≥110 ms (P = 0.03), LBBB (P = 0.014) and presence of any ECG abnormality (P = 0.04) maintained a significant independent association with mortality. CONCLUSION: Our data show that standard ECG can be helpful for an initial risk stratification of patients admitted for SARS-CoV-2 infectious disease.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Electrocardiography , Heart Conduction System/physiopathology , Heart Diseases/diagnosis , Heart Rate , Action Potentials , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/mortality , Female , Heart Diseases/etiology , Heart Diseases/mortality , Heart Diseases/physiopathology , Hospital Mortality , Hospitalization , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Predictive Value of Tests , Prognosis , Risk Assessment , Risk Factors , Time Factors
6.
Physiol Rep ; 9(17): e14998, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1374672

ABSTRACT

The spread of the novel coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19) has caused a global pandemic. The disease has spread rapidly, and research shows that COVID-19 can induce long-lasting cardiac damage. COVID-19 can result in elevated cardiac biomarkers indicative of acute cardiac injury, and research utilizing echocardiography has shown that there is mechanical dysfunction in these patients as well, especially when observing the isovolumic, systolic, and diastolic portions of the cardiac cycle. The purpose of this study was to present two case studies on COVID-19 positive patients who had their cardiac mechanical function assessed every day during the acute period to show that cardiac function in these patients was altered, and the damage occurring can change from day-to-day. Participant 1 showed compromised cardiac function in the systolic time, diastolic time, isovolumic time, and the calculated heart performance index (HPI), and these impairments were sustained even 23 days post-symptom onset. Furthermore, Participant 1 showed prolonged systolic periods that lasted longer than the diastolic periods, indicative of elevated pulmonary artery pressure. Participant 2 showed decreases in systole and consequently, increases in HPI during the 3 days post-symptom onset, and these changes returned to normal after day 4. These results showed that daily observation of cardiac function can provide detailed information about the overall mechanism by which cardiac dysfunction is occurring and that COVID-19 can induce cardiac damage in unique patterns and thus can be studied on a case-by-case basis, day-to-day during infection. This could allow us to move toward more personalized cardiovascular medical treatment.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/physiopathology , Heart Diseases/physiopathology , Heart/physiopathology , Hemodynamics , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Ventricular Function , Adult , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/virology , Diagnostic Techniques, Cardiovascular/instrumentation , Heart/virology , Heart Diseases/diagnosis , Heart Diseases/virology , Host-Pathogen Interactions , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Predictive Value of Tests , Time Factors , Transducers
7.
Am Heart J ; 242: 61-70, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1356105

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) may cause myocardial injury and myocarditis, and reports of persistent cardiac pathology after COVID-19 have raised concerns of long-term cardiac consequences. We aimed to assess the presence of abnormal cardiovascular resonance imaging (CMR) findings in patients recovered from moderate-to-severe COVID-19, and its association with markers of disease severity in the acute phase. METHODS: Fifty-eight (49%) survivors from the prospective COVID MECH study, underwent CMR median 175 [IQR 105-217] days after COVID-19 hospitalization. Abnormal CMR was defined as left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) <50% or myocardial scar by late gadolinium enhancement. CMR indices were compared to healthy controls (n = 32), and to circulating biomarkers measured during the index hospitalization. RESULTS: Abnormal CMR was present in 12 (21%) patients, of whom 3 were classified with major pathology (scar and LVEF <50% or LVEF <40%). There was no difference in the need of mechanical ventilation, length of hospital stay, and vital signs between patients with vs without abnormal CMR after 6 months. Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 viremia and concentrations of inflammatory biomarkers during the index hospitalization were not associated with persistent CMR pathology. Cardiac troponin T and N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide concentrations on admission, were higher in patients with CMR pathology, but these associations were not significant after adjusting for demographics and established cardiovascular disease. CONCLUSIONS: CMR pathology 6 months after moderate-to-severe COVID-19 was present in 21% of patients and did not correlate with severity of the disease. Cardiovascular biomarkers during COVID-19 were higher in patients with CMR pathology, but with no significant association after adjusting for confounders. TRIAL REGISTRATION: COVID MECH Study ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT04314232.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Cicatrix/diagnostic imaging , Heart Diseases/diagnostic imaging , Magnetic Resonance Imaging, Cine/methods , Ventricular Dysfunction, Left/diagnostic imaging , Adult , Aged , Biomarkers/blood , COVID-19/blood , Cicatrix/etiology , Female , Gadolinium , Heart Diseases/blood , Heart Diseases/etiology , Heart Diseases/physiopathology , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Natriuretic Peptide, Brain/blood , Peptide Fragments/blood , Prospective Studies , Severity of Illness Index , Stroke Volume , Survivors , Troponin T/blood , Ventricular Dysfunction, Left/etiology , Ventricular Dysfunction, Left/physiopathology
8.
Open Heart ; 8(2)2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1351110

