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1.
Int J Cardiol ; 348: 95-101, 2022 02 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1620713

ABSTRACT

Over the last three decades, increased attention has been given to the representation of historically underrepresented groups within the landscape of pivotal clinical trials. However, recent events (i.e., coronavirus pandemic) have laid bare the potential continuation of historic inequities in available clinical trials and studies aimed at the care of broad patient populations. Anecdotally, cardiovascular disease (CVD) has not been immune to these disparities. Within this review, we examine and discuss recent landmark CVD trials, with a specific focus on the representation of Blacks within several critically foundational heart failure clinical trials tied to contemporary treatment strategies and drug approvals. We also discuss solutions for inequities within the landscape of cardiovascular trials. Building a more diverse clinical trial workforce coupled with intentional efforts to increase clinical trial diversity will advance equity in cardiovascular care.


Subject(s)
Cardiovascular Diseases , Heart Failure , Drug Approval , Heart Failure/diagnosis , Heart Failure/therapy , Humans
2.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(24)2021 Dec 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1580692

ABSTRACT

Although blood-heart-barrier (BHB) leakage is the hallmark of congestive (cardio-pulmonary) heart failure (CHF), the primary cause of death in elderly, and during viral myocarditis resulting from the novel coronavirus variants such as the severe acute respiratory syndrome novel corona virus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) known as COVID-19, the mechanism is unclear. The goal of this project is to determine the mechanism of the BHB in CHF. Endocardial endothelium (EE) is the BHB against leakage of blood from endocardium to the interstitium; however, this BHB is broken during CHF. Previous studies from our laboratory, and others have shown a robust activation of matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) during CHF. MMP-9 degrades the connexins leading to EE dysfunction. We demonstrated juxtacrine coupling of EE with myocyte and mitochondria (Mito) but how it works still remains at large. To test whether activation of MMP-9 causes EE barrier dysfunction, we hypothesized that if that were the case then treatment with hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) could, in fact, inhibit MMP-9, and thus preserve the EE barrier/juxtacrine signaling, and synchronous endothelial-myocyte coupling. To determine this, CHF was created by aorta-vena cava fistula (AVF) employing the mouse as a model system. The sham, and AVF mice were treated with HCQ. Cardiac hypertrophy, tissue remodeling-induced mitochondrial-myocyte, and endothelial-myocyte contractions were measured. Microvascular leakage was measured using FITC-albumin conjugate. The cardiac function was measured by echocardiography (Echo). Results suggest that MMP-9 activation, endocardial endothelial leakage, endothelial-myocyte (E-M) uncoupling, dyssynchronous mitochondrial fusion-fission (Mfn2/Drp1 ratio), and mito-myocyte uncoupling in the AVF heart failure were found to be rampant; however, treatment with HCQ successfully mitigated some of the deleterious cardiac alterations during CHF. The findings have direct relevance to the gamut of cardiac manifestations, and the resultant phenotypes arising from the ongoing complications of COVID-19 in human subjects.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Heart Failure/metabolism , Heart/virology , Animals , Blood/virology , Blood Physiological Phenomena/immunology , COVID-19/physiopathology , Cardiomegaly/metabolism , Cardiovascular Diseases/metabolism , Cardiovascular Physiological Phenomena/immunology , Disease Models, Animal , Endothelium/metabolism , Heart/physiopathology , Heart Failure/virology , Hydroxychloroquine/pharmacology , Male , Matrix Metalloproteinase 9/drug effects , Matrix Metalloproteinase 9/metabolism , Mice , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Muscle Cells/metabolism , Myocardium/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Ventricular Remodeling/physiology
3.
ESC Heart Fail ; 8(6): 4370-4393, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1589128