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To describe the use of echocardiography in patients hospitalised with suspected coronavirus infection and to assess its impact on clinical management. METHODS: We studied 79 adults from a prospective registry of inpatients with suspected coronavirus infection at a single academic centre. Echocardiographic indications included abnormal biomarkers, shock, cardiac symptoms, arrhythmia, worsening hypoxaemia or clinical deterioration. Study type (limited or complete) was assessed for each patient. The primary outcome measure was echocardiography-related change in clinical management, defined as intensive care transfer, medication changes, altered ventilation parameters or subsequent cardiac procedures within 24 hours of echocardiography. Coronavirus-positive versus coronavirus-negative patient groups were compared. The relationship between echocardiographic findings and coronavirus mortality was assessed. RESULTS: 56 patients were coronavirus-positive and 23 patients were coronavirus-negative with symptoms attributed to other diagnoses. Coronavirus-positive patients more often received limited echocardiograms (70% vs 26%, p=0.001). The echocardiographic indication for coronavirus-infected patients was frequently worsening hypoxaemia (43% vs 4%) versus chest pain, syncope or clinical heart failure (23% vs 44%). Echocardiography changed management less frequently in coronavirus-positive patients (18% vs 48%, p=0.01). Among coronavirus-positive patients, 14 of 56 (25.0%) died during hospitalisation. Those who died more often had echocardiography to evaluate clinical deterioration (71% vs 24%) and had elevated right ventricular systolic pressures (37 mm Hg vs 25 mm Hg), but other parameters were similar to survivors. CONCLUSIONS: Echocardiograms performed on hospitalised patients with coronavirus infection were often technically limited, and their findings altered patient management in a minority of patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , Echocardiography, Doppler , Heart Diseases/diagnostic imaging , Heart/diagnostic imaging , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/physiopathology , COVID-19/therapy , COVID-19/virology , Clinical Decision-Making , Female , Heart/physiopathology , Heart/virology , Heart Diseases/physiopathology , Heart Diseases/therapy , Heart Diseases/virology , Hospitalization , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Predictive Value of Tests , Prognosis , Prospective Studies
9.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 10(16): e021428, 2021 08 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1348207

ABSTRACT

Background Cardiac dysfunction is a prominent feature of multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C), yet the etiology is poorly understood. We determined whether dysfunction is global or regional, and whether it is associated with the cytokine milieu, microangiopathy, or severity of shock. Methods and Results We analyzed echocardiographic parameters of myocardial deformation and compared global and segmental left ventricular strain between 43 cases with MIS-C ≤18 years old and 40 controls. Primary outcomes included left ventricular global longitudinal strain, right ventricular free wall strain), and left atrial strain. We evaluated relationships between strain and profiles of 10 proinflammatory cytokines, microangiopathic features (soluble C5b9), and vasoactive-inotropic requirements. Compared with controls, cases with MIS-C had significant impairments in all parameters of systolic and diastolic function. 65% of cases with MIS-C had abnormal left ventricular function (|global longitudinal strain|<17%), although elevations of cytokines were modest. All left ventricular segments were involved, without apical or basal dominance to suggest acute stress cardiomyopathy. Worse global longitudinal strain correlated with higher ratios of interleukin-6 (ρ -0.43) and interleukin-8 (ρ -0.43) to total hypercytokinemia, but not absolute levels of interleukin-6 or interleukin-8, or total hypercytokinemia. Similarly, worse right ventricular free wall strain correlated with higher relative interleukin-8 expression (ρ -0.59). There were no significant associations between function and microangiopathy or vasoactive-inotropic requirements. Conclusions Myocardial function is globally decreased in MIS-C and not explained by acute stress cardiomyopathy. Cardiac dysfunction may be driven by the relative skew of the immune response toward interleukin-6 and interleukin-8 pathways, more so than degree of hyperinflammation, refining the current paradigm of myocardial involvement in MIS-C.