ABSTRACT

Major changes have occurred in these last years in heart failure (HF) management. Landmark trials and the 2021 European Society of Cardiology guidelines for the diagnosis and treatment of HF have established four classes of drugs for treatment of HF with reduced ejection fraction: angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors or an angiotensin receptor-neprilysin inhibitor, beta-blockers, mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists, and sodium-glucose co-transporter 2 inhibitors, namely, dapagliflozin or empagliflozin. These drugs consistently showed benefits on mortality, HF hospitalizations, and quality of life. Correction of iron deficiency is indicated to improve symptoms and reduce HF hospitalizations. AFFIRM-AHF showed 26% reduction in total HF hospitalizations with ferric carboxymaltose vs. placebo in patients hospitalized for acute HF (P = 0.013). The guanylate cyclase activator vericiguat and the myosin activator omecamtiv mecarbil improved outcomes in randomized placebo-controlled trials, and vericiguat is now approved for clinical practice. Treatment of HF with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) was a major unmet clinical need until this year when the results of EMPEROR-Preserved (EMPagliflozin outcomE tRial in Patients With chrOnic HFpEF) were issued. Compared with placebo, empagliflozin reduced by 21% (hazard ratio, 0.79; 95% confidence interval, 0.69 to 0.90; P < 0.001), the primary outcome of cardiovascular death or HF hospitalization. Advances in the treatment of specific phenotypes of HF, including atrial fibrillation, valvular heart disease, cardiomyopathies, cardiac amyloidosis, and cancer-related HF, also occurred. Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic still plays a major role in HF epidemiology and management. All these aspects are highlighted in this review.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Heart Failure , Heart Failure/drug therapy , Heart Failure/epidemiology , Humans , Quality of Life , SARS-CoV-2 , Stroke Volume
4.
Physiol Rev ; 102(1): 1-6, 2022 01 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1554572
5.
Ann Cardiol Angeiol (Paris) ; 70(5): 317-321, 2021 Nov.
Article in French | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1525669

ABSTRACT

Telemedicine has been recognized since 2010 as a constitutive element of care, however, it was not until 2016 that the first national experiments were able to be launched with the aim of validating a framework allowing a possible rapid passage in the common right. These experiments, which are due to end in December 2021, have succeeded in involving more than 100,000 patients, mainly suffering from cardiac pathologies. The arrival of COVID-19 has made it possible to measure the usefulness of practices at a distance both from teleconsultation and telemonitoring, with the appearance of organizational and technical innovations that must now be maintained and developed in order to integrate the telemedicine of tomorrow into our actual medicine.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Pandemics , Telemedicine/organization & administration , COVID-19/therapy , Diabetes Mellitus/therapy , Heart Failure/therapy , Humans , Kidney Failure, Chronic/therapy , Patient Satisfaction , Remote Consultation/methods , Remote Consultation/organization & administration , Respiratory Insufficiency/therapy , Telemedicine/economics , Telemedicine/trends
6.
Br J Nurs ; 30(20): 1210-1211, 2021 Nov 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1524633

ABSTRACT

Mark Green, Heart Failure Nurse Specialist, Portsmouth Hospitals University NHS Trust (Mark.Green@porthosp.nhs.uk) was runner up in the Cardiovascular Nurse of the Year category of the BJN Awards 2021.


Subject(s)
Awards and Prizes , Heart Failure , Nurse Clinicians , Heart Failure/epidemiology , Hospitals, University , Humans , Pandemics
7.
Int Heart J ; 62(5): 1083-1090, 2021 Sep 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1523485

ABSTRACT

Cardiovascular diseases can affect the clinical course of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19); however, evaluation of COVID-19 contribution to prognosis for each individual disease, such as heart failure, is lacking in South Korea. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate COVID-19 patients with heart failure by matching them with patients with heart failure only and those with COVID-19 only. We performed a nationwide population-based retrospective study using data from the National Health Insurance System. Based on patients with heart failure and COVID-19, up to 1:3 propensity score matching procedures were performed for patients with heart failure only and those with COVID-19 only. The outcome was the composite of complications. After matching, a multivariable-adjusted conditional logistic regression analysis was performed. The number of patients was 317 for heart failure and COVID-19, 951 for heart failure only, and 884 for COVID-19 only. The adjusted odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) for the composite of complications of patients with heart failure and COVID-19 compared with those with heart failure only was 3.511 (2.501-4.928), and compared with those with COVID-19 only, they were 1.626 (1.112-2.376). In patients with heart failure and COVID-19, age per 10 years increase and diabetes were significant variables with the adjusted OR (95% CI) [2.206 (1.704-2.856) for age and 2.345 (1.244-4.420) for diabetes] for complications. This study demonstrated that patients with both heart failure and COVID-19 in South Korea are associated with a poor prognosis. Patients with heart failure require more surveillance and precautions for COVID-19, as recommended by the Center for Disease Control and Prevention.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Heart Failure/etiology , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Prognosis , Republic of Korea , Retrospective Studies
8.
N Engl J Med ; 385(20): 1845-1855, 2021 11 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1510679

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: In patients with symptomatic heart failure, sacubitril-valsartan has been found to reduce the risk of hospitalization and death from cardiovascular causes more effectively than an angiotensin-converting-enzyme inhibitor. Trials comparing the effects of these drugs in patients with acute myocardial infarction have been lacking. METHODS: We randomly assigned patients with myocardial infarction complicated by a reduced left ventricular ejection fraction, pulmonary congestion, or both to receive either sacubitril-valsartan (97 mg of sacubitril and 103 mg of valsartan twice daily) or ramipril (5 mg twice daily) in addition to recommended therapy. The primary outcome was death from cardiovascular causes or incident heart failure (outpatient symptomatic heart failure or heart failure leading to hospitalization), whichever occurred first. RESULTS: A total of 5661 patients underwent randomization; 2830 were assigned to receive sacubitril-valsartan and 2831 to receive ramipril. Over a median of 22 months, a primary-outcome event occurred in 338 patients (11.9%) in the sacubitril-valsartan group and in 373 patients (13.2%) in the ramipril group (hazard ratio, 0.90; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.78 to 1.04; P = 0.17). Death from cardiovascular causes or hospitalization for heart failure occurred in 308 patients (10.9%) in the sacubitril-valsartan group and in 335 patients (11.8%) in the ramipril group (hazard ratio, 0.91; 95% CI, 0.78 to 1.07); death from cardiovascular causes in 168 (5.9%) and 191 (6.7%), respectively (hazard ratio, 0.87; 95% CI, 0.71 to 1.08); and death from any cause in 213 (7.5%) and 242 (8.5%), respectively (hazard ratio, 0.88; 95% CI, 0.73 to 1.05). Treatment was discontinued because of an adverse event in 357 patients (12.6%) in the sacubitril-valsartan group and 379 patients (13.4%) in the ramipril group. CONCLUSIONS: Sacubitril-valsartan was not associated with a significantly lower incidence of death from cardiovascular causes or incident heart failure than ramipril among patients with acute myocardial infarction. (Funded by Novartis; PARADISE-MI ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT02924727.).


Subject(s)
Aminobutyrates/therapeutic use , Angiotensin Receptor Antagonists/therapeutic use , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Biphenyl Compounds/therapeutic use , Heart Failure/prevention & control , Myocardial Infarction/drug therapy , Ramipril/therapeutic use , Valsartan/therapeutic use , Aged , Aminobutyrates/adverse effects , Angiotensin Receptor Antagonists/adverse effects , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors/adverse effects , Biphenyl Compounds/adverse effects , Cardiovascular Diseases/mortality , Double-Blind Method , Drug Combinations , Female , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Hypotension/chemically induced , Male , Middle Aged , Myocardial Infarction/complications , Myocardial Infarction/mortality , Proportional Hazards Models , Ramipril/adverse effects , Stroke Volume , Valsartan/adverse effects , Ventricular Dysfunction, Left/etiology
9.
BMC Cardiovasc Disord ; 21(1): 528, 2021 11 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1505900

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The value of mechanical circulatory support (MCS) in cardiogenic shock, especially the combination of the ECMELLA approach (Impella combined with ECMO), remains controversial. CASE PRESENTATION: A previously healthy 33-year-old female patient was submitted to a local emergency department with a flu-like infection and febrile temperatures up to 39 °C. The patient was tested positive for type-A influenza, however negative for SARS-CoV-2. Despite escalated invasive ventilation, refractory hypercapnia (paCO2: 22 kPa) with severe respiratory acidosis (pH: 6.9) and a rising norepinephrine rate occurred within a few hours. Due to a Horovitz-Index < 100, out-of-centre veno-venous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (vv-ECMO)-implantation was performed. A CT-scan done because of anisocoria revealed an extended dissection of the right vertebral artery. While the initial left ventricular function was normal, echocardiography revealed severe global hypokinesia. After angiographic exclusion of coronary artery stenoses, we geared up LV unloading by additional implantation of an Impella CP and expanded the vv-ECMO to a veno-venous-arterial ECMO (vva-ECMO). Clinically relevant bleeding from the punctured femoral arteries resulted in massive transfusion and was treated by vascular surgery later on. Under continued MCS, LVEF increased to approximately 40% 2 days after the initiation of ECMELLA. After weaning, the Impella CP was explanted at day 5 and the vva-ECMO was removed on day 9, respectively. The patient was discharged in an unaffected neurological condition to rehabilitation 25 days after the initial admission. CONCLUSIONS: This exceptional case exemplifies the importance of aggressive MCS in severe cardiogenic shock, which may be especially promising in younger patients with non-ischaemic cardiomyopathy and potentially reversible causes of cardiogenic shock. This case impressively demonstrates that especially young patients may achieve complete neurological restoration, even though the initial prognosis may appear unfavourable.