Subject(s)
Atrial Function, Left , COVID-19/complications , Cytokine Release Syndrome/etiology , Cytokines/blood , Heart Diseases/etiology , Inflammation Mediators/blood , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/complications , Ventricular Function, Left , Ventricular Function, Right , Adolescent , Age Factors , Biomarkers/blood , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/immunology , Child , Cross-Sectional Studies , Cytokine Release Syndrome/diagnosis , Cytokine Release Syndrome/immunology , Echocardiography , Female , Heart Diseases/diagnostic imaging , Heart Diseases/immunology , Heart Diseases/physiopathology , Humans , Male , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies , Risk Assessment , Risk Factors , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/diagnosis , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/immunology
10.
Rev Cardiovasc Med ; 22(2): 365-371, 2021 06 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1310351

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 is a novel viral infection caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) beta-coronavirus. Epidemiological status changes dynamically as the pandemy is far from ending. Several complications of presented virus may be similar to those observed in other viral infections. Despite lacking data, the heart involvement may be comparable to cardiac complications observed previously in those with SARS as well as Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS). In COVID-19 we observe elevated levels of cardiac biomarkers, such as natriuretic peptides, troponins, myoglobin, C-reactive protein (CRP), interleukin-2 (IL-2), interleukin-6 (IL-6) and ferritin, which is likely the result of myocardial injury. The possible mechanisms of cardiovascular injury include direct toxicity through the viral invasion of cardiac myocytes, ACE-2 receptor-mediated CV (cardiac and endothelial) injury, microvascular dysfunction and thrombosis and cytokine release syndrome (mainly IL-6 mediated). Cardiac manifestations of COVID-19 are focal or global myocardial inflammation, necrosis, ventricular dysfunction, heart failure and arrhythmia.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/virology , Heart Diseases/virology , Heart/virology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/physiopathology , COVID-19/therapy , Heart/physiopathology , Heart Diseases/mortality , Heart Diseases/physiopathology , Heart Diseases/therapy , Host-Pathogen Interactions , Humans , Prognosis , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects
11.
Cardiovasc Toxicol ; 21(10): 781-789, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1306730

ABSTRACT

Since the onset of the global COVID-19 pandemic, there has been much discussion about the advantages and disadvantages of ongoing chronic drug therapies in SARS-CoV-2-positive patients. These discussions include also statins treatment. The statins are among the most widely used drugs in the global population. Statins aim to lower cholesterol, which is essential for many biological processes but can lead to heart disease if levels are too high; however, also the pleiotropic effects of statins are well known. So could the anti-inflammatory or the potential antiviral effects of statins be helpful in avoiding extreme inflammation and severity in COVID-19? To date, there are conflicting opinions on the effects of statins in the course of COVID-19 infection. The aim of this article is to describe the molecular and pharmacological basis of the pleiotropic effects of statins that could be more involved in the fight against COVID-19 infection and to investigate the current epidemiological evidence in the literature on the current and important topic.


Subject(s)
Anti-Inflammatory Agents/therapeutic use , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Heart Diseases/drug therapy , Heart/drug effects , Hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA Reductase Inhibitors/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Animals , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/adverse effects , Antiviral Agents/adverse effects , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/physiopathology , COVID-19/virology , Heart/physiopathology , Heart/virology , Heart Diseases/epidemiology , Heart Diseases/physiopathology , Heart Diseases/virology , Host-Pathogen Interactions , Humans , Hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA Reductase Inhibitors/adverse effects , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Treatment Outcome
13.
J Cardiovasc Magn Reson ; 23(1): 77, 2021 06 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1266491