Subject(s)
Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation/methods , Heart-Assist Devices , Influenza A virus/isolation & purification , Influenza, Human , Respiration, Artificial/methods , Respiratory Insufficiency , Ventricular Dysfunction, Left , Adult , COVID-19/diagnosis , Clinical Deterioration , Critical Care/methods , Echocardiography/methods , Female , Heart Failure/physiopathology , Heart Failure/therapy , Humans , Influenza, Human/complications , Influenza, Human/diagnosis , Influenza, Human/physiopathology , Respiratory Insufficiency/etiology , Respiratory Insufficiency/physiopathology , Respiratory Insufficiency/therapy , SARS-CoV-2 , Serologic Tests/methods , Severity of Illness Index , Shock, Cardiogenic/etiology , Shock, Cardiogenic/physiopathology , Shock, Cardiogenic/therapy , Treatment Outcome , Ventricular Dysfunction, Left/etiology , Ventricular Dysfunction, Left/physiopathology , Ventricular Dysfunction, Left/therapy
10.
Cardiovasc Diabetol ; 20(1): 218, 2021 11 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1503722

ABSTRACT

Type 2 diabetes is one of the most relevant risk factors for heart failure, the prevalence of which is increasing worldwide. The aim of the review is to highlight the current perspectives of the pathophysiology of heart failure as it pertains to type 2 diabetes. This review summarizes the proposed mechanistic bases, explaining the myocardial damage induced by diabetes-related stressors and other risk factors, i.e., cardiomyopathy in type 2 diabetes. We highlight the complex pathology of individuals with type 2 diabetes, including the relationship with chronic kidney disease, metabolic alterations, and heart failure. We also discuss the current criteria used for heart failure diagnosis and the gold standard screening tools for individuals with type 2 diabetes. Currently approved pharmacological therapies with primary use in type 2 diabetes and heart failure, and the treatment-guiding role of NT-proBNP are also presented. Finally, the influence of the presence of type 2 diabetes as well as heart failure on COVID-19 severity is briefly discussed.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/epidemiology , Disease Management , Heart Failure/epidemiology , Mass Screening/methods , Biomarkers/blood , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/diagnosis , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/blood , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/diagnosis , Glycated Hemoglobin A/metabolism , Heart Failure/blood , Heart Failure/diagnosis , Humans , Mass Screening/trends , Natriuretic Peptide, Brain/blood , Peptide Fragments/blood , Prognosis
11.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(21)2021 Nov 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1502439

ABSTRACT

The 2019 novel coronavirus, known as severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) or coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), is causing a global pandemic. The virus primarily affects the upper and lower respiratory tracts and raises the risk of a variety of non-pulmonary consequences, the most severe and possibly fatal of which are cardiovascular problems. Data show that almost one-third of the patients with a moderate or severe form of COVID-19 had preexisting cardiovascular comorbidities such as diabetes mellitus, obesity, hypertension, heart failure, or coronary artery disease. SARS-CoV2 causes hyper inflammation, hypoxia, apoptosis, and a renin-angiotensin system imbalance in a variety of cell types, primarily endothelial cells. Profound endothelial dysfunction associated with COVID-19 can be the cause of impaired organ perfusion that may generate acute myocardial injury, renal failure, and a procoagulant state resulting in thromboembolic events. We discuss the most recent results on the involvement of endothelial dysfunction in the pathogenesis of COVID-19 in patients with cardiometabolic diseases in this review. We also provide insights on treatments that may reduce the severity of this viral infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/pathology , Endothelial Cells/metabolism , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/virology , Cytokine Release Syndrome/etiology , Endothelial Cells/cytology , Endothelial Cells/virology , Heart Failure/etiology , Humans , Renal Insufficiency/etiology , Renin-Angiotensin System/physiology , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Thrombosis/etiology
12.
JMIR Mhealth Uhealth ; 9(11): e30674, 2021 11 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1496839

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Managing the care of older adults with heart failure (HF) largely centers on medication management. Because of frequent medication or dosing changes, an app that supports these older adults in keeping an up-to-date list of medications could be advantageous. During the COVID-19 pandemic, HF outpatient consultations are taking place virtually or by telephone. An app with the capability to share a patient's medication list with health care professionals before consultation could support clinical efficiency, for example, by reducing consultation time. However, the influence of apps on maintaining an up-to-date medication history for older adults with HF in Ireland remains largely unexplored. OBJECTIVE: The aims of this review are twofold: to review apps with a medication list functionality and to assess the quality of the apps included in the review using the Mobile App Rating Scale (MARS) and the IMS Institute for Healthcare Informatics functionality scale. METHODS: A systematic search of apps was conducted in June 2019 using the Google Play Store and iTunes App Store. The MARS was used independently by 4 researchers to assess the quality of the apps using an Android phone and an iPad. Apps were also evaluated using the IMS Institute for Healthcare Informatics functionality score. RESULTS: Google Play and iTunes App store searches identified 483 potential apps (292 from Google Play and 191 from iTunes App stores). A total of 6 apps (3 across both stores) met the inclusion criteria. Of the 6 apps, 4 achieved an acceptable MARS score (3/5). The Medisafe app had the highest overall MARS score (4/5), and the Medication List & Medical Records app had the lowest overall score (2.5/5). On average, the apps had 8 functions based on the IMS functionality criteria (range 5-11). A total of 2 apps achieved the maximum score for number of features (11 features) according to the IMS Institute for Healthcare Informatics functionality score, and 2 scored the lowest (5 features). Peer-reviewed publications were identified for 3 of the apps. CONCLUSIONS: The quality of current apps with medication list functionality varies according to their technical aspects. Most of the apps reviewed have an acceptable MARS objective quality (ie, the overall quality of an app). However, subjective quality (ie, satisfaction with the apps) was poor. Only 3 apps are based on scientific evidence and have been tested previously. A total of 2 apps featured all the IMS Institute for Healthcare Informatics functionalities, and half did not provide clear instructions on how to enter medication data, did not display vital parameter data in an easy-to-understand format, and did not guide users on how or when to take their medication.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Heart Failure , Mobile Applications , Aged , Delivery of Health Care , Heart Failure/drug therapy , Humans , Informatics , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
13.
ASAIO J ; 67(9): 973-981, 2021 09 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1494076

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) radically modified the organization of healthcare systems with shutdown of routine activities and outpatient clinics. Herein, we report our institutional experience with a Telemonitoring and Care Program (TC-Program) to monitor and support left ventricular assist device (LVAD) patients during COVID-19 outbreak. This single-arm cohort study analyzed 156 patients who entered the TC-Program at our institution between April and August 2020. The TC-Program was based on routine phone calls to patients and a 24/7 emergency line. In November 2020, patients were asked for feedback on the TC-Program and checked for survival, transplant, or explant. The primary endpoint was the rate of TC-Program-driven interventions. Patients (males: 82.8%) were 61 years old (interquartile range [IQR]: 53.0-67.5) and on LVAD support for 1,266 days (IQR: 475-2,211). Patients were included in the TC-Program for a median time of 99 days (min:15, max:120) and received a median number of six phone calls (min:1, max:14). Twenty-three patients (14.7%) were referred for clinical evaluation after phone contact. Two patients (1.27%) were diagnosed with COVID-19: one of them died after intensive care, and one remained paucisymptomatic and recovered. Three patients asked to exit the program considering it not useful while the others gave high rates in terms of usefulness (median: 9, IQR: 8-10), information (median: 9, IQR: 8-10), good medical care (median: 9, IQR: 8-10), and psychologic support (median: 8, IQR: 7-10). A TC-Program based on the four ICSA principles (Inform, Care, Support, and Adapt) is feasible in LVAD patients and can be rapidly implemented during the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Heart Failure/therapy , Heart-Assist Devices/statistics & numerical data , Infection Control/organization & administration , Telemedicine , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cohort Studies , Disease Outbreaks , Female , Heart Failure/epidemiology , Heart-Assist Devices/adverse effects , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2
14.
Biomark Med ; 15(16): 1519-1528, 2021 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1477716