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Although coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is primarily a respiratory illness, myocardial injury is increasingly reported and associated with adverse outcomes. However, the pathophysiology, extent of myocardial injury and clinical significance remains unclear. METHODS: COVID-HEART is a UK, multicentre, prospective, observational, longitudinal cohort study of patients with confirmed COVID-19 and elevated troponin (sex-specific > 99th centile). Baseline assessment will be whilst recovering in-hospital or recently discharged, and include cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) imaging, quality of life (QoL) assessments, electrocardiogram (ECG), serum biomarkers and genetics. Assessment at 6-months includes repeat CMR, QoL assessments and 6-min walk test (6MWT). The CMR protocol includes cine imaging, T1/T2 mapping, aortic distensibility, late gadolinium enhancement (LGE), and adenosine stress myocardial perfusion imaging in selected patients. The main objectives of the study are to: (1) characterise the extent and nature of myocardial involvement in COVID-19 patients with an elevated troponin, (2) assess how cardiac involvement and clinical outcome associate with recognised risk factors for mortality (age, sex, ethnicity and comorbidities) and genetic factors, (3) evaluate if differences in myocardial recovery at 6 months are dependent on demographics, genetics and comorbidities, (4) understand the impact of recovery status at 6 months on patient-reported QoL and functional capacity. DISCUSSION: COVID-HEART will provide detailed characterisation of cardiac involvement, and its repair and recovery in relation to comorbidity, genetics, patient-reported QoL measures and functional capacity. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: ISRCTN 58667920. Registered 04 August 2020.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Heart Diseases/virology , Research Design , Biomarkers/blood , Comorbidity , Contrast Media , Electrocardiography , Female , Heart Diseases/physiopathology , Humans , Longitudinal Studies , Magnetic Resonance Imaging, Cine , Male , Multicenter Studies as Topic , Myocardial Perfusion Imaging , Observation , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Prospective Studies , Quality of Life , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Troponin/blood , United Kingdom , Walk Test
14.
Cardiovasc Res ; 117(10): 2148-2160, 2021 08 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1266112

ABSTRACT

The pandemic of coronavirus disease (COVID)-19 is a global threat, causing high mortality, especially in the elderly. The main symptoms and the primary cause of death are related to interstitial pneumonia. Viral entry also into myocardial cells mainly via the angiotensin converting enzyme type 2 (ACE2) receptor and excessive production of pro-inflammatory cytokines, however, also make the heart susceptible to injury. In addition to the immediate damage caused by the acute inflammatory response, the heart may also suffer from long-term consequences of COVID-19, potentially causing a post-pandemic increase in cardiac complications. Although the main cause of cardiac damage in COVID-19 remains coagulopathy with micro- (and to a lesser extent macro-) vascular occlusion, open questions remain about other possible modalities of cardiac dysfunction, such as direct infection of myocardial cells, effects of cytokines storm, and mechanisms related to enhanced coagulopathy. In this opinion paper, we focus on these lesser appreciated possibilities and propose experimental approaches that could provide a more comprehensive understanding of the cellular and molecular bases of cardiac injury in COVID-19 patients. We first discuss approaches to characterize cardiac damage caused by possible direct viral infection of cardiac cells, followed by formulating hypotheses on how to reproduce and investigate the hyperinflammatory and pro-thrombotic conditions observed in the heart of COVID-19 patients using experimental in vitro systems. Finally, we elaborate on strategies to discover novel pathology biomarkers using omics platforms.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/virology , Heart Diseases/virology , Heart/virology , Myocytes, Cardiac/virology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Animals , Biomarkers/metabolism , Blood Coagulation , COVID-19/complications , Fibrosis , Heart/physiopathology , Heart Diseases/metabolism , Heart Diseases/pathology , Heart Diseases/physiopathology , Host-Pathogen Interactions , Humans , Inflammation Mediators/metabolism , Myocytes, Cardiac/metabolism , Myocytes, Cardiac/pathology , Ventricular Remodeling
15.
J Cachexia Sarcopenia Muscle ; 12(4): 1056-1063, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1260553

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: There is limited information about the impact of coronavirus disease (COVID-19) on the muscular dysfunction, despite the generalized weakness and fatigue that patients report after overcoming the acute phase of the infection. This study aimed to detect impaired muscle efficiency by evaluating delta efficiency (DE) in patients with COVID-19 compared with subjects with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), ischaemic heart disease (IHD), and control group (CG). METHODS: A total of 60 participants were assigned to four experimental groups: COVID-19, COPD, IHD, and CG (n = 15 each group). Incremental exercise tests in a cycle ergometer were performed to obtain peak oxygen uptake (VO2 peak). DE was obtained from the end of the first workload to the power output where the respiratory exchange ratio was 1. RESULTS: A lower DE was detected in patients with COVID-19 and COPD compared with those in CG (P ≤ 0.033). However, no significant differences were observed among the experimental groups with diseases (P > 0.05). Lower VO2 peak, peak ventilation, peak power output, and total exercise time were observed in the groups with diseases than in the CG (P < 0.05). A higher VO2 , ventilation, and power output were detected in the CG compared with those in the groups with diseases at the first and second ventilatory threshold (P < 0.05). A higher power output was detected in the IHD group compared with those in the COVID-19 and COPD groups (P < 0.05) at the first and second ventilatory thresholds and when the respiratory exchange ratio was 1. A significant correlation (P < 0.001) was found between the VO2 peak and DE and between the peak power output and DE (P < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Patients with COVID-19 showed marked mechanical inefficiency similar to that observed in COPD and IHD patients. Patients with COVID-19 and COPD showed a significant decrease in power output compared to IHD during pedalling despite having similar response in VO2 at each intensity. Resistance training should be considered during the early phase of rehabilitation.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/physiopathology , Exercise Test/methods , Exercise/physiology , Lung/physiopathology , Oxygen Consumption/physiology , COVID-19/virology , Heart Diseases/physiopathology , Humans , Ischemia/physiopathology , Male , Middle Aged , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/physiopathology , Resistance Training/methods , Respiratory Function Tests/methods , SARS-CoV-2/physiology
17.
J Am Soc Echocardiogr ; 34(8): 831-838, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1210910