ABSTRACT

Aim: In the present study, the relationship between D-dimer/fibrinogen ratio (DFR) and in-hospital outcomes was evaluated in patients with COVID-19 and a diagnosis of heart failure (HF). Materials & methods: In-hospital outcomes were compared in patients with high and low DFR values. Results: With regard to in-hospital outcomes, patients in the third tertile of DFR had a higher rate of mechanical ventilation, cardiogenic shock and death (p < 0.001). The length of ICU stay was longer in the third tertile group (p < 0.001). When evaluated together with infection markers, DFR was found to be an independent predictor of outcomes. Conclusion: DFR can be used as a prognostic marker in patients with COVID-19 with a diagnosis of HF, and perhaps more valuable than other infection markers.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/blood , Fibrin Fibrinogen Degradation Products/metabolism , Fibrinogen/metabolism , Heart Failure/blood , SARS-CoV-2 , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Biomarkers/blood , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/therapy , Female , Heart Failure/diagnosis , Heart Failure/therapy , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies
15.
Eur J Heart Fail ; 23(3): 350-351, 2021 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1473827

Subject(s)
Heart Failure , Love , Humans
16.
J Cardiothorac Surg ; 16(1): 226, 2021 Aug 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1463257

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Inferior vena cava thrombosis is cited to be a complication of inferior vena cava filter placement and post coronary artery bypass surgery. Often only mild symptoms arise from these thrombi; however, due to the chronic nature of some thrombi and the recanalization process, more serious complications can arise. Although anticoagulation remains the gold standard of treatment, some patients are unable to be anticoagulated. In this case, we present a 65-year-old male who underwent IVC filter placement and open-heart surgery who later developed extensive femoral and iliocaval thrombosis leading to right heart failure, which required thrombus extraction with an AngioVac suction device. CASE PRESENTATION: We present a 65-year-old male who presented with bilateral pulmonary emboli with extensive right lower extremity deep vein thrombosis. Upon investigation he had ischemic heart disease and underwent a five-vessel coronary artery bypass for which he had an IVC filter placed preoperatively. On post operative day 3 to 4, he was decompensated and was diagnosed with an IVC thrombus. He progressed to right heart failure and worsening cardiogenic shock despite therapeutic anticoagulation and was taken for a suction thrombectomy using the AngioVac (AngioDynamics, Latham, NY) aspiration thrombectomy device. The thrombectomy was successful and he was able to recover and was discharged from the hospital. CONCLUSION: Despite being a rare complication, IVC thrombosis can have detrimental effects. This case is an example of how IVC thrombus in the post-operative setting can lead to mortality. The gold standard is therapeutic anticoagulation but despite that, this patient continued to have worsening cardiogenic shock. Other therapies have been described but because of its rarity, they are only described in case reports. This case shows that the AngioVac device is a successful treatment option for IVC thrombus and can have the possibility of future use.


Subject(s)
Coronary Artery Bypass/adverse effects , Shock, Cardiogenic/surgery , Thrombectomy , Vena Cava Filters/adverse effects , Vena Cava, Inferior , Venous Thrombosis/surgery , Aged , Anticoagulants/therapeutic use , COVID-19/diagnosis , Coronary Artery Bypass/methods , Heart Failure/drug therapy , Heart Failure/etiology , Heart Failure/surgery , Humans , Male , Pandemics , Prosthesis Implantation/adverse effects , Pulmonary Embolism/drug therapy , Pulmonary Embolism/etiology , Pulmonary Embolism/surgery , SARS-CoV-2 , Shock, Cardiogenic/drug therapy , Shock, Cardiogenic/etiology , Thrombectomy/instrumentation , Treatment Outcome , Vena Cava, Inferior/diagnostic imaging , Vena Cava, Inferior/surgery , Venous Thrombosis/drug therapy , Venous Thrombosis/etiology
17.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(19)2021 Sep 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1463706

ABSTRACT

In hearts, calcium (Ca2+) signaling is a crucial regulatory mechanism of muscle contraction and electrical signals that determine heart rhythm and control cell growth. Ca2+ signals must be tightly controlled for a healthy heart, and the impairment of Ca2+ handling proteins is a key hallmark of heart disease. The discovery of microRNA (miRNAs) as a new class of gene regulators has greatly expanded our understanding of the controlling module of cardiac Ca2+ cycling. Furthermore, many studies have explored the involvement of miRNAs in heart diseases. In this review, we aim to summarize cardiac Ca2+ signaling and Ca2+-related miRNAs in pathological conditions, including cardiac hypertrophy, heart failure, myocardial infarction, and atrial fibrillation. We also discuss the therapeutic potential of Ca2+-related miRNAs as a new target for the treatment of heart diseases.