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Patients hospitalized with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) often have abnormal findings on transthoracic echocardiography (TTE). However, although not all abnormalities on TTE result in changes in clinical management, performing TTE in recently infected patients increases disease transmission risks. It remains unknown whether common biomarker tests, such as troponin and B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP), can help distinguish in which patients with COVID-19 TTE may be safely delayed until infection risks subside. METHODS: Using electronic health records data and chart review, the authors retrospectively studied all patients hospitalized with COVID-19 in a multisite health care system from March 1, 2020, to January 15, 2021, who underwent TTE within 14 days of their first positive COVID-19 result and had BNP and troponin measured before or within 7 days of TTE. The primary outcome was the presence of one or more urgent echocardiographic findings, defined as left ventricular ejection fraction ≤ 35%, wall motion score index ≥ 1.5, moderate or greater right ventricular dysfunction, moderate or greater pericardial effusion, intracardiac thrombus, pulmonary artery systolic pressure > 50 mm Hg, or at least moderate to severe valvular disease. Stepwise logistic regression was conducted to determine biomarkers and comorbidities associated with the outcome. The performance of a rule for classifying TTE using troponin and BNP was evaluated. RESULTS: Four hundred thirty-four hospitalized and 151 intensive care unit patients with COVID-19 were included. Urgent findings on TTE were present in 105 patients (24.2%). Troponin and BNP were abnormal in 311 (71.7%). Heart failure (odds ratio, 5.41; 95% CI, 2.61-11.68), troponin > 0.04 ng/mL (odds ratio, 4.40; 95% CI, 2.05-10.05), and BNP > 100 pg/mL (odds ratio, 5.85; 95% CI, 2.35-16.09) remained significant predictors of urgent findings on TTE after stepwise selection. No urgent findings on TTE were seen in 95.1% of all patients and in 91.3% of intensive care unit patients with normal troponin and BNP. CONCLUSIONS: Troponin and BNP were highly associated with urgent echocardiographic findings and may be used in triaging algorithms for determining in which patients TTE can be safely delayed until after their peak infectious window has passed.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Critical Care/methods , Echocardiography/methods , Emergencies , Heart Diseases/diagnosis , Inpatients , Aged , Comorbidity , Female , Heart Diseases/epidemiology , Heart Diseases/physiopathology , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Stroke Volume/physiology , Ventricular Function, Left/physiology
18.
Radiology ; 299(2): E230-E240, 2021 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1203991