Subject(s)
Atrial Fibrillation/genetics , Calcium Signaling/genetics , Calcium/metabolism , Heart Failure/genetics , MicroRNAs/genetics , Myocardial Infarction/genetics , Animals , Atrial Fibrillation/metabolism , Atrial Fibrillation/therapy , Gene Expression Regulation , Heart Failure/metabolism , Heart Failure/therapy , Humans , Myocardial Contraction/genetics , Myocardial Infarction/metabolism , Myocardial Infarction/therapy
19.
J Artif Organs ; 23(3): 292-295, 2020 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1453765

ABSTRACT

A 71-year-old man undergoing hemodialysis (HD) was admitted to our hospital with congestive heart failure (CHF) and pneumonia. After admission, ultrafiltration with HD was urgently performed because of a lack of respiratory improvement despite the use of noninvasive positive pressure ventilation. During HD, cerebral regional saturation of oxygen (rSO2) was monitored by INVOS 5100c oxygen saturation monitor (Covidien Japan, Japan) to evaluate changes in tissue oxygenation. At HD initiation, cerebral rSO2 was very low at 34% under the fraction of inspiratory oxygen (FiO2) of 0.4. Ultrafiltration was performed at the rate of 0.5 L/h thereafter, cerebral rSO2 gradually improved even as inhaling oxygen concentration decreased. At the end of HD, cerebral rSO2 improved at 40% under a FiO2 of 0.28 as excess body fluid was removed. After pneumonia and CHF improved, he was discharged. Reports of the association between cerebral oxygenation and acute CHF status in patients undergoing HD are limited; therefore, in our experience with this case, cerebral oxygenation deteriorated with the CHF status but was improved by adequate body-fluid management during HD.


Subject(s)
Brain/metabolism , Heart Failure/complications , Oxygen Consumption/physiology , Renal Dialysis , Renal Insufficiency/therapy , Aged , Heart Failure/metabolism , Heart Failure/physiopathology , Humans , Male , Monitoring, Physiologic , Renal Insufficiency/complications , Renal Insufficiency/metabolism
20.
Clin Drug Investig ; 41(10): 907-915, 2021 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1450031

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Sacubitril-valsartan is effective in reducing the N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide level of hospitalized patients with acute decompensated heart failure, with a high acquisition cost compared with enalapril treatment. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to determine the cost utility of sacubitril-valsartan compared with enalapril for acute decompensated heart failure treatment. METHODS: A Markov model was constructed to project the total costs, life-years, quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs) of early initiation, and a 2-month delay of sacubitril-valsartan treatment and enalapril treatment in hospitalized patients with acute decompensated heart failure over a lifetime horizon from a Thai healthcare system perspective. Clinical inputs were mainly derived from the PIONEER-HF and PARADIGM-HF trials, together with Thai epidemiological data. Cost data were based on the Thai population. All costs and outcomes were discounted at 3% annually. A series of sensitivity analyses were performed. RESULTS: Compared with enalapril, sacubitril-valsartan incurred a higher total cost per year (THB 42,994 [US$1367.48] vs THB 19,787 [US$629.37]), and it gained more QALYs (4.969 vs 4.755). The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio was THB 108,508/QALY (US$3451.26/QALY). Early initiation of sacubitril-valsartan treatment was more cost effective than delayed treatment. Sensitivity analyses revealed that at a level of willingness to pay of THB 160,000/QALY (US$5089/QALY), sacubitril-valsartan was a cost-effective strategy of about 60%. CONCLUSIONS: Sacubitril-valsartan is cost effective in patients with acute decompensated heart failure. However, the results are highly dependent on the long-term cardiovascular mortality, and they are applicable only to Thailand or countries with a similarly structured healthcare system. Long-term registries should be pursued to decrease the uncertainty around long-term mortality.


Subject(s)
Enalapril , Heart Failure , Aminobutyrates/therapeutic use , Angiotensin Receptor Antagonists/therapeutic use , Biphenyl Compounds , Cost-Benefit Analysis , Drug Combinations , Enalapril/therapeutic use , Heart Failure/diagnosis , Heart Failure/drug therapy , Hospitalization , Humans , Stroke Volume , Tetrazoles/therapeutic use , Thailand , Valsartan
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