ABSTRACT

Background It is unknown if there are cardiac abnormalities in persons who have recovered from coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) without cardiac symptoms or in those who have normal biomarkers and normal electrocardiograms. Purpose To evaluate cardiac involvement in participants who had recovered from COVID-19 without clinical evidence of cardiac involvement by using cardiac MRI. Materials and Methods This prospective observational cohort study included 40 participants who had recovered from COVID-19 with moderate (n = 24) or severe (n = 16) pneumonia and who had no cardiovascular medical history, were without cardiac symptoms, had normal electrocardiograms, had normal serologic cardiac enzyme levels, and had been discharged for more than 90 days between May and September 2020. Demographic characteristics were recorded, serum cardiac enzyme levels were measured, and cardiac MRI was performed. Cardiac function, native T1, extracellular volume fraction (ECV), and two-dimensional (2D) strain were quantitatively evaluated and compared with values in control subjects (n = 25). Comparisons among the three groups were performed by using one-way analysis of variance with Bonferroni-corrected post hoc comparisons (for normal distribution) or Kruskal-Wallis tests with post hoc pairwise comparisons (for nonnormal distribution). Results Forty participants (mean age, 54 years ± 12 [standard deviation]; 24 men) were enrolled; participants had a mean time between admission and cardiac MRI of 158 days ± 18 and between discharge and cardiac MRI examination of 124 days ± 17. There were no left or right ventricular size or functional differences between participants who had recovered from COVID-19 and healthy control subjects. Only one (3%) participant had positive late gadolinium enhancement located at the mid inferior wall. Global ECV values were elevated in participants who had recovered from COVID-19 with moderate or severe pneumonia compared with those in healthy control subjects (median ECV, 29.7% vs 31.4% vs 25.0%, respectively; interquartile range, 28.0%-32.9% vs 29.3%-34.0% vs 23.7%-26.0%, respectively; P < .001 for both). The 2D global left ventricular longitudinal strain was reduced in both groups of participants (moderate COVID-19 group, -12.5% [interquartile range, -15.5% to -10.7%]; severe COVID-19 group, -12.5% [interquartile range, -15.4% to -8.7%]) compared with the healthy control group (-15.4% [interquartile range, -17.6% to -14.6%]) (P = .002 and P = .001, respectively). Conclusion Cardiac MRI myocardial tissue and strain imaging parameters suggest that a proportion of participants who had recovered from COVID-19 had subclinical myocardial abnormalities detectable months after recovery. © RSNA, 2021 Online supplemental material is available for this article.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/physiopathology , Heart Diseases/etiology , Heart Diseases/physiopathology , Magnetic Resonance Imaging/methods , SARS-CoV-2 , China , Cohort Studies , Female , Heart/diagnostic imaging , Heart/physiopathology , Heart Diseases/diagnostic imaging , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Prospective Studies
19.
Circulation ; 143(13): 1274-1286, 2021 03 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1180993

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Heart rate-corrected QT interval (QTc) prolongation, whether secondary to drugs, genetics including congenital long QT syndrome, and/or systemic diseases including SARS-CoV-2-mediated coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), can predispose to ventricular arrhythmias and sudden cardiac death. Currently, QTc assessment and monitoring relies largely on 12-lead electrocardiography. As such, we sought to train and validate an artificial intelligence (AI)-enabled 12-lead ECG algorithm to determine the QTc, and then prospectively test this algorithm on tracings acquired from a mobile ECG (mECG) device in a population enriched for repolarization abnormalities. METHODS: Using >1.6 million 12-lead ECGs from 538 200 patients, a deep neural network (DNN) was derived (patients for training, n = 250 767; patients for testing, n = 107 920) and validated (n = 179 513 patients) to predict the QTc using cardiologist-overread QTc values as the "gold standard". The ability of this DNN to detect clinically-relevant QTc prolongation (eg, QTc ≥500 ms) was then tested prospectively on 686 patients with genetic heart disease (50% with long QT syndrome) with QTc values obtained from both a 12-lead ECG and a prototype mECG device equivalent to the commercially-available AliveCor KardiaMobile 6L. RESULTS: In the validation sample, strong agreement was observed between human over-read and DNN-predicted QTc values (-1.76±23.14 ms). Similarly, within the prospective, genetic heart disease-enriched dataset, the difference between DNN-predicted QTc values derived from mECG tracings and those annotated from 12-lead ECGs by a QT expert (-0.45±24.73 ms) and a commercial core ECG laboratory [10.52±25.64 ms] was nominal. When applied to mECG tracings, the DNN's ability to detect a QTc value ≥500 ms yielded an area under the curve, sensitivity, and specificity of 0.97, 80.0%, and 94.4%, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Using smartphone-enabled electrodes, an AI DNN can predict accurately the QTc of a standard 12-lead ECG. QTc estimation from an AI-enabled mECG device may provide a cost-effective means of screening for both acquired and congenital long QT syndrome in a variety of clinical settings where standard 12-lead electrocardiography is not accessible or cost-effective.


Subject(s)
Artificial Intelligence , Electrocardiography/methods , Heart Diseases/diagnosis , Heart Rate/physiology , Adult , Aged , Area Under Curve , COVID-19/physiopathology , COVID-19/virology , Electrocardiography/instrumentation , Female , Heart Diseases/physiopathology , Humans , Long QT Syndrome/diagnosis , Long QT Syndrome/physiopathology , Male , Middle Aged , Prospective Studies , ROC Curve , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Sensitivity and Specificity , Smartphone
